Browsing by Subject "EXPERTISE"

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  • Mäki, Tarja; Kerosuo, Hannele (2020)
    This study explores designers, engineers, and managers sharing their knowledge and resolving design-related issues during construction site meetings. It provides new insights into the collaboration and the expertise of the different partners. In addition, the study provides new knowledge of using LPS in the design phase and its influence on the site meeting discussions in the construction phase. The research data comprise video recordings of 17 site meetings in two BIM-based renovation projects. Based on the data, the construction managers were the most active in addressing issues; however, all partners were actively involved in the discussion and shared their expertise to address the open questions. The use of the Last Planner System in the design phase seemed to decrease the number of design-related open questions in the construction phase. The findings emphasize the need to develop more collaborative design management methods and practices for sharing each expertise.
  • Lönnqvist, Jan-Erik; Kivikangas, Matias J (2019)
    We investigated the relation between economic and social attitudes and the psychological underpinnings of these attitudes in candidates (N = 9515) in the Finnish 2017 municipal elections. In this politically elite sample, right-wing economic attitudes and social conservatism were positively correlated (r = 0.41), and this correlation was predominantly driven by those on the economic left being socially liberal, and vice versa. In terms of underlying psychological processes, consistent with dual process models of political ideology, the anti-egalitarian aspect of social dominance orientation was more strongly associated with right-wing economic attitudes, and the conventionalism and aggression aspects of right-wing authoritarianism with social conservatism. Our results show that even in a non-United States context in which the masses organize their political attitudes on two independent dimensions, these dimensions are moderately aligned among certain parts of the political elite, and that the political attitudes of the political elite can be traced to underlying psychological motivations. We argue that equality concerns could play a role in explaining why the left-right and liberal-conservative dimensions are more strongly aligned among those on the left and those more liberal.
  • Christensen, Henrik Serup; Järvi, Theodora; Mattila, Mikko; von Schoultz, Åsa (2021)
    Candidate endorsements affect the likelihood that people vote for a candidate since they reduce the efforts devoted to vote choices. However, the effects of endorsements from different sources remain under-explored. Furthermore, the effects of endorsements are believed to vary with the level of political sophistication, as voters with low sophistication are more reliant on such shortcuts, but it is unclear whether these differences are similar for different sources. We study the effects of endorsements from three different sources – family and close friends, networks on social media and Voting Advice Applications (VAAs) – on candidate favorability. We do so with a choice-based conjoint experiment embedded in a survey from Finland (n = 1021), where we also examine differences in effects across political sophistication (political interest, frequency of political discussions, internal political efficacy, party identification, and voting in the last parliamentary election). The results show that endorsements from VAAs and family and friends have positive effects while social media networks do not. We do not find systematic differences in effects across levels of political sophistication no matter how we operationalize it. This shows that it is important to consider the source of an endorsement to appreciate the effect, no matter who is the recipient.
  • Tervaniemi, Mari; Putkinen, Vesa; Nie, Peixin; Wang, Cuicui; Du, Bin; Lu, Jing; Li, Shuting; Cowley, Benjamin Ultan; Tammi, Tuisku; Tao, Sha (2022)
    In adults, music and speech share many neurocognitive functions, but how do they interact in a developing brain? We compared the effects of music and foreign language training on auditory neurocognition in Chinese children aged 8-11 years. We delivered group-based training programs in music and foreign language using a randomized controlled trial. A passive control group was also included. Before and after these year-long extracurricular programs, auditory event-related potentials were recorded (n = 123 and 85 before and after the program, respectively). Through these recordings, we probed early auditory predictive brain processes. To our surprise, the language program facilitated the children's early auditory predictive brain processes significantly more than did the music program. This facilitation was most evident in pitch encoding when the experimental paradigm was musically relevant. When these processes were probed by a paradigm more focused on basic sound features, we found early predictive pitch encoding to be facilitated by music training. Thus, a foreign language program is able to foster auditory and music neurocognition, at least in tonal language speakers, in a manner comparable to that by a music program. Our results support the tight coupling of musical and linguistic brain functions also in the developing brain.
  • Leisti, Tuomas; Häkkinen, Jukka (2018)
    Certain experiments have shown that reasoning may weaken the stability of people's preferences, especially with regard to well-learned perceptual judgment and decision-making tasks, while learning has an opposite, consistency-enhancing effect on preferences. We examined the effects of these factors in a visual multi-attribute decision-making task where reasoning, in contrast, has been found to benefit judgments by making them more stable. The initial assumption in this study was that this benefit would be typical for novel tasks, like the one employed here, and that it would decrease when the task is thoroughly learned. This assumption was examined in three experiments by contrasting it with an alternative assumption that this previously obtained beneficial effect is caused solely by learning, not by reasoning. It was found that learning indeed makes preferences more stable by consolidating the weights of the attributes. Reasoning, however, does not benefit this task when it is completely novel but facilitates learning and stability of the preferences long run, therefore increasing the consistency of the participants in the macrolevel. Copyright (c) 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • Nair, Preethy; Raijas, Pirre; Ahvenainen, Minna; Philips, Anju K.; Ukkola-Vuoti, Liisa; Järvelä, Irma (2021)
    Music-listening and performance have been shown to affect human gene expression. In order to further elucidate the biological basis of the effects of music on the human body, we studied the effects of music-listening on gene regulation by sequencing microRNAs of the listeners (Music Group) and their controls (Control Group) without music exposure. We identified upregulation of six microRNAs (hsa-miR-132-3p, hsa-miR-361-5p, hsa-miR-421, hsa-miR-23a-3p, hsa-miR-23b-3p, hsa-miR-25-3p) and downregulation of two microRNAs (hsa-miR-378a-3p, hsa-miR-16-2-3p) in Music Group with high musical aptitude. Some upregulated microRNAs were reported to be responsive to neuronal activity (miR-132, miR-23a, miR-23b) and modulators of neuronal plasticity, CNS myelination, and cognitive functions like long-term potentiation and memory. miR-132 plays a critical role in regulating TAU protein levels and is important for preventing tau protein aggregation that causes Alzheimer's disease. miR-132 andDICER, upregulated after music-listening, protect dopaminergic neurons and are important for retaining striatal dopamine levels. Some of the transcriptional regulators (FOS, CREB1, JUN, EGR1,andBDNF) of the upregulated microRNAs were immediate early genes and top candidates associated with musical traits.BDNFand SNCA, co-expressed and upregulated in music-listening and music-performance, are both are activated by GATA2, which is associated with musical aptitude. Several miRNAs were associated with song-learning, singing, and seasonal plasticity networks in songbirds. We did not detect any significant changes in microRNA expressions associated with music education or low musical aptitude. Our data thereby show the importance of inherent musical aptitude for music appreciation and for eliciting the human microRNA response to music-listening.
  • Mustonen, Virpi; Tuunainen, Juha; Pohjola, Pasi; Hakkarainen, Kai (2017)
    The present study analyses data collected from a series of developmental seminars in a fingerprint laboratory during which fingerprint examiners jointly discussed and developed their work processes, analytical methods, decision-making criteria and rules of documentation. The analysed organizational development took place in the context of moving from paper to digital documentation and from individually to collectively mastered work process. The fingerprint examiners who participated in the seminar series jointly reflected on their existing professional rules and operational practices, improvement of which was called for to facilitate organizational learning. The analysed data set consists of 10 audio-recorded developmental seminars with written documents as well as notes and decisions that were made during the seminar. The results of the study will reveal the complex ways in which the fingerprint examiners share their practical professional knowledge and collectively create decision-making criteria and rules of investigative practices so as to adapt their work practices to the changing quality requirements, evolving international standards and digitalization of research documentation.
  • Jallinoja, Piia; Väliverronen, Esa (2021)
    Tässä tutkimuksessa selvitämme suomalaisten luottamusta instituutioihin, asiantuntijoihin ja uutismediaan koronakriisin käsittelyssä sekä yksilön vapauteen ja vastuuseen liittyviä asenteita huhtikuussa ja kesäkuussa 2020. Tulosten mukaan suomalaiset luottivat varsin vahvasti hallitukseen, viranomaisiin sekä THL:n ja yliopistojen tutkijoihin kriisin käsittelyssä. Samoin Yle Uutisiin ja MTV Uutisiin luotettiin kriisin raportoinnissa. Enemmistö vastaajista pyrki noudattamaan viranomaisohjeita ja hyväksyi yksilöiden vapauksien rajoitukset epidemian hallitsemiseksi. Enemmistö piti koronarokotuksista kieltäytyjiä vastuuttomina, mutta samalla enemmistö uskoi, että koronarokotusten tulisi olla vapaaehtoisia. Tutkimme tarkemmin sitä, ketkä luottivat eniten ja ketkä vähiten mainittuihin tahoihin. Naiset suhtautuvat miehiä myönteisimmin THL:n toimintaan ja Yle Uutisiin, miehet puolestaan sosiaalisen median vaikuttajiin. Perussuomalaiset erosivat lähes kaikkien muuttujien suhteen muista puolueista: he olivat kriittisimpiä THL:ää, STM:ää, Yle Uutisia sekä viranomaisten rokotetietoa kohtaan. Lopuksi pohdimme, miten voimme näiden tulosten valossa tulkita väitteitä tieteen ja asiantuntijoiden arvostuksen laskusta. Pohdimme myös sitä, muuttiko koronakriisi suomalaisten suhtautumista kansallisiin instituutioihin.