Browsing by Subject "EXPLANATIONS"

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  • SECRETO Study Grp; Martinez-Majander, Nicolas; Artto, Ville; Ylikotila, Pauli; von Sarnowski, Bettina; Huhtakangas, Juha; Numminen, Heikki; Jäkälä, Pekka; Putaala, Jukka (2021)
    Objective To assess the association between migraine and cryptogenic ischemic stroke (CIS) in young adults, with subgroup analyses stratified by sex and presence of patent foramen ovale (PFO). Methods We prospectively enrolled 347 consecutive patients aged 18 to 49 years with a recent CIS and 347 age- and sex-matched (+/- 5 years) stroke-free controls. Any migraine and migraine with (MA) and migraine without aura (MO) were identified by a screener, which we validated against a headache neurologist. We used conditional logistic regression adjusting for age, education, hypertension, diabetes, waist-to-hip ratio, physical inactivity, current smoking, heavy drinking, and oral estrogen use to assess independent association between migraine and CIS. The effect of PFO on the association between migraine and CIS was analyzed with logistic regression in a subgroup investigated with transcranial Doppler bubble screen. Results The screener performance was excellent (Cohen kappa > 0.75) in patients and controls. Compared with nonmigraineurs, any migraine (odds ratio [OR] = 2.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.63-3.76) and MA (OR = 3.50, 95% CI = 2.19-5.61) were associated with CIS, whereas MO was not. The association emerged in both women (OR = 2.97 for any migraine, 95% CI = 1.61-5.47; OR = 4.32 for MA, 95% CI = 2.16-8.65) and men (OR = 2.47 for any migraine, 95% CI = 1.32-4.61; OR = 3.61 for MA, 95% CI = 1.75-7.45). Specifically for MA, the association with CIS remained significant irrespective of PFO. MA prevalence increased with increasing magnitude of the right-to-left shunt in patients with PFO. Interpretation MA has a strong association with CIS in young patients, independent of vascular risk factors and presence of PFO. ANN NEUROL 2020
  • Blakey, Robert; Askelund, Adrian D.; Boccanera, Matilde; Immonen, Johanna; Plohl, Nejc; Popham, Cassandra; Sorger, Clarissa; Stuhlreyer, Julia (2017)
    Neuroscience has identified brain structures and functions that correlate with psychopathic tendencies. Since psychopathic traits can be traced back to physical neural attributes, it has been argued that psychopaths are not truly responsible for their actions and therefore should not be blamed for their psychopathic behaviors. This experimental research aims to evaluate what effect communicating this theory of psychopathy has on the moral behavior of lay people. If psychopathy is blamed on the brain, people may feel less morally responsible for their own psychopathic tendencies and therefore may be more likely to display those tendencies. An online study will provide participants with false feedback about their psychopathic traits supposedly based on their digital footprint (i.e., Facebook likes), thus classifying them as having either above-average or below-average psychopathic traits and describing psychopathy in cognitive or neurobiological terms. This particular study will assess the extent to which lay people are influenced by feedback regarding their psychopathic traits, and how this might affect their moral behavior in online tasks. Public recognition of these potential negative consequences of neuroscience communication will also be assessed. A field study using the lost letter technique will be conducted to examine lay people's endorsement of neurobiological, as compared to cognitive, explanations of criminal behavior. This field and online experimental research could inform the future communication of neuroscience to the public in a way that is sensitive to the potential negative consequences of communicating such science. In particular, this research may have implications for the future means by which neurobiological predictors of offending can be safely communicated to offenders.
  • Pirinen, Jani; Kuusisto, Jouni; Järvinen, Vesa; Martinez-Majander, Nicolas; Sinisalo, Juha; Pöyhönen, Pauli; Putaala, Jukka (2020)
    Background Ischaemic stroke in young individuals often remains cryptogenic. In this pilot study, we investigated, whether advanced echocardiography methods could find differences in the diastolic function between young cryptogenic stroke patients and stroke-free controls. Methods We recruited 30 cryptogenic ischaemic stroke patients aged 18-49 and 30 age- and sex-matched stroke-free controls among participants of the Searching for Explanations for Cryptogenic Stroke in the Young: Revealing the Etiology, Triggers, and Outcome (SECRETO) study (NCT01934725). We measured diastolic function parameters derived from speckle tracking strain rate, Doppler techniques and 4D volumetry. We also performed statistical analyses comparing only the highest and lowest tertile of cases and controls for each parameter. Results None of our patients or controls had diastolic dysfunction according to ASE/EACVI criteria. However, compared to stroke-free controls, the stroke patient group had lower E/A ratio of mitral inflow, lower lateral and mean e', lower A/a' ratio, lower strain rate in early diastole and lower speckle tracking-derived e/a ratio. When comparing the lowest tertiles, patients also had a lower peak filling rate by 4D volumetry, a lower peak early filling fraction (fraction of left ventricular filling during early diastole), and lower velocities in a series of the tissue Doppler-derived diastolic parameters and blood flow/tissue velocity ratios. Conclusion Our study displayed subtle differences in diastolic function between patients and stroke-free controls, which may play a role in early-onset cryptogenic stroke. The differences were clearer when the lowest tertiles were compared, suggesting that there is a subgroup of young cryptogenic stroke patients with subclinical heart disease.
  • Martinez-Majander, Nicolas; Gordin, Daniel; Joutsi-Korhonen, Lotta; Salopuro, Titta; Adeshara, Krishna; Sibolt, Gerli; Curtze, Sami; Pirinen, Jani; Liebkind, Ron; Soinne, Lauri; Sairanen, Tiina; Sinisalo, Juha; Lehto, Mika; Groop, Per-Henrik; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Putaala, Jukka (2021)
    Background The aim of this study was to assess the association between endothelial function and early-onset cryptogenic ischemic stroke (CIS), with subgroup analyses stratified by sex and age groups. Methods and Results We prospectively enrolled 136 consecutive patients aged 18 to 49 years (median age, 41 years; 44% women) with a recent CIS and 136 age- and sex-matched (+/- 5 years) stroke-free controls. Endothelial function was measured with an EndoPAT 2000 device and analyzed as tertiles of natural logarithm of reactive hyperemia index with lower values reflecting dysfunction. We used conditional logistic regression adjusting for age, education, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, current smoking, heavy drinking, obesity, and diet score to assess the independent association between endothelial function and CIS. Patients in the lowest tertile of natural logarithm of reactive hyperemia index were more often men and they more frequently had a history of dyslipidemia; they were also more often obese, had a lower diet score, and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In the entire cohort, we found no association in patients with endothelial function and CIS compared with stroke-free controls. In sex- and age-specific analyses, endothelial dysfunction was associated with CIS in men (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 3.50 for lowest versus highest natural logarithm of reactive hyperemia index tertile; 95% CI, 1.22-10.07) and in patients >= 41 years (OR, 5.78; 95% CI, 1.52-21.95). These associations remained significant when dyslipidemia was replaced with the ratio of total to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conclusions Endothelial dysfunction appears to be an independent player in early-onset CIS in men and patients approaching middle age.
  • Leisti, Tuomas; Häkkinen, Jukka (2018)
    Certain experiments have shown that reasoning may weaken the stability of people's preferences, especially with regard to well-learned perceptual judgment and decision-making tasks, while learning has an opposite, consistency-enhancing effect on preferences. We examined the effects of these factors in a visual multi-attribute decision-making task where reasoning, in contrast, has been found to benefit judgments by making them more stable. The initial assumption in this study was that this benefit would be typical for novel tasks, like the one employed here, and that it would decrease when the task is thoroughly learned. This assumption was examined in three experiments by contrasting it with an alternative assumption that this previously obtained beneficial effect is caused solely by learning, not by reasoning. It was found that learning indeed makes preferences more stable by consolidating the weights of the attributes. Reasoning, however, does not benefit this task when it is completely novel but facilitates learning and stability of the preferences long run, therefore increasing the consistency of the participants in the macrolevel. Copyright (c) 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • Pirinen, Jani; Järvinen, Vesa; Martinez-Majander , Nicolas; Sinisalo, Juha; Pöyhönen, Pauli; Putaala, Jukka (2020)
    BACKGROUND: Ischemic stroke in young individuals often remains cryptogenic. Some of these strokes likely originate from the heart, and atrial fibrosis might be one of the etiological mechanisms. In this pilot study, we investigated whether advanced echocardiography findings of the left atrium (LA) of young cryptogenic stroke patients differ from those of stroke--free controls. METHODS AND RESULTS: We recruited 30 cryptogenic ischemic stroke patients aged 18 to 49 years and 30 age--and sex-matched stroke--free controls among participants of the SECRETO (Searching for Explanations for Cryptogenic Stroke in the Young: Revealing the Etiology, Triggers, and Outcome) study (NCT01934725). We measured basic left ventricular parameters and detailed measures of the LA, including 4--dimensional volumetry, speckle tracking epsilon, strain rate, and LA appendix orifice variation. Data were compared as continuous parameters and by tertiles. Compared with controls, stroke patients had smaller LA reservoir volumes (10.2 [interquartile range, 5.4] versus 13.2 [5.4] mL; P= 0.030) and smaller positive epsilon values (17.8 [8.5] versus 20.8 [10.1]; P= 0.023). In the tertile analysis, stroke patients had significantly lower left atrial appendage orifice variation (3.88 [0.75] versus 4.35 [0.90] mm; P=0.043), lower LA cyclic volume change (9.2 [2.8] versus 12.8 [3.5] mL; P=0.023), and lower LA contraction peak strain rate (-1.8 [0.6] versus -2.3 [0.6]; P=0.021). We found no statistically significant differences in left ventricular measures. CONCLUSIONS: This preliminary comparison suggests altered LA dynamics in young patients with cryptogenic ischemic stroke, and thus that LA wall pathology might contribute to these strokes. Our results await confirmation in a larger sample.
  • Pöyhönen, Pauli; Kuusisto, Jouni; Järvinen, Vesa; Pirinen, Jani; Räty, Heli; Lehmonen, Lauri; Paakkanen, Riitta; Martinez-Majander, Nicolas; Putaala, Jukka; Sinisalo, Juha (2020)
    Background Up to 50% of ischemic strokes in the young after thorough diagnostic work-up remain cryptogenic or associated with low-risk sources of cardioembolism such as patent foramen ovale (PFO). We studied with cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging, whether left ventricular (LV) non-compaction-a possible source for embolic stroke due to sluggish blood flow in deep intertrabecular recesses-is associated with cryptogenic strokes in the young. Methods Searching for Explanations for Cryptogenic Stroke in the Young: Revealing the Etiology, Triggers, and Outcome (SECRETO; NCT01934725) is an international prospective multicenter case-control study of young adults (aged 18-49 years) presenting with an imaging-positive first-ever ischemic stroke of undetermined etiology. In this pilot substudy, 30 cases and 30 age- and sex-matched stroke-free controls were examined with CMR. Transcranial Doppler (TCD) bubble test was performed to evaluate the presence and magnitude of right-to-left shunt (RLS). Results There were no significant differences in LV volumes, masses or systolic function between cases and controls; none of the participants had non-compaction cardiomyopathy. Semi-automated assessment of LV non-compaction was highly reproducible. Non-compacted LV mass (median 14.0 [interquartile range 12.6-16.0] g/m(2)vs. 12.7 [10.4-16.6] g/m(2), p = 0.045), the ratio of non-compacted to compacted LV mass (mean 25.6 +/- 4.2% vs. 22.8 +/- 6.0%, p = 0.015) and the percentage of non-compacted LV volume (mean 17.6 +/- 2.9% vs. 15.7 +/- 3.8%, p = 0.004) were higher in cases compared to controls. In a multivariate conditional logistic regression model including non-compacted LV volume, RLS and body mass index, the percentage of non-compacted LV volume (odds ratio [OR] 1.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10-2.18, p = 0.011) and the presence of RLS (OR 11.94, 95% CI 1.14-124.94, p = 0.038) were independently associated with cryptogenic ischemic stroke. Conclusions LV non-compaction is associated with a heightened risk of cryptogenic ischemic stroke in young adults, independent of concomitant RLS and in the absence of cardiomyopathy.
  • Uusitalo, Susanne; Tuominen, Jarno; Arstila, Valtteri (2020)
    How to classify the human condition? This is one of the main problems psychiatry has struggled with since the first diagnostic systems. The furore over the recent edi- tions of the diagnostic systems DSM-5 and ICD-11 has evidenced it to still pose a wicked problem. Recent advances in techniques and methods of artificial intelligence and computing power which allows for the analysis of large data sets have been pro- posed as a possible solution for this and other problems in classification, diagnosing, and treating mental disorders. However, mental disorders contain some specific inherent features, which require critical consideration and analysis. The promises of AI for mental disorders are threatened by the unmeasurable aspects of mental disor- ders, and for this reason the use of AI may lead to ethically and practically undesir- able consequences in its effective processing. We consider such novel and unique questions AI presents for mental health disorders in detail and evaluate potential novel, AI-specific, ethical implications.
  • Valtonen, Jussi; Ahn, Woo-kyoung; Cimpian, Andrei (2021)
    People commonly think of the mind and the brain as distinct entities that interact, a view known as dualism. At the same time, the public widely acknowledges that science attributes all mental phenomena to the workings of a material brain, a view at odds with dualism. How do people reconcile these conflicting perspectives? We propose that people distort claims about the brain from the wider culture to fit their dualist belief that minds and brains are distinct, interacting entities: Exposure to cultural discourse about the brain as the physical basis for the mind prompts people to posit that mind–brain interactions are asymmetric, such that the brain is able to affect the mind more than vice versa. We term this hybrid intuitive theory neurodualism. Five studies involving both thought experiments and naturalistic scenarios provided evidence of neurodualism among laypeople and, to some extent, even practicing psychotherapists. For example, lay participants reported that “a change in a person's brain” is accompanied by “a change in the person's mind” more often than vice versa. Similarly, when asked to imagine that “future scientists were able to alter exactly 25% of a person's brain,” participants reported larger corresponding changes in the person's mind than in the opposite direction. Participants also showed a similarly asymmetric pattern favoring the brain over the mind in naturalistic scenarios. By uncovering people's intuitive theories of the mind–brain relation, the results provide insights into societal phenomena such as the allure of neuroscience and common misperceptions of mental health treatments.
  • Kokkonen, Tommi; Schalk, Lennart (2021)
    To help students acquire mathematics and science knowledge and competencies, educators typically use multiple external representations (MERs). There has been considerable interest in examining ways to present, sequence, and combine MERs. One prominent approach is the concreteness fading sequence, which posits that instruction should start with concrete representations and progress stepwise to representations that are more idealized. Various researchers have suggested that concreteness fading is a broadly applicable instructional approach. In this theoretical paper, we conceptually analyze examples of concreteness fading in the domains of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology and discuss its generalizability. We frame the analysis by defining and describing MERs and their use in educational settings. Then, we draw from theories of analogical and relational reasoning to scrutinize the possible cognitive processes related to learning with MERs. Our analysis suggests that concreteness fading may not be as generalizable as has been suggested. Two main reasons for this are discussed: (1) the types of representations and the relations between them differ across different domains, and (2) the instructional goals between domains and subsequent roles of the representations vary.
  • Savec, Vesna Ferk; Urankar, Bernarda; Aksela, Maija; Devetak, Iztok (2017)
    The main purpose of this paper is to present Slovenian and Finnish prospective chemistry teachers' perceptions of their future profession, especially with regard to their understanding of the role of the triple nature of chemical concepts (macro, submicro and symbolic) and their representations in chemistry learning. A total of 19 prospective teachers (10 Slovenian, 9 Finnish) at master's level in chemical education participated in the research. The prospective teachers' opinions were gathered using an electronic questionnaire comprising six open-ended questions. The study revealed many parallels between Slovenian and Finnish prospective chemistry teachers' perceptions of their future profession and their understanding of the role of the triple nature of chemical concepts, especially particle representations, in chemistry learning. The majority of the prospective teachers from both countries believe that personal characteristics are the most important attribute of a successful chemistry teacher. Thus, they highly value teachers' enthusiasm for teaching and the use of contemporary teaching approaches in chemistry. The prospective teachers displayed an adequate understanding of the role of the triple nature of chemical concepts (i.e., particle representations) in the planning and implementation of a specific chemistry lesson.