Browsing by Subject "EXPLOITATION"

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  • Verni, Michela; Pontonio, Erica; Krona, Annika; Jacob, Sera; Pinto, Daniela; Verardo, Vito; Díaz-de-Cerio, Elixabet; Coda, Rossana; Rizzello, Carlo (2020)
    Brewers' spent grain (BSG) is the major by-product of the brewing industry which remain largely unutilized despite its nutritional quality. In this study, the effects of fermentation on BSG antioxidant potential were analyzed. A biotechnological protocol including the use of xylanase followed by fermentation withLactiplantibacillus plantarum (Lactobacillus plantarum)PU1, PRO17, and H46 was used. Bioprocessed BSG exhibited enhanced antioxidant potential, characterized by high radical scavenging activity, long-term inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation and protective effect toward oxidative stress on human keratinocytes NCTC 2544. Immunolabelling and confocal laser microscopy showed that xylanase caused an extensive cell wall arabinoxylan disruption, contributing to the release of bound phenols molecules, thus available to further conversion through lactic acid bacteria metabolism. To clarify the role of fermentation on the antioxidant BSG potential, phenols were selectively extracted and characterized through HPLC-MS techniques. Novel antioxidant peptides were purified and identified in the most active bioprocessed BSG.
  • Holma, Maija; Lindroos, Marko; Romakkaniemi, Atso; Oinonen, Soile (2019)
  • Velmala, Sannakajsa M.; Salmela, Matti J.; Chan, Tommy; Hölttä, Teemu; Hamberg, Leena; Sievanen, Risto; Pennanen, Taina (2023)
    Aims Fine roots, that comprise the adjustable part of the root system, are important in spatially heterogeneous boreal forest soils. We investigated the soil exploring patterns of Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedlings of equal height belonging to families representing two contrasting growth phenotypes that have shown fast and slow growth rates in long-term experiments. We hypothesised that seedlings of the fast-growing phenotype would show a more explorative root growth strategy, intense branching, and root proliferation in response to the nutrient patch, and that slow-growing phenotypes would be more tolerant to drought stress. Methods Seedlings were grown in flat Perspex microcosms with a clod of humus placed in the mid-bottom part of each microcosm for eight months. The order-based and functional classification, branching topology, and size of seedling root systems were studied with WinRHIZO (TM) image-analysis software and root exploration patterns with LIGNUM-model simulations. In addition, transpiration, stomatal conductance, net assimilation rate responses were measured. Results No differences were found in the early foraging of roots for the humus clod nor net assimilation rate and transpiration between the phenotype groups. Seedlings were favouring exploitation over exploration in the early phases of development regardless of growth phenotype group. However, in fast-growing phenotypes, the main roots were longer, and the lateral root pool favoured long and bifurcated laterals that formed larger absorptive root area. Conclusions Our results indicate that in nutrient-poor conditions, better growth of lateral roots precedes future differences in the aboveground growth rate of Norway spruce.
  • Mozumder, Mohammad Mojibul Hoque; Shamsuzzaman, Md. Mostafa; Rashed-Un-Nabi, Md.; Harun-Al-Rashid, Ahmed (2018)
    The Sundarbans Mangrove Forest (SMF) is a complex ecosystem containing the most diverse and abundant natural resources of Bangladesh. The research was designed to investigate the socio-economic characteristics and fishing operation activities of the artisanal fishers in the SMF through case studies. Despite the great importance of mangroves in the livelihood of the artisanal fishermen in the SMF, deforestation is perceived to continue due to illegal logging and deterioration of mangroves for climate change, increased salinity, natural disasters, shrimp farming and household consumption. The consequences are depleted fish and fishery resources, changes in fisher's primary occupation and livelihood status. The present study also elicited several risks and shocks of the fishermen livelihood like the attack by dacoits, hostage, ransom, and attack by tigers, natural disasters, river bank erosion. However, the artisanal fishermen adopted different strategies to cope with the changing conditions by forming associations, violating the fisheries laws and regulations, migrating, sharing responsibilities with the household members, and transmitting local ecological knowledge. This study concludes that there is an urgency to update the existing policies and management issues for the sustainable extraction of the SMF resources for the improvement of the artisanal fishermen livelihood.