Browsing by Subject "EXPLORATION"

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  • Wang, Yanhao; Li, Yuchen; Fan, Ju; Ye, Chang; Chai, Mingke (2021)
    Graphs are commonly used for representing complex structures such as social relationships, biological interactions, and knowledge bases. In many scenarios, graphs not only represent topological relationships but also store the attributes that denote the semantics associated with their vertices and edges, known as attributed graphs. Attributed graphs can meet demands for a wide range of applications, and thus a variety of queries on attributed graphs have been proposed. However, these diverse types of attributed graph queries have not been systematically investigated yet. In this paper, we provide an extensive survey of several typical types of attributed graph queries. We propose a taxonomy of attributed graph queries based on query inputs and outputs. We summarize the definitions of queries that fall into each category and present a fine-grained classification of queries within each category by analyzing the semantics and algorithmic motivations behind these queries. Moreover, we discuss the insights of how existing studies address the technical challenges of query processing and outline several promising future research directions.
  • Leskinen, Katarzyna; Tuomala, Henni; Wicklund, Anu; Horsma-Heikkinen, Jenni; Kuusela, Pentti; Skurnik, Mikael; Kiljunen, Saija (2017)
    Staphylococcus aureus is a commensal and pathogenic bacterium that causes infections in humans and animals. It is a major cause of nosocomial infections worldwide. Due to increasing prevalence of multidrug resistance, alternative methods to eradicate the pathogen are necessary. In this respect, polyvalent staphylococcal myoviruses have been demonstrated to be excellent candidates for phage therapy. Here we present the characterization of the bacteriophage vB_SauM-fRuSau02 (fRuSau02) that was isolated from a commercial Staphylococcus bacteriophage cocktail produced by Microgen (Moscow, Russia). The genomic analysis revealed that fRuSau02 is very closely related to the phage MSA6, and possesses a large genome (148,464 bp), with typical modular organization and a low G+ C (30.22%) content. It can therefore be classified as a new virus among the genus Twortlikevirus. The genome contains 236 predicted genes, 4 of which were interrupted by insertion sequences. Altogether, 78 different structural and virion-associated proteins were identified from purified phage particles by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The host range of fRuSau02 was tested with 135 strains, including 51 and 54 Staphylococcus aureus isolates from humans and pigs, respectively, and 30 coagulase-negative Staphylococcus strains of human origin. All clinical S. aureus strains were at least moderately sensitive to the phage, while only 39% of the pig strains were infected. Also, some strains of Staphylococcus intermedius, Staphylococcus lugdunensis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Staphylococcus pseudointer were sensitive. We conclude that fRuSau02, a phage therapy agent in Russia, can serve as an alternative to antibiotic therapy against S. aureus.
  • Junno, Niina Marjut; Koivisto, Emilia Anna-Liisa; Kukkonen, Ilmo Tapio; Malehmir, Alireza; Wijns, Chris; Montonen, Markku (2020)
    The Kevitsa mafic-ultramafic intrusion, located within the Central Lapland Greenstone Belt in northern Finland, hosts a large, disseminated Ni-Cu-PGE sulphide deposit. A three-dimensional seismic reflection survey was conducted over the Kevitsa intrusion in 2010 primarily for open-pit mine planning and for deep mineral exploration purposes. In the Kevitsa three-dimensional seismic data, laterally continuous reflections are observed within a constrained region within the intrusion. In earlier studies, it has been suggested that this internal reflectivity mainly originates from contacts between the tops and more sulphide-rich bottoms of smaller scale, internally differentiated magma layers that represent a spectrum of olivine pyroxenites. However, this interpretation is not unequivocally supported by the borehole data. In this study, data mining, namely the Self-Organizing Map analysis, of extensive Kevitsa borehole data is used to investigate the possible causes for the observed internal reflectivity within the Kevitsa intrusion. Modelling of the effect of mineralization and alteration on the reflectivity properties of Kevitsa rock types, based on average modal compositions of the rock types, is presented to support the results of the Self-Organizing Map analysis. Based on the results, we suggest that the seismic reflectivity observed within the Kevitsa intrusion can possibly be attributed to alteration, and may also be linked to the presence of sulphide minerals.
  • Hassan, Alaa A.; Aly, Ashraf A.; Mohamed, Nasr K.; El Shaieb, Kamal M.; Makhlouf, Maysa M.; Abdelhafez, El-Shimaa M. N.; Bräse, Stefan; Nieger, Martin; Dalby, Kevin N.; Kaoud, Tamer S. (2019)
    A large number of natural products containing the propellane scaffold have been reported to exhibit cytotoxicity against several cancers; however, their mechanism of action is still unknown. Anticancer drugs targeting DNA are mainly composed of small planar molecule/s that can interact with the DNA helix, causing DNA malfunction and cell death. The aim of this study was to design and synthesize propellane derivatives that can act as DNA intercalators and/or groove binders. The unique structure of the propellane derivatives and their ability to display planar ligands with numerous possible geometries, renders them potential starting points to design new drugs targeting DNA in cancer cells. New substituted furo-imidazo[3.3.3]propellanes were synthesized via the reaction of substituted alkenylidene-hydrazinecarbothioamides with 2-(1,3-dioxo-2,3-dihydr- 1H-2-ylidene) propanedinitrile in tetrahydrofuran at room temperature. The structures of the products were confirmed by a combination of elemental analysis, NMR, ESI-MS, IR and single crystal X-ray analysis. Interestingly, 5c, 5d and 5f showed an ability to interact with Calf Thymus DNA (CT-DNA). Their DNA-binding mode was investigated using a combination of absorption spectroscopy, DNA melting, viscosity, CD spectroscopy measurements, as well as competitive binding studies with several dyes. Their cytotoxicity was evaluated against the NCI-60 panel of cancer cell lines. 5c, 5d and 5f exhibited similar anti-proliferative activity against the A549 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line. Further mechanistic studies revealed their ability to induce DNA damage in the A549 cell line, as well as apoptosis, evidenced by elevated Annexin V expression, enhanced caspase 3/7 activation and PARP cleavage. In this study, we present the potential for designing novel propellanes to provoke cytotoxic activity, likely through DNA binding-induced DNA damage and apoptosis.
  • Helve, Jaakko; Kramer, Anneke; Abad-Diez, Jose M.; Couchoud, Cecile; de Arriba, Gabriel; de Meester, Johan; Evans, Marie; Glaudet, Florence; Grönhagen-Riska, Carola; Heaf, James G.; Lezaic, Visnja; Nordio, Maurizio; Palsson, Runolfur; Pechter, Ülle; Resic, Halima; Santamaria, Rafael; Santiuste de Pablos, Carmen; Massy, Ziad A.; Zurriaga, Oscar; Jager, Kitty J.; Finne, Patrik (2018)
    Background. The incidence of renal replacement therapy (RRT) in the general population >= 75 years of age varies considerably between countries and regions in Europe. Our aim was to study characteristics and survival of elderly RRT patients and to find explanations for differences in RRT incidence. Methods. Patients >= 75 years of age at the onset of RRT in 2010-2013 from 29 national or regional registries providing data to the European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association Registry were included. Chi-square and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to assess variation in patient characteristics and linear regression was used to study the association between RRT incidence and various factors. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression were employed for survival analyses. Results. The mean annual incidence of RRT in the age group >= 75 years of age ranged from 157 to 924 per million age-related population. The median age at the start of RRT was higher and comorbidities were less common in areas with higher RRT incidence, but overall the association between patient characteristics and RRT incidence was weak. The unadjusted survival was lower in high-incidence areas due to an older age at onset of RRT, but the adjusted survival was similar [relative risk 1.00 (95% confidence interval, 0.97-1.03)] in patients from low- and high-incidence areas. Conclusions. Variation in the incidence of RRT among the elderly across European countries and regions is remarkable and could not be explained by the available data. However, the survival of patients in low-and high-incidence areas was remarkably similar.
  • Aivelo, Tuomas; Uitto, Anna (2021)
    Understanding how teaching affects students' attitudes and beliefs is notoriously difficult, specifically in a quickly evolving and societally relevant field such as genetics. The aim of this survey study is to capitalize our previous research and examine how teaching relates to Finnish secondary school students' liking of, self-concept in and experienced utility of genetics, attitude towards gene technology and belief in genetic determinism. In this unique setting, we used as explanatory variables their teachers' teaching emphases and learning materials, and as student-related factors, we used gender and the number of biology courses attended. Item-response theory with exploratory, confirmatory, and explanatory analyses were carried out to model the data. Teaching explained students' attitudes and beliefs: if the teacher's emphasis was Hereditary or the textbook with stronger Mendelian emphasis was used, students tended to havemore negative attitudes towards learning genetics and stronger belief in genetic determinism . Our results also suggest gender differences: male students had more positive attitude towards gene technology, higher self-concept, whereas as utility of genetics and belief in genetic determinism were higher in females. The results suggest that teaching' approaches as well as learning materials need updates to fulfil the needs for genetics literacy
  • Mannerstrom, Rasmus; Hietajarvi, Lauri; Muotka, Joona; Salmela-Aro, Katariina (2018)
    Developing a stable personal identity is considered a more precarious task in today's society than hitherto. Skilful digital engagement may, however, constitute a valuable asset in necessary identity exploration and commitment. Applying a person-oriented approach, we examined for the first time how identity profiles are associated with digital engagement, operationalized as digital competence, gaming seriousness, type of internet activity and excessive ICT use. After controlling for gender, life satisfaction and parental SES, this study of a Finnish high school sample (N = 932) revealed that adolescents with future commitments and some exploration of options (achievement, searching moratorium) were the most advanced in digital skills and, in the former case, least prone to excessive ICT use. By contrast, adolescents desperately trying to solve the identity task (ruminative moratorium) scored highest on friendship-driven internet activity and excessive ICT use, whereas diffused individuals had the weakest digital competence. No differences between the profiles emerged regarding gaming and interest-driven internet activity. The results suggest that the digital world and related devices are purposeful tools for shaping and maintaining healthy identity commitments.
  • Singh, Brij; Malinowski, Michal; Hlousek, Felix; Koivisto, Emilia; Heinonen, Suvi; Hellwig, Olaf; Buske, Stefan; Chamarczuk, Michal; Juurela, Sanna (2019)
    A 10.5 km(2) 3D seismic survey was acquired over the Kylylahti mine area (Outokumpu mineral district, eastern Finland) as a part of the COGITO-MIN (COst-effective Geophysical Imaging Techniques for supporting Ongoing MINeral exploration in Europe) project, which aimed at the development of cost-effective geophysical imaging methods for mineral exploration. The cost-effectiveness in our case was related to the fact that an active-source 3D seismic survey was accomplished by using the receiver spread originally designed for a 3D passive survey. The 3D array recorded Vibroseis and dynamite shots from an active-source 2D seismic survey, from a vertical seismic profiling experiment survey, as well as some additional "random" Vibroseis and dynamite shots made to complement the 3D source distribution. The resulting 3D survey was characterized by irregular shooting geometry and relatively large receiver intervals (50 m). Using this dataset, we evaluate the effectiveness of the standard time-imaging approach (post-stack and pre-stack time migration) compared to depth imaging (standard and specialized Kirchhoff pre-stack depth migration, KPreSDM). Standard time-domain processing and imaging failed to convincingly portray the first 1500 m of the subsurface, which was the primary interest of the survey. With a standard KPreSDM, we managed to obtain a good image of the base of the Kylylahti formation bordering the extent of the mineralization-hosting Outokumpu assemblage rocks, but otherwise the image was very noisy in the shallower section. The specialized KPreSDM approach (i.e., coherency-based Fresnel volume migration) resulted in a much cleaner image of the shallow, steeply dipping events, as well as some additional deeper reflectors, possibly representing repetition of the contact between the Outokumpu assemblage and the surrounding Kalevian metasediments at depth.
  • Asikainen, Henna; Blomster, Jaanika; Cornér, Timo; Pietikäinen, Janna (2021)
    The benefits of peer teaching have been intensively explored. However, there is still a lack of research in relation to student integration in higher education. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between peer teacher interaction and students’ experiences of components of integration in the study programme. This comprises student and teacher interaction and support as well as identification with the programme. In addition, the aim is to explore how the students experience peer teachers as effecting their integration into the programme, and to explore how they visualise the relationship between students, teachers and peer teachers as part of the programme. Peer teaching was implemented in an introductory course in Environmental Sciences, in which the peer teachers were responsible for organising and teaching the course. The study was conducted with a mixed-method approach combining questionnaire data (N = 115), open-ended experiences (N = 80) and sketches (N = 80) done by the students participating in the course. The results show that peer teaching affected student integration in several ways. Practical implications and future research are also discussed.
  • Kaur, Puneet; Talwar, Shalini; Islam, Nazrul; Salo, Jari; Dhir, Amandeep (2022)
    The literature offers valuable insights into various aspects of service recovery and service outcomes. However, the available findings are limited relative to the size of the ever-expanding service economy. In particular, past studies have left more granular nuances of the association between service recovery strategies and service outcomes, such as the mediating role of forgiveness or the valence of forgiveness, under-explored. Recognising that an improved understanding of recovery from failures is crucial for sustaining positive customer-brand re-lationships in the service economy, the present study investigates the mediating effect of the valence of forgiveness (both exoneration and resentment) on the association between various service recovery strategies (apology, compensation and voice) and service outcomes (brand trust and negative word of mouth [NWOM]) in the context of food delivery apps (FDAs). We tested the proposed model by analysing data from 294 FDA users who had experienced FDA service failures and recovery efforts in the recent past. The findings suggest that recovery strategies are associated with exoneration, resentment and brand trust but not with NWOM. While exoneration mediates the association of these strategies with both brand trust and NWOM, resentment mediates only the association of these strategies with NWOM. Finally, the severity of previously experienced service failures and the speed of the service provider's response moderates the association of the valence of forgiveness with brand trust and NWOM. By uncovering the key role of the valence of forgiveness in service recovery, our study offers significant theoretical and practical implications for stakeholders.
  • Harri, Ari-Matti; Pichkadze, Konstantin; Zeleny, Lev; Vazquez, Luis; Schmidt, Walter; Alexashkin, Sergey; Korablev, Oleg; Guerrero, Hector; Heilimo, Jyri; Uspensky, Mikhail; Finchenko, Valery; Linkin, Vyacheslav; Arruego, Ignacio; Genzer, Maria; Lipatov, Alexander; Polkko, Jouni; Paton, Mark; Savijärvi, Hannu; Haukka, Harri; Siili, Tero; Khovanskov, Vladimir; Ostesko, Boris; Poroshin, Andrey; Diaz-Michelena, Marina; Siikonen, Timo; Palin, Matti; Vorontsov, Viktor; Polyakov, Alexander; Valero, Francisco; Kemppinen, Osku; Leinonen, Jussi; Romero, Pilar (2017)
    Investigations of global and related local phenomena on Mars such as atmospheric circulation patterns, boundary layer phenomena, water, dust and climatological cycles and investigations of the planetary interior would benefit from simultaneous, distributed in situ measurements. Practically, such an observation network would require low-mass landers, with a high packing density, so a large number of landers could be delivered to Mars with the minimum number of launchers. The Mars Network Lander (MetNet Lander; MNL), a small semi-hard lander/penetrator design with a payload mass fraction of approximately 17 %, has been developed, tested and prototyped. The MNL features an innovative Entry, Descent and Landing System (EDLS) that is based on inflatable structures. The EDLS is capable of decelerating the lander from interplanetary transfer trajectories down to a surface impact speed of 50-70 ms(-1) with a deceleration of <500 g for <20 ms. The total mass of the prototype design is approximate to 24 kg, with approximate to 4 kg of mass available for the payload. The EDLS is designed to orient the penetrator for a vertical impact. As the payload bay will be embedded in the surface materials, the bay's temperature excursions will be much less than if it were fully exposed on the Martian surface, allowing a reduction in the amount of thermal insulation and savings on mass. The MNL is well suited for delivering meteorological and atmospheric instruments to the Martian surface. The payload concept also enables the use of other environmental instruments. The small size and low mass of a MNL makes it ideally suited for piggy-backing on larger spacecraft. MNLs are designed primarily for use as surface networks but could also be used as pathfinders for high-value landed missions.
  • Bhandari, Krishna Raj; Ranta, Mikko; Salo, Jari (2022)
    The main research question of the study is this: Is the firm embedded into ecology, society, and governance (ESG), or vice versa? Using the resource-based view as a theoretical lens, and stakeholder capitalism as a paradigm anchored in the Dashgupat Review, we demonstrate in a panel data over 26 years that at the firm level, the relationship between sustained competitive advantage and the ESG footprint is concave shaped, and the impact inequality multiple gaps of the ESG footprint are 4.75 times the providing capacity of the natural and business environment. To solve the common method variance, endogeneity, and unobserved heterogeneity, system GMM is used as a method in a dataset of US manufacturing firms from 1992 to 2019. At the end, we argue that extant attributes of a resource base for sustained competitive advantage have an inherent flaw anchored in the resource-based view, as they ignore the "environmental, social, and governance (ESG) friendliness" attribute of a resource. Managers need to rethink the objective of their firms if they want to survive in the new ESG-friendly economy with stakeholder supremacy.
  • Wickstrom, Alice; Denny, Iain; Hietanen, Joel (2021)
    In this essay, we explore the limits of marketized belonging through Kristeva?s theorization of melancholia and desire. This allows us to problematize ?joyful? accounts of societal re-enchantment and how ?belonging? through collectives of consumption (such as neo-tribes, subcultures of consumption, and brand communities) is generally seen as a natural response to modernist rationalization and increased individualization. Instead, we argue that the scholarly understanding of collective forms of consumption has been premised upon paradoxical ground due to the notion of the subject-as-consumer as lacking often being implicitly reproduced, albeit theoretically neglected, allowing for the reproduction of romanticized ideals of marketized ?communality.? We foreground how tensions between individuality and communality are negotiated within markets and argue that collective forms of consumption feed upon separation, fragmentation, and the suspension of ?joy? rather than relationality and belonging. We propose that this allows for a better understanding of the desire to become through collective consumption and direct further attention toward questions related to liminality, detachment, loss, and exclusion.