Browsing by Subject "EXPRESSION ANALYSIS"

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  • Rodriguez-Barrueco, Ruth; Latorre, Jessica; Devis-Jauregui, Laura; Lluch, Aina; Bonifaci, Nuria; Llobet, Francisco J.; Olivan, Mireia; Coll-Iglesias, Laura; Gassner, Katja; Davis, Meredith L.; Moreno-Navarrete, Jose M.; Castells-Nobau, Anna; Plata-Pena, Laura; Dalmau-Pastor, Miki; Horing, Marcus; Liebisch, Gerhard; Olkkonen, Vesa M.; Arnoriaga-Rodriguez, Maria; Ricart, Wifredo; Fernandez-Real, Jose M.; Silva, Jose M.; Ortega, Francisco J.; Llobet-Navas, David (2022)
    The H19X-encoded miR-424(322)/503 cluster regulates multiple cellular functions. Here, it is reported for the first time that it is also a critical linchpin of fat mass expansion. Deletion of this miRNA cluster in mice results in obesity, while increasing the pool of early adipocyte progenitors and hypertrophied adipocytes. Complementary loss and gain of function experiments and RNA sequencing demonstrate that miR-424(322)/503 regulates a conserved genetic program involved in the differentiation and commitment of white adipocytes. Mechanistically, it is demonstrated that miR-424(322)/503 targets gamma-Synuclein (SNCG), a factor that mediates this program rearrangement by controlling metabolic functions in fat cells, allowing adipocyte differentiation and adipose tissue enlargement. Accordingly, diminished miR-424(322) in mice and obese humans co-segregate with increased SNCG in fat and peripheral blood as mutually exclusive features of obesity, being normalized upon weight loss. The data unveil a previously unknown regulatory mechanism offat mass expansion tightly controlled by the miR-424(322)/503 through SNCG.
  • Darragh, Kathy; Orteu, Anna; Black, Daniella; Byers, Kelsey J. R. P.; Szczerbowski, Daiane; Warren, Ian A.; Rastas, Pasi; Pinharanda, Ana; Davey, John W.; Fernanda Garza, Sylvia; Abondano Almeida, Diana; Merrill, Richard M.; McMillan, W. Owen; Schulz, Stefan; Jiggins, Chris D. (2021)
    Plants and insects often use the same compounds for chemical communication, but not much is known about the genetics of convergent evolution of chemical signals. The terpene (E)-beta-ocimene is a common component of floral scent and is also used by the butterfly Heliconius melpomene as an anti-aphrodisiac pheromone. While the biosynthesis of terpenes has been described in plants and microorganisms, few terpene synthases (TPSs) have been identified in insects. Here, we study the recent divergence of 2 species, H. melpomene and Heliconius cydno, which differ in the presence of (E)-beta-ocimene; combining linkage mapping, gene expression, and functional analyses, we identify 2 novel TPSs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that one, HmelOS, is able to synthesise (E)-beta-ocimene in vitro. We find no evidence for TPS activity in HcydOS (HmelOS ortholog of H. cydno), suggesting that the loss of (E)-beta-ocimene in this species is the result of coding, not regulatory, differences. The TPS enzymes we discovered are unrelated to previously described plant and insect TPSs, demonstrating that chemical convergence has independent evolutionary origins.
  • Ye, Yuntian; Liu, Yongqiang; Li, Xiaolong; Wang, Guangyi; Zhou, Quan; Chen, Qing; Li, Jiale; Wang, Xiaorong; Tang, Haoru (2021)
    Flowering connects vegetative and generative developmental phases and plays a significant role in strawberry production. The mechanisms that regulate strawberry flowering time are unclear. B-box transcription factors (BBXs) play important roles in the flowering time regulation of plants. Nevertheless, BBXs in octoploid cultivated strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) and their functions in flowering time regulation have not been identified. Here, we identified 51 FaBBXs from cultivated strawberry and 16 FvBBXs from diploid wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca), which were classified into five groups according to phylogenetic analysis. Further evolutionary analysis showed that whole-genome duplication or segmental duplication is a crucial factor that leads to the expansion of the BBX gene family in two strawberry species. Moreover, some loss and acquisition events of FaBBX genes were identified in the genome of cultivated strawberry that could have affected traits of agronomic interest, such as fruit quality. The promoters of FaBBX genes showed an enrichment in light-responsive, cis-regulatory elements, with 16 of these genes showing changes in their transcriptional activity in response to blue light treatment. On the other hand, FaBBX28c1, whose transcriptional activity is reduced in response to blue light, showed a delay in flowering time in Arabidopsis transgenic lines, suggesting its role in the regulation of flowering time in cultivated strawberry. Our results provide new evolutionary insight into the BBX gene family in cultivated strawberry and clues regarding their function in flowering time regulation in plants.
  • Rinne, Maiju; Tanoli, Zia-Ur-Rehman; Khan, Asifullah; Xhaard, Henri (2019)
    We conduct a cartography of rhodopsin-like non-olfactory G protein-coupled receptors in the Ensembl database. The most recent genomic data (releases 90-92, 90 vertebrate genomes) are analyzed through the online interface and receptors mapped on phylogenetic guide trees that were constructed based on a set of similar to 14.000 amino acid sequences. This snapshot of genomic data suggest vertebrate genomes to harbour 142 clades of GPCRs without human orthologues. Among those, 69 have not to our knowledge been mentioned or studied previously in the literature, of which 28 are distant from existing receptors and likely new orphans. These newly identified receptors are candidates for more focused evolutionary studies such as chromosomal mapping as well for in-depth pharmacological characterization. Interestingly, we also show that 37 of the 72 human orphan (or recently deorphanized) receptors included in this study cluster into nineteen closely related groups, which implies that there are less ligands to be identified than previously anticipated. Altogether, this work has significant implications when discussing nomenclature issues for GPCRs.
  • Niemelä, Elina H.; Oghabian, Ali; Staals, Raymond H. J.; Greco, Dario; Pruijn, Ger J. M.; Frilander, Mikko J. (2014)
  • Akimov, Yevhen; Bulanova, Daria; Timonen, Sanna; Wennerberg, Krister; Aittokallio, Tero (2020)
    Abstract Cellular DNA barcoding has become a popular approach to study heterogeneity of cell populations and to identify clones with differential response to cellular stimuli. However, there is a lack of reliable methods for statistical inference of differentially responding clones. Here, we used mixtures of DNA-barcoded cell pools to generate a realistic benchmark read count dataset for modelling a range of outcomes of clone-tracing experiments. By accounting for the statistical properties intrinsic to the DNA barcode read count data, we implemented an improved algorithm that results in a significantly lower false-positive rate, compared to current RNA-seq data analysis algorithms, especially when detecting differentially responding clones in experiments with strong selection pressure. Building on the reliable statistical methodology, we illustrate how multidimensional phenotypic profiling enables one to deconvolute phenotypically distinct clonal subpopulations within a cancer cell line. The mixture control dataset and our analysis results provide a foundation for benchmarking and improving algorithms for clone-tracing experiments.
  • Makela, Miia R.; Sietiö, Outi-Maaria; de Vries, Ronald P.; Timonen, Sari; Hilden, Kristiina (2014)
  • Kurko, Johanna; Debes, Paul V.; House, Andrew H.; Aykanat, Tutku; Erkinaro, Jaakko; Primmer, Craig R. (2020)
    Despite recent taxonomic diversification in studies linking genotype with phenotype, follow-up studies aimed at understanding the molecular processes of such genotype-phenotype associations remain rare. The age at which an individual reaches sexual maturity is an important fitness trait in many wild species. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating maturation timing processes remain obscure. A recent genome-wide association study in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) identified large-effect age-at-maturity-associated chromosomal regions including genes vgll3, akap11 and six6, which have roles in adipogenesis, spermatogenesis and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, respectively. Here, we determine expression patterns of these genes during salmon development and their potential molecular partners and pathways. Using Nanostring transcription profiling technology, we show development- and tissue-specific mRNA expression patterns for vgll3, akap11 and six6. Correlated expression levels of vgll3 and akap11, which have adjacent chromosomal location, suggests they may have shared regulation. Further, vgll3 correlating with arhgap6 and yap1, and akap11 with lats1 and yap1 suggests that Vgll3 and Akap11 take part in actin cytoskeleton regulation. Tissue-specific expression results indicate that vgll3 and akap11 paralogs have sex-dependent expression patterns in gonads. Moreover, six6 correlating with slc38a6 and rtn1, and Hippo signaling genes suggests that Six6 could have a broader role in the HPG neuroendrocrine and cell fate commitment regulation, respectively. We conclude that Vgll3, Akap11 and Six6 may influence Atlantic salmon maturation timing via affecting adipogenesis and gametogenesis by regulating cell fate commitment and the HPG axis. These results may help to unravel general molecular mechanisms behind maturation.