Browsing by Subject "EXTENDED-SPECTRUM"

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  • Oikarainen, Paula E.; Pohjola, Leena K.; Pietola, Eeva S.; Heikinheimo, Annamari (2019)
    Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and plasmidic AmpC (pAmpC) producing Escherichia coli are found in the poultry production even without antibiotic use. The spread of these bacteria has been suggested to occur via imported parent birds, enabling transmission to production level broilers vertically via eggs. We studied transmission of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli and E. coli without antibiotic selection by sampling imported parent birds (n = 450), egg surfaces prior to and after the incubation period (n = 300 and n = 428, respectively) and the laying house environment (n = 20). Samples were additionally taken from embryos (n = 422). To study the prevention of transmission, a competitive exclusion (CE) solution was added onto freshly laid eggs prior to incubation period (n = 150). Results showed carriage of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coil in parent birds (26.7%), the environment (5%) and egg surfaces before the incubation period (1.3%), but not from egg surfaces or embryos after the incubation period. Whole genome sequencing revealed ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coil isolates belonging to clonal lineages ST429 and ST2040. However, the finding of E. coli cultured without antibiotic selection in two (2.2%) embryos strengthens the need to study E. coil transmission in poultry production in more depth. Since ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli seem not to persist on egg surfaces, there is no need to use CE solution ex ovo as a prevention method. The results indicate that other routes, such as for example transmission through fomites or horizontal gene transfer by other bacterial species, could be more important than vertical transmission in the spread of resistance in broiler production.
  • Verkola, Marie; Pietola, Eeva; Järvinen, Asko; Lindqvist, Kristian; Kinnunen, Paula M.; Heikinheimo, Annamari (2019)
    The occurrence of multidrug-resistant zoonotic bacteria in animals has been increasing worldwide. Working in close contact with livestock increases the risk of carriage of these bacteria. We investigated the occurrence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and plasmidic AmpC beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL/pAmpC-PE) and livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) in Finnish veterinarians (n = 320). In addition to microbiological samples, background information was collected. Bacterial whole genome sequencing was performed to deduce sequence types (STs), spa types and resistance genes of the isolates. In total, 3.0% (9/297) of the veterinarians carried ESBL producing Escherichia coli, with one ESBL producing E. coli isolate producing also AmpC. Seven different STs, sequences of several different plasmid groups as well as several different bla(ESBL/pAmpC )genes existed in different combinations. No carbapenemase or colistin resistance genes were detected. MRSA was detected in 0.3% (1/320) of the samples. The strain belonged to LA-MRSA clonal complex (CC) 398 (ST398, spa type 011, lacking Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes). In conclusion, this study shows low carriage of multidrug-resistant zoonotic bacteria in Finnish veterinarians. However, finding LA-MRSA for the first time in a sample from a veterinarian in a country with prudent use of animal antimicrobials and regarding the recent rise of LA-MRSA on Finnish pig farms, a strong recommendation to protect people working in close contact with animals carrying LA-MRSA CC398 is given. Further studies are needed to explain why the prevalence of LA-MRSA in veterinarians is lower in Finland than in other European countries.
  • Falgenhauer, Linda; Schwengers, Oliver; Schmiedel, Judith; Baars, Christian; Lambrecht, Oda; Hess, Stefanie; Berendonk, Thomas U.; Falgenhauer, Jane; Chakraborty, Trinad; Imirzalioglu, Can (2019)
    Water is considered to play a role in the dissemination of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria including those encoding Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) and carbapenemases. To investigate the role of water for their spread in more detail, we characterized ESBL/Carbapenemase-producing bacteria from surface water and sediment samples using phenotypic and genotypic approaches. ESBL/Carbapenemase-producing isolates were obtained from water/sediment samples. Species and antibiotic resistance were determined. A subset of these isolates (n = 33) was whole-genome-sequenced and analyzed for the presence of antibiotic resistance genes and virulence determinants. Their relatedness to isolates associated with human infections was investigated using multilocus sequence type and cgMLST-based analysis. Eighty-nine percent of the isolates comprised of clinically relevant species. Fifty-eight percent exhibited a multidrug-resistance phenotype. Two isolates harbored the mobile colistin resistance gene mcr-1. One carbapenemase-producing isolate identified as Enterobacter kobei harbored bla(VIM-)(1). Two Escherichia coli isolates had sequence types (ST) associated with human infections (ST131 and ST1485) and a Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate was classified as hypervirulent. A multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate encoding known virulence genes associated with severe lung infections in cystic fibrosis patients was also detected. The presence of MDR and clinically relevant isolates in recreational and surface water underlines the role of aquatic environments as both reservoirs and hot spots for MDR bacteria. Future assessment of water quality should include the examination of the multidrug resistance of clinically relevant bacterial species and thus provide an important link regarding the spread of MDR bacteria in a One Health context.