Browsing by Subject "Earth"

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  • Alhilal, Ahmad Yousef; Braud, Tristan; Hui, Pan (2021)
    In recent years, the number of space exploration missions has multiplied. Such an increase raises the question of effective communication between the multitude of human-made objects spread across our solar system. An efficient and scalable communication architecture presents multiple challenges, including the distance between planetary entities, their motion and potential obstruction, the limited available payload on satellites, and the high mission cost. This paper brings together recent relevant specifications, standards, mission demonstrations, and the most recent proposals to develop a unified architecture for deep-space internetworked communication. After characterizing the transmission medium and its unique challenges, we explore the available communication technologies and frameworks to establish a reliable communication architecture across the solar system. We then draw an evolutive roadmap for establishing a scalable communication architecture. This roadmap builds upon the mission-centric communication architectures in the upcoming years towards a fully interconnected network or InterPlanetary Internet (IPN). We finally discuss the tools available to develop such an architecture in the short, medium, and long terms. The resulting architecture cross-supports space agencies on the solar system-scale while significantly decreasing space communication costs. Through this analysis, we derive the critical research questions remaining for creating the IPN regarding the considerable challenges of space communication.
  • Mangano, V.; Dósa, Melinda; Fränz, Markus; Milillo, Anna; Oliveira, Joana S.; Lee, Yeon Joo; McKenna-Lawlor, Susan; Grassi, Davide; Heyner, Daniel; Kozyrev, Alexander S.; Peron, Roberto; Helbert, Jörn; Besse, Sebastien; de la Fuente, Sara; Montagnon, Elsa; Zender, Joe; Volwerk, Martin; Chaufray, Jean-Yves; Slavin, James; Krüger, Harald; Maturilli, Alessandro; Cornet, Thomas; Iwai, Kazumasa; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Lucente, Marco; Massetti, Stefano; Schmidt, Carl A.; Dong, Chuanfei; Quarati, Francesco; Hirai, Takayuki; Varsani, Ali; Belyaev, Denis; Zhong, Jun; Kilpua, Emilia; Jackson, Bernard V.; Odstrcil, Dusan; Plaschke, Ferdinand; Vainio, Rami; Jarvinen, Riku; Lambrov Ivanovski, Stavro; Madár, Ákos; Erdős, Géza; Plainaki, Christina; Alberti, Tommaso; Aizawa, Sae; Benkhoff, Johannes; Murakami, Go; Quemerais, Eric; Hiesinger, Harald; Mitrofanov, Igor G.; Iess, Luciano; Santoli, Francesco; Orsini, Stefano; Lichtenegger, Herbert; Laky, Gunther; Barabash, Stas; Moissl, Richard; Huovelin, J.; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Saito, Yoshifumi; Kobayashi, Masanori; Baumjohann, Wolfgang (2021)
    The dual spacecraft mission BepiColombo is the first joint mission between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) to explore the planet Mercury. BepiColombo was launched from Kourou (French Guiana) on October 20th, 2018, in its packed configuration including two spacecraft, a transfer module, and a sunshield. BepiColombo cruise trajectory is a long journey into the inner heliosphere, and it includes one flyby of the Earth (in April 2020), two of Venus (in October 2020 and August 2021), and six of Mercury (starting from 2021), before orbit insertion in December 2025. A big part of the mission instruments will be fully operational during the mission cruise phase, allowing unprecedented investigation of the different environments that will encounter during the 7-years long cruise. The present paper reviews all the planetary flybys and some interesting cruise configurations. Additional scientific research that will emerge in the coming years is also discussed, including the instruments that can contribute.
  • Niittynen, Pekka; Heikkinen, Risto K.; Luoto, Miska (2020)
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 117: 35, 21480-21487
    The Arctic is one of the least human-impacted parts of the world, but, in turn, tundra biome is facing the most rapid climate change on Earth. These perturbations may cause major reshuffling of Arctic species compositions and functional trait profiles and diversity, thereby affecting ecosystem processes of the whole tundra region. Earlier research has detected important drivers of the change in plant functional traits under warming climate, but studies on one key factor, snow cover, are almost totally lacking. Here we integrate plot-scale vegetation data with detailed climate and snow information using machine learning methods to model the responsiveness of tundra communities to different scenarios of warming and snow cover duration. Our results show that decreasing snow cover, together with warming temperatures, can substantially modify biotic communities and their trait compositions, with future plant communities projected to be occupied by taller plants with larger leaves and faster resource acquisition strategies. As another finding, we show that, while the local functional diversity may increase, simultaneous biotic homogenization across tundra communities is likely to occur. The manifestation of climate warming on tundra vegetation is highly dependent on the evolution of snow conditions. Given this, realistic assessments of future ecosystem functioning require acknowledging the role of snow in tundra vegetation models.
  • Moilanen, Jarmo; Gritsevich, Maria; Lyytinen, Esko (2021)
    When an object enters the atmosphere it may be detected as a meteor. A bright meteor, called a fireball, may be a sign of a meteorite fall. Instrumentally observed meteorite falls provide unique opportunities to recover and analyse unweathered planetary samples supplemented with the knowledge on the Solar system orbit they had. To recover a meteorite from a fireball event, it is essential that recovery teams can be directed to a well-defined search area. Until recently, simulations showing the realistic mapping of a strewn field were difficult, in particular due to the large number of unknowns not directly retrieved from the fireball observations. These unknowns include the number of fragments and their aerodynamic properties, for which the masses of the fragments need to be assumed in a traditional approach. Here, we describe a new Monte Carlo model, which has already successfully assisted in several meteorite recoveries. The model is the first of its kind as it provides an adequate representation of the processes occurring during the luminous trajectory coupled together with the dark flight. In particular, the model comprises a novel approach to fragmentation modelling that leads to a realistic fragment mass distribution on the ground. We present strewn field simulations for the well-documented Kosice and Neuschwanstein meteorite falls, which demonstrate good matches to the observations. We foresee that our model can be used to revise the flux of extra-terrestrial matter onto the Earth, as it provides a possibility of estimating the terminal mass of meteorite fragments reaching the ground.
  • Silber, Elizabeth A.; Hocking, Wayne K.; Niculescu, Mihai L.; Gritsevich, Maria; Silber, Reynold E. (2017)
    Studies of meteor trails have until now been limited to relatively simple models, with the trail often being treated as a conducting cylinder, and the head (if considered at all) treated as a ball of ionized gas. In this article, we bring the experience gleaned from other fields to the domain of meteor studies, and adapt this prior knowledge to give a much clearer view of the microscale physics and chemistry involved in meteor-trail formation, with particular emphasis on the first 100 or so milliseconds of the trail formation. We discuss and examine the combined physicochemical effects of meteor-generated and ablationally amplified cylindrical shock waves that appear in the ambient atmosphere immediately surrounding the meteor train, as well as the associated hyperthermal chemistry on the boundaries of the high temperature post-adiabatically expanding meteor train. We demonstrate that the cylindrical shock waves produced by overdense meteors are sufficiently strong to dissociate molecules in the ambient atmosphere when it is heated to temperatures in the vicinity of 6000 K, which substantially alters the considerations of the chemical processes in and around the meteor train. We demonstrate that some ambient O-2, along with O-2 that comes from the shock dissociation of O-3, survives the passage of the cylindrical shock wave, and these constituents react thermally with meteor metal ions, thereby subsequently removing electrons from the overdense meteor train boundary through fast, temperature-independent, dissociative recombination governed by the second Damkohler number. Possible implications for trail diffusion and lifetimes are discussed.
  • Moreno-Ibanez, Manuel; Gritsevich, Maria; Trigo-Rodriguez, Josep M.; Silber, Elizabeth A. (2020)
    Meteoroids impacting the Earth atmosphere are commonly classified using the PE criterion. This criterion was introduced to support the identification of the fireball type by empirically linking its orbital origin and composition characteristics. Additionally, it is used as an indicator of the meteoroid tensile strength and its ability to penetrate the atmosphere. However, the level of classification accuracy of the PE criterion depends on the ability to constrain the value of the input data, retrieved from the fireball observation, required to derive the PE value. To overcome these uncertainties and achieve a greater classification detail, we propose a new formulation using scaling laws and dimensionless variables that groups all the input variables into two parameters that are directly obtained from the fireball observations. These two parameters, alpha and beta, represent the drag and the mass-loss rates along the luminous part of the trajectory, respectively, and are linked to the shape, strength, ablation efficiency, mineralogical nature of the projectile, and duration of the fireball. Thus, the new formulation relies on a physical basis. This work shows the mathematical equivalence between the PE criterion and the logarithm of 2 alpha beta under the same PE criterion assumptions. We demonstrate that log(2 alpha beta) offers a more general formulation that does not require any preliminary constraint on the meteor flight scenario and discuss the suitability of the new formulation for expanding the classification beyond fully disintegrating fireballs to larger impactors including meteorite-dropping fireballs. The reliability of the new formulation is validated using the Prairie Network meteor observations.
  • Kruglyakov, Mikhail; Kuvshinov, Alexey; Marshalko, Elena (American Geophysical Union, 2022)
    Space weather: the international journal of research and applications
    We present a methodology that allows researchers to simulate in real time the spatiotemporal dynamics of the ground electric field (GEF) in a given 3-D conductivity model of the Earth based on continuously augmented data on the spatiotemporal evolution of the inducing source. The formalism relies on the factorization of the source by spatial modes (SM) and time series of respective expansion coefficients and exploits precomputed GEF kernels generated by corresponding SM. To validate the formalism, we invoke a high-resolution 3-D conductivity model of Fennoscandia and consider a realistic source built using the Spherical Elementary Current Systems (SECS) method as applied to magnetic field data from the International Monitor for Auroral Geomagnetic Effect network of observations. The factorization of the SECS-recovered source is then performed using the principal component analysis. Eventually, we show that the GEF computation at a given time instant on a 512 × 512 grid requires less than 0.025 s provided that GEF kernels due to pre-selected SM are computed in advance. Taking the 7–8 September 2017 geomagnetic storm as a space weather event, we show that real-time high-resolution 3-D modeling of the GEF is feasible. This opens a practical opportunity for GEF (and eventually geomagnetically induced currents) nowcasting and forecasting.
  • Granvik, Mikael; Vaubaillon, Jeremie; Jedicke, Robert (2012)