Browsing by Subject "East Africa"

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  • Myllylä, Anna-Leena (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Pro gradu -tutkielmani tarkastelee Itä-Afrikasta Suomeen muuttaneiden naisten käsityksiä seksuaalisuudesta. Kehitysyhteistyön ja suomalaisen valtavirtafeminismin viitekehyksissä afrikkalaisten naisten seksuaalisuus näyttäytyy ongelmakeskeisenä ja suomalainen tasa-arvo voimauttavana. Tutkielmani keskittyy selvittämään sitä, kuinka Suomessa asuvien itäafrikkalaisten naisten käyttämät diskurssit tukevat tai haastavat näitä hallitsevia diskursseja ja pohtimaan, kuinka naisten käsitykset seksuaalisuudesta suhteutuvat voimaantumisen käsitteeseen. Tutkielma sijoittuu jälkistrukturalistisen tutkimusperinteen kenttään. Seksuaalisuus teorisoidaan sosiaalisesti rakentuneeksi ja valtasuhteiden muokkaamaksi. Eri diskursseja asetetaan kontekstiin jälkikolonialistista feminististä teoriaa hyödyntäen. Tutkielman aineisto koostuu neljästä puolistrukturoidusta haastattelusta, joihin osallistui yhteensä yhdeksän Tansaniasta, Keniasta tai Ugandasta Suomeen aikuisiällä muuttanutta naista. Lisäksi työssä on hyödynnetty haastatteluprosessin aikana tehtyjä muistiinpanoja. Haastattelumateriaalin analyysissä käytettiin Norman Faircloughin kehittämää kriittistä diskurssianalyysiä, jonka mukaisesti keskusteluja tarkasteltiin tekstin tasolla, tekstin tuottamista määrittävien diskurssikäytäntöjen tasolla ja osana laajempaa sosiokulttuurista kontekstia. Naisten keskusteluissa seksuaalisuus rakentuu moninaiseksi. Haastattelumateriaali osoittaa kuinka naiset vastustavat patriarkaalisia rakenteita. Tätä tehdään kyseenalaistamalla patriarkaalisia moraalikäytäntöjä, rakentamalla erilaisin keinoin kuvaa aktiivisesta feminiinisestä seksuaalisuudesta sekä vastustamalla kuvaa naisesta, jonka velvollisuus on pyyteettömästi palvella miestään. Keskusteluissa rakentuu myös kuva suomalaisista, jotka eksotisoivat afrikkalaisia naisia. Tutkimuksen tekemisen aikana kävi ilmi, että useat afrikkalaiset maahanmuuttajat tunnistavat afrikkalaisiin seksuaalisuuksiin liittyviä negatiivisia ja rasistisia stereotypioita. Materiaali osoittaa, että ei voida puhua yhdestä itäafrikkalaisesta lähestymistavasta seksuaalisuuteen ja itäafrikkalaisilla naisilla on resursseja vastustaa patriarkaalisia rakenteita ja käytäntöjä tavoilla, jotka haastavat Suomessa hallitsevassa asemassa olevia diskursseja. Naisten keskusteluissa esiintyvä vastarinta eroaa monelta osin suomalaisen valtavirtafeminismin ja kehitysyhteistyön puitteissa rakentuvasta vastarinnankäsityksestä. Näin ollen keskustelu osoittaa myös näihin hallitseviin diskursseihin piiloutuvan kolonialismin perinnön ja moralismin. Naisten diskurssit haastavat kuvaa ’maahanmuuttajanaisesta’ ja osoittavat erilaisia vastarinnan ja voimaantumisen mahdollisuuksia naisten omista lähtökohdista käsin.
  • De Keyzer, Els L. R.; De Corte, Zoe; Van Steenberge, Maarten; Raeymaekers, Joost A. M.; Calboli, Federico C. F.; Kmentova, Nikol; Mulimbwa, Theophile N'Sibula; Virgilio, Massimiliano; Vangestel, Carl; Mulungula, Pascal Masilya; Volckaert, Filip A. M.; Vanhove, Maarten P. M. (2019)
    BackgroundClupeid fisheries in Lake Tanganyika (East Africa) provide food for millions of people in one of the world's poorest regions. Due to climate change and overfishing, the clupeid stocks of Lake Tanganyika are declining. We investigate the population structure of the Lake Tanganyika sprat Stolothrissa tanganicae, using for the first time a genomic approach on this species. This is an important step towards knowing if the species should be managed separately or as a single stock. Population structure is important for fisheries management, yet understudied for many African freshwater species. We hypothesize that distinct stocks of S. tanganicae could be present due to the large size of the lake (isolation by distance), limnological variation (adaptive evolution), or past separation of the lake (historical subdivision). On the other hand, high mobility of the species and lack of obvious migration barriers might have resulted in a homogenous population.ResultsWe performed a population genetic study on wild-caught S. tanganicae through a combination of mitochondrial genotyping (96 individuals) and RAD sequencing (83 individuals). Samples were collected at five locations along a north-south axis of Lake Tanganyika. The mtDNA data had low global FST and, visualised in a haplotype network, did not show phylogeographic structure. RAD sequencing yielded a panel of 3504 SNPs, with low genetic differentiation (F-ST=0.0054; 95% CI: 0.0046-0.0066). PCoA, fineRADstructure and global F-ST suggest a near-panmictic population. Two distinct groups are apparent in these analyses (F-ST=0.1338 95% CI: 0.1239,0.1445), which do not correspond to sampling locations. Autocorrelation analysis showed a slight increase in genetic difference with increasing distance. No outlier loci were detected in the RADseq data.ConclusionOur results show at most very weak geographical structuring of the stock and do not provide evidence for genetic adaptation to historical or environmental differences over a north-south axis. Based on these results, we advise to manage the stock as one population, integrating one management strategy over the four riparian countries. These results are a first comprehensive study on the population structure of these important fisheries target species, and can guide fisheries management.
  • De Keyzer, Els L R; De Corte, Zoë; Van Steenberge, Maarten; Raeymaekers, Joost A M; Calboli, Federico C F; Kmentová, Nikol; N’Sibula Mulimbwa, Théophile; Virgilio, Massimiliano; Vangestel, Carl; Mulungula, Pascal M; Volckaert, Filip A M; Vanhove, Maarten P M (BioMed Central, 2019)
    Abstract Background Clupeid fisheries in Lake Tanganyika (East Africa) provide food for millions of people in one of the world’s poorest regions. Due to climate change and overfishing, the clupeid stocks of Lake Tanganyika are declining. We investigate the population structure of the Lake Tanganyika sprat Stolothrissa tanganicae, using for the first time a genomic approach on this species. This is an important step towards knowing if the species should be managed separately or as a single stock. Population structure is important for fisheries management, yet understudied for many African freshwater species. We hypothesize that distinct stocks of S. tanganicae could be present due to the large size of the lake (isolation by distance), limnological variation (adaptive evolution), or past separation of the lake (historical subdivision). On the other hand, high mobility of the species and lack of obvious migration barriers might have resulted in a homogenous population. Results We performed a population genetic study on wild-caught S. tanganicae through a combination of mitochondrial genotyping (96 individuals) and RAD sequencing (83 individuals). Samples were collected at five locations along a north-south axis of Lake Tanganyika. The mtDNA data had low global FST and, visualised in a haplotype network, did not show phylogeographic structure. RAD sequencing yielded a panel of 3504 SNPs, with low genetic differentiation (FST = 0.0054; 95% CI: 0.0046–0.0066). PCoA, fineRADstructure and global FST suggest a near-panmictic population. Two distinct groups are apparent in these analyses (FST = 0.1338 95% CI: 0.1239,0.1445), which do not correspond to sampling locations. Autocorrelation analysis showed a slight increase in genetic difference with increasing distance. No outlier loci were detected in the RADseq data. Conclusion Our results show at most very weak geographical structuring of the stock and do not provide evidence for genetic adaptation to historical or environmental differences over a north-south axis. Based on these results, we advise to manage the stock as one population, integrating one management strategy over the four riparian countries. These results are a first comprehensive study on the population structure of these important fisheries target species, and can guide fisheries management.
  • Evokari, Auri (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    While the economy in Finland is stagnating, the growing economy of Kenya creates much needed export opportunities for Finnish companies. However, only a few have dared to enter this market. This thesis explores this issue from a cultural point of view – how do Finnish people conducting business in Kenya experience the business culture in Kenya, the markets and the future of them? By specifically focusing on Kenya and Finland, this thesis examines the results of the extensive culture research done by Geert Hofstede. We discover that East African countries are culturally a lot closer to Finland than some of Finland’s most important trade partners such as Russia or China. The relevance of this research is discussed in mind of the development in wealth, technological strides and the generational change under way especially in Sub Saharan Africa. In this qualitative research we gain the understanding of how Finnish business representatives experience the Cultural Dimensions of Power Distance and Individualism in Kenya, what kind of opportunities they recognize and what challenges they have encountered. The findings show that the high power distance and collectivist business culture in Kenya is still evident, but does not pose serious threats to operating in Kenya. The experiences and views of the business culture and markets in Kenya are generally very positive. The challenges encountered are of practical nature, with corruption being the biggest issue. When comparing to other countries, Kenya is viewed as an easy culture to adopt into and the markets are deemed more favorable there than in many other countries. Advice regarding the attitude of Finnish company representatives and ways on how to make market entries are shared. Governmental actions and the way media is displaying Africa are criticized by the interviewees.
  • Pfeifer, Marion; Gonsamo, Alemu; Disney, Mathias; Pellikka, Petri; Marchant, Rob (2012)
  • Koskikala, Joni; Kukkonen, Markus; Käyhkö, Niina (2020)
    Global terrestrial biodiversity hotspots (GBH) represent areas featuring exceptional concentrations of endemism and habitat loss in the world. Unfortunately, geospatial data of natural habitats of the GBHs are often outdated, imprecise, and coarse, and need updating for improved management and protection actions. Recent developments in satellite image availability, combined with enhanced machine learning algorithms and computing capacity, enable cost-efficient updating of geospatial information of these already severely fragmented habitats. This study aimed to develop a more accurate method for mapping closed canopy evergreen natural forest (CCEF) of the Eastern Arc Mountains (EAM) ecoregion in Tanzania and Kenya, and to update the knowledge on its spatial extent, level of fragmentation, and conservation status. We tested 1023 model possibilities stemming from a combination of Sentinel-1 (S1) and Sentinel-2 (S2) satellite imagery, spatial texture of S1 and S2, seasonality derived from Landsat-8 time series, and topographic information, using random forest modelling approach. We compared the best CCEF model with existing spatial forest products from the EAM through independent accuracy assessment. Finally, the CCEF model was used to estimate the fragmentation and conservation coverage of the EAM. The CCEF model has moderate accuracy measured in True Skill Statistic (0.57), and it clearly outperforms other similar products from the region. Based on this model, there are about 296,000 ha of Eastern Arc Forests (EAF) left. Furthermore, acknowledging small forest fragments (1-10 ha) implies that the EAFs are more fragmented than previously considered. Currently, the official protection of EAFs is disproportionally targeting well-studied mountain blocks, while less known areas and small fragments are underrepresented in the protected area network. Thus, the generated CCEF model should be used to design updates and more informed and detailed conservation allocation plans to balance this situation. The results highlight that spatial texture of S2, seasonality, and topography are the most important variables describing the EAFs, while spatial texture of S1 increases the model performance slightly. All in all, our work demonstrates that recent developments in Earth observation allows significant enhancements in mapping, which should be utilized in areas with outstanding biodiversity values for better forest and conservation planning.
  • Lopez-Baucells, Adria; Rocha, Ricardo; Andriatafika, Zo; Tojosoa, Tafita; Kemp, James; Forbes, Kristian M.; Cabeza, Mar (2017)
    Humanised landscapes are causing population declines and even extinctions of wildlife, whereas a limited number of species are adapting to the new niches and resources within these modified habitats. Synanthropy is widespread among many vertebrates and often causes co-habitation conflicts between humans and wildlife species. Bats often roost in anthropogenic structures, and especially in the tropics, mitigation of human-bat conflicts arising from co-habitation is hampered by a paucity of research focusing on roost preferences. We assessed roost selection by bats in villages around Ranomafana National Park, eastern Madagascar. Ten villages were surveyed, with bats occupying 21 of the 180 evaluated buildings. Of those, 17 were public buildings harbouring large molossid colonies. Although beneficial ecosystem services provided by bats are well-known, several cases of colony eviction were noted, mostly due to unwanted co-habitation. Bat preference was driven by the type of building, its height and a lack of fire use by the inhabitants. Colonies were mainly found under metal sheets within large empty chambers, whereas only isolated bats were detected in the roofs of traditional cabins. Temperatures up to 50 degrees C were recorded inside a roost, representing one of the highest temperatures recorded for an African maternity roost. Molossidae bats appear to have found a suitable alternative to their native roosts in hollow, old and tall trees in pristine forests, which are becoming rare in Madagascar. This suggests that human-bat interactions in Madagascar will likely increase alongside rural development and the loss of primary forest habitats. Shifting to modern construction methods while combining traditional techniques with proper roof sealing could prevent the establishment of bat colonies in undesired locations, whereas co-habitation conflicts could alternatively be minimised by reducing direct interaction with humans. In light of our results, we urge caution with bat evictions, and greater attention when introducing modern building practices, often supported by foreign initiatives, to poor rural communities in developing countries.
  • Liu, Yang; Tang, Zhipeng; Abera, Temesgen; Zhang, Xuezhen; Hakola, Hannele; Pellikka, Petri; Maeda, Eduardo (2020)
    Understanding the local sources of atmospheric formaldehyde (HCHO) is a key step in accurately determining the inversion of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). This study aims to clarify the main sources and emission patterns of local total HCHO column densities over Ethiopia and Kenya. Between 2005 and 2015, the total monthly HCHO varied from 3.7 x 10(15) molecules/cm(2) to 7.7 x 10(15) molecules/cm(2). Monthly HCHO showed a strong seasonal pattern with annual peaks on March, July (small peak) and October, which well matched with the rainy seasons in Ethiopia and Kenya. Natural sources contributed 36% to the total HCHO in the study area. Grassland and savannas showed high column densities in the long rainy season starting from March, with the monthly average emission value of 5.6 x 10(15) molecules/cm(2). Multiple regression result showed that vegetation contributed 3.5 x 10(13) molecules/cm(2) to monthly HCHO, with grassland and forest in eastern Kenya and the boundary of Ethiopia and Kenya were the main contributors in these regions. Biomass burning and methane contributed to HCHO emission in the western and northern Ethiopia with a magnitude of 1.4 x 10(14) molecules/cm(2) and 6.2 x 10(16) molecules/cm(2) per month, respectively. Economic activities showed negative response to HCHO columns, except over the two small-scale regions of Addis Ababa City and Nairobi City. This study quantified the HCHO from various sources and suggested that natural sources produce more HCHO than anthropogenic sources over Ethiopia and Kenya.