Browsing by Subject "Eating behavior"

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  • Aulbach, Matthias Burkard; Knittle, Keegan; van Beurden, Samantha Barbara; Haukkala, Ari; Lawrence, Natalia S. (2021)
    Food Go/No-Go training aims to alter implicit food biases by creating associations between perceiving unhealthy foods and withholding a dominant response. Asking participants to repeatedly inhibit an impulse to approach unhealthy foods can decrease unhealthy food intake in laboratory settings. Less is known about how people engage with app-based Go/No-Go training in real-world settings and how this might relate to dietary outcomes. This pragmatic observational study investigated associations between the number of completed app-based food Go/No-Go training trials and changes in food intake (Food Frequency Questionnaire; FFQ) for different healthy and unhealthy food categories from baseline to one-month follow-up. In total, 1234 participants (m(BMI) = 29 kg/ m2, m(age) = 43years, 69% female) downloaded the FoodT app and completed food-Go/No-Go training at their own discretion (mean number of completed sessions = 10.7, sd = 10.3, range: 1-122). In pre-registered analyses, random-intercept linear models predicting intake of different foods, and controlled for baseline consumption, BMI, age, sex, smoking, metabolic syndrome, and dieting status, revealed small, significant associations between the number of completed training trials and reductions in unhealthy food intake (b = -0.0005, CI95 = [-0.0007;0.0003]) and increases in healthy food intake (b = 0.0003, CI95 = [0.0000; 0.0006]). These relationships varied by food category, and exploratory analyses suggest that more temporally spaced training was associated with greater changes in dietary intake. Taken together, these results imply a positive association between the amount of training completed and beneficial changes in food intake. However, the results of this pragmatic study should be interpreted cautiously, as self-selection biases, motivation and other engagement-related factors that could underlie these associations were not accounted for. Experimental research is needed to rule out these possible confounds and establish causal dose-response relationships between patterns of engagement with food Go/No-Go training and changes in dietary intake.
  • Mustelin, Linda; Kaprio, Jaakko; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna (2018)
    Objective: Binge eating disorder (BED) is a clinical eating disorder that is strongly and bidirectionally related to overweight and obesity. Little is known about how subclinical features of BED relate to weight development in adolescence and young adulthood. Method: Women (n=2825) and men (n=2423) from the community-based longitudinal FinnTwin16 cohort participated. Seven eating-related cognitions and behaviors similar to the defining features of BED were extracted from the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 and were assessed at a mean age of 24. We used linear mixed models to assess the association of features of BED with BMI trajectories across four waves of data collection (mean ages 16, 17, 18, and 24). Results: The number of features of BED at wave 4 (age 24) was significantly associated with BMI from age 16 years onwards. Those reporting more features of BED had gained more weight throughout adolescence and into their twenties. Conclusions: Features of BED in young adulthood were preceded by steeper BMI trajectories in adolescence. A higher number of features were consistently associated with higher BMI and more weight gain.
  • Jarvela-Reijonen, Elina; Karhunen, Leila; Sairanen, Essi; Rantala, Sanni; Laitinen, Jaana; Puttonen, Sampsa; Peuhkuri, Katri; Hallikainen, Maarit; Juvonen, Kristiina; Myllymaki, Tero; Fohr, Tiina; Pihlajamaki, Jussi; Korpela, Riitta; Ermes, Miikka; Lappalainen, Raimo; Kolehmainen, Marjukka (2016)
    Stress-related eating may be a potential factor in the obesity epidemic. Rather little is known about how stress associates with eating behavior and food intake in overweight individuals in a free-living situation. Thus, the present study aims to investigate this question in psychologically distressed overweight and obese working-aged Finns. The study is a cross-sectional baseline analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Of the 339 study participants, those with all the needed data available (n = 297, 84% females) were included. The mean age was 48.9 y (SD = 7.6) and mean body mass index 31.3 kg/m(2) (SD = 3.0). Perceived stress and eating behavior were assessed by self-reported questionnaires Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Intuitive Eating Scale, the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, Health and Taste Attitude Scales and ecSatter Inventory. Diet and alcohol consumption were assessed by 48-h dietary recall, Index of Diet Quality, and AUDIT-C. Individuals reporting most perceived stress (i.e. in the highest PSS tertile) had less intuitive eating, more uncontrolled eating, and more emotional eating compared to those reporting less perceived stress (p <0.05). Moreover, individuals in the highest PSS tertile reported less cognitive restraint and less eating competence than those in the lowest tertile (p <0.05). Intake of whole grain products was the lowest among those in the highest PSS tertile (p <0.05). Otherwise the quality of diet and alcohol consumption did not differ among the PSS tertiles. In conclusion, high perceived stress was associated with the features of eating behavior that could in turn contribute to difficulties in weight management. Stress-related way of eating could thus form a potential risk factor for obesity. More research is needed to develop efficient methods for clinicians to assist in handling stress-related eating in the treatment of obese people. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Silventoinen, Karri; Konttinen, Hanna (2020)
    Obesity has dramatically increased during the last decades and is currently one of the most serious global health problems. We present a hypothesis that obesity is a neuro-behavioral disease having a strong genetic background mediated largely by eating behavior and is sensitive to the macro-environment; we study this hypothesis from the perspective of genetic research. Genetic family and genome-wide-association studies have shown well that body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)) is a highly heritable and polygenic trait. New genetic variation of BMI emerges after early childhood. Candidate genes of BMI notably express in brain tissue, supporting that this new variation is related to behavior. Obesogenic environments at both childhood family and societal levels reinforce the genetic susceptibility to obesity. Genetic factors have a clear influence on macro-nutrient intake and appetite-related eating behavior traits. Results on the gene-by-diet interactions in obesity are mixed, but emerging evidence suggests that eating behavior traits partly mediate the effect of genes on BMI. However, more rigorous prospective study designs controlling for measurement bias are still needed.
  • Mustelin, Linda; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna (2017)
    Binge eating disorder (BED) is associated with high levels of obesity and psychological suffering, but little is known about 1) the distribution of features of BED in the general population and 2) their consequences for weight development and psychological distress in young adulthood. We investigated the prevalence of features of BED and their association with body mass index (BMI) and psychological distress among men (n = 2423) and women (n = 2825) from the longitudinal community-based FinnTwin16 cohort (born 1975-1979). Seven eating-related cognitions and behaviors similar to the defining features of BED were extracted from the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 and were assessed at a mean age of 24. BMI and psychological distress, measured with the General Health Questionnaire, were assessed at ages 24 and 34. We assessed prevalence of the features and their association with BMI and psychological distress cross-sectionally and prospectively. More than half of our participants reported at least one feature of BED; clustering of several features in one individual was less common, particularly among men. The most frequently reported feature was 'stuffing oneself with food', whereas the least common was 'eating or drinking in secrecy'. All individual features of BED and their clustering particularly were associated with higher BMI and more psychological distress cross-sectionally. Prospectively, the clustering of features of BED predicted increase in psychological distress but not additional weight gain when baseline BMI was accounted for. In summary, although some features of BED were common, the clustering of several features in one individual was not. The features were cumulatively associated with BMI and psychological distress and predicted further increase in psychological distress over ten years of follow-up. (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier Ltd.