Browsing by Subject "Echinococcus multilocularis"

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  • Malkamäki, S.; Näreaho, A.; Lavikainen, A.; Oksanen, A.; Sukura, A. (2019)
    Berries and vegetables are potential transmission vehicles for eggs of pathogenic parasites, such as Echinococcus spp. We developed a SYBR Green based semi-quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) method for detection of Echinococcus multilocularis and Echinococcus canadensis DNA from berry samples. A set of primers based on the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) gene was designed and evaluated. To assess the efficacy of the assay, we spiked bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus) with a known amount of E. multilocularis eggs. The detection limit for the assay using the NAD1_88 primer set was 4.37 × 10−5 ng/μl of E. multilocularis DNA. Under artificial contamination of berries, 50 E. multilocularis eggs were reliably detected in 250 g of bilberries. Analytical sensitivity of the assay was determined to be 100% with three eggs. As an application of the assay, 21 bilberry samples from Finnish market places and 21 bilberry samples from Estonia were examined. Previously described sieving and DNA extraction methods were used, and the samples were analyzed for E. multilocularis and E. canadensis DNA using semi-quantitative real-time PCR and a melting curve analysis of the amplified products. Echinococcus DNA was not detected in any of the commercial berry samples. This easy and fast method can be used for an efficient detection of E. multilocularis and E. canadensis in bilberries or other berries, and it is applicable also for fruits and vegetables. © 2019 The Authors
  • Marcinkute, Audrone; Sarkunas, Mindaugas; Moks, Epp; Saarma, Urmas; Jokelainen, Pikka; Bagrade, Guna; Laivacuma, Sniedze; Strupas, Kestutis; Sokolovas, Vitalijus; Deplazes, Peter (2015)
    In the Baltic countries, the two zoonotic diseases, alveolar echinococcosis (AE) caused by Echinococcus multilocularis, and cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by Echinococcus granulosus, are of increasing public health concern. Observations from Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania indicate that the distribution of both parasites is wider in the Baltics than previously expected. In this paper, we review and discuss the available data, regarding both parasitoses in animals and humans, from the Baltic countries and selected adjacent regions. The data are not easily comparable but reveal a worrisome situation as the number of human AE and CE cases is increasing. Despite improvements in diagnostics and treatment, AE has a high morbidity and mortality in the Baltic region. For the control of both zoonoses, monitoring transmission patterns and timely diagnosis in humans as well as the development of local control programs present major challenges. (C) 2015 Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Oksanen, A.; Siles-Lucas, M.; Karamon, J.; Possenti, A.; Conraths, F.J.; Romig, T.; Wysocki, P.; Mannocci, A.; Mipatrini, D.; La Torre, G.; Boufana, B.; Casulli, A. (2016)
    Background This study aimed to provide a systematic review on the geographical distribution of Echinococcus multilocularis in definitive and intermediate hosts in the European Union (EU) and adjacent countries (AC). The relative importance of the different host species in the life-cycle of this parasite was highlighted and gaps in our knowledge regarding these hosts were identified. Methods Six databases were searched for primary research studies published from 1900 to 2015. From a total of 2,805 identified scientific papers, 244 publications were used for meta-analyses. Results Studies in 21 countries reported the presence of E. multilocularis in red foxes, with the following pooled prevalence (PP): low (≤ 1 %; Denmark, Slovenia and Sweden); medium (> 1 % to < 10 %; Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Romania and the Ukraine); and high (> 10 %; Czech Republic, Estonia, France, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia, Liechtenstein and Switzerland). Studies from Finland, Ireland, the United Kingdom and Norway reported the absence of E. multilocularis in red foxes. However, E. multilocularis was detected in Arctic foxes from the Arctic Archipelago of Svalbard in Norway. Conclusions Raccoon dogs (PP 2.2 %), golden jackals (PP 4.7 %) and wolves (PP 1.4 %) showed a higher E. multilocularis PP than dogs (PP 0.3 %) and cats (PP 0.5 %). High E. multilocularis PP in raccoon dogs and golden jackals correlated with high PP in foxes. For intermediate hosts (IHs), muskrats (PP 4.2 %) and arvicolids (PP 6.0 %) showed similar E. multilocularis PP as sylvatic definitive hosts (DHs), excluding foxes. Nutrias (PP 1.0 %) and murids (PP 1.1 %) could play a role in the life-cycle of E. multilocularis in areas with medium to high PP in red foxes. In areas with low PP in foxes, no other DH was found infected with E. multilocularis. When fox E. multilocularis PP was >3 %, raccoon dogs and golden jackals could play a similar role as foxes. In areas with high E. multilocularis fox PP, the wolf emerged as a potentially important DH. Dogs and cats could be irrelevant in the life-cycle of the parasite in Europe, although dogs could be important for parasite introduction into non-endemic areas. Muskrats and arvicolids are important IHs. Swine, insectivores, murids and nutrias seem to play a minor or no role in the life-cycle of the parasite within the EU and ACs.
  • Rossow, Heidi; Joutsen, Suvi; Tuominen, Pirkko (Ruokavirasto, 2019)
    Ruokaviraston tutkimuksia 2/2019
    Koiran hankinta ulkomailta on yhä suositumpaa. Tuontimäärien kasvaessa on herännyt myös kysymys koirien mahdollisesti kantamista taudinaiheuttajista. Tässä riskinarvioinnissa kartoitetaan, aiheuttaako koirien tuominen Suomeen tautiriskiä ihmisille tai eläimille Suomessa. Tutkimuksessa on arvioitu erityisesti rabieksen ja myyräekinokokin maahantulon ja maassa leviämisen riskiä tuontikoirien kautta. Projektia varten tehtiin tutkimus, jossa maahan tulevista koirista otettiin laboratorionäytteitä. Näytteistä tutkittiin koirien rabiesrokotevasta-ainetasot, Brucella canis, Echinococcus multilocularis (myyräekinokokki) sekä ESBL:n ja MRSA:n kantajuus. Lisäksi koirien näytteitä on tutkittu seuraavien loisten varalta: Dirofilaria immitis, Dirofilaria repens ja Leishmania infantum (leishmanioosi). Tuontikoirista otetuista näytteistä saatujen tietojen ja julkaistun tieteellisen tutkimuksen lisäksi perustamme arviomme asiantuntijahaastatteluihin. Tutkimuksessa todettiin puutteita koirien rabiesrokotevasta-ainetasoissa. Lisäksi ESBL-kantajuus oli yleistä tietyistä maista tuoduilla koirilla. Koiran alkuperämaa ja olosuhteet, joista koira on lähtöisin, vaikuttavat tautiriskiin.