Browsing by Subject "Economy"

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  • Oksanen, Eljas (Leuven university press, 2020)
    This study examines how contemporary concerns and opinions on the increasing use of paid soldiers in late twelfth-century theatres of war impacted on class identity formation, and approaches the question of chivalry and knightly identity from a decidedly unchivalrous perspective. Rather than directly investigating the chivalrous knight, I will examine the social and cultural spaces around him, for these excluded regions were just as crucial in defining knightly identity. The focus will be on the image of the mercenary and the paid soldier from the end of the eleventh century to the beginning of the thirteenth in the Anglo-Norman world and its environs, and how its development helped to define the social and military identity of Anglo-Norman knighthood.
  • Cardoso, Pedro; Amponsah-Mensah, Kofi; Barreiros, João P.; Bouhuys, Jamie; Cheung, Hubert; Davies, Alisa; Kumschick, Sabrina; Longhorn, Stuart J.; Martínez-Muñoz, Carlos A.; Morcatty, Thais Q.; Peters, Gretchen; Ripple, William J.; Rivera-Téllez, Emmanuel; Stringham, Oliver C.; Toomes, Adam; Tricorache, Patricia; Fukushima, Caroline S. (2021)
    Illegal or unsustainable wildlife trade is growing at a global level, threatening the traded species and coexisting biota, and promoting the spread of invasive species. From the loss of ecosystem services to diseases transmitted from wildlife to humans, or connections with major organized crime networks and disruption of local to global economies, its ramifications are pervading our daily lives and perniciously affecting our well-being. Here we build on the manifesto 'World Scientists' Warning to Humanity, issued by the Alliance of World Scientists. As a group of researchers deeply concerned about the consequences of illegal or unsustainable wildlife trade, we review and highlight how these can negatively impact species, ecosystems, and society. We appeal for urgent action to close key knowledge gaps and regulate wildlife trade more stringently.
  • Jungell-Michelsson, Jessica; Heikkurinen, Pasi (2022)
    The making of sustainable economies calls for sufficiency in production and consumption. The discussion, however, lacks a shared understanding on what it means to operationalize sufficiency. In this article, we review and analyze the concept of sufficiency with a focus on its linkages to different economic scales (with a focus on micro- and macroeconomics) and economic actors (particularly consumers and producers). Altogether 307 articles were screened, resulting in a final data set of 94 peer-reviewed articles. In addition to the core assumption of ‘enoughness’, we found three premises describing the concept: (1) complementarity of capitals, (2) social metabolism, and (3) altruism. In the reviewed literature, sufficiency is understood as both an end in itself and a means for bringing consumption and production within ecological limits. By conducting the first systematic literature review on sufficiency, the study explicates a more integrated understanding of sufficiency and highlights the need to treat sufficiency across economic scales and actors. In future research, empirical work should be emphasized to grasp the contextual varieties in the operationalization of sufficiency.
  • Hyytiä, K Annika (International Association for Economics and Management in Wood Processing and Furniture Manufacturing - WoodEMA & University of Ljubljana, 2021)
    Policies with sustainable development approach provide new opportunities in the forest sector. Several international and national policies are involved with sustainable development of natural resources of forests. Bioeconomy includes ecosystem services and promotes value chain based on forest ecosystem services. The European Green Deal is a current new policy. The Corporate Social Responsibility, CSR, can also be seen in the EU FLEGT policy. Bio-based solutions are important also for the future. Sustainable policies are well recognized in the strive for sustainable development and they have a link to trade, competitiveness, markets and economy. Enhanced innovation constitutes in an important role there. This is a qualitative research based on academic research databases and policy literature.
  • Palmroth, M.; Tapio, J.; Soucek, A.; Perrels, A.; Jah, M.; Lönnqvist, M.; Nikulainen, M.; Piaulokaite, V.; Seppälä, T.; Virtanen, J. (2021)
    During the last few years, the amount of space debris has been frequently mentioned as a potential risk to current and future space operations. The purpose of this article was to describe the discussions held at the First Sustainable Space Economy Workshop held in Finland 2019. The workshop gathered together experts with economic, legal, regulatory, technological, and environmental backgrounds, with an aim of discussing the sustainable use of space from all these perspectives. As an outcome of these discussions, we find that two concepts, satellite sustainability footprint and orbital capacity, should be introduced at an international level. The satellite sustainability footprint measures how likely the satellite stays healthy and operating, without causing risks to self or others. The orbit capacity is essentially an integral of the footprint over an orbit, and it determines how many satellites of different footprints could be launched to the same orbit. In addition, in this article, we discuss how to realize such concepts within the current normative framework. The authors suggest both top-down and bottom-up approaches, necessitating negotiations within an intergovernmental framework and with the relevant space actors. The most important finding of the workshop and this article, however, is that different space-related fields and experts having diverse backgrounds should continuously discuss in a constructive and informal manner to realize the sustainable utilization of space in practice. (c) 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (
  • Nazarenko, Salla; Aitamurto, Kaarina; Heusala, Anna-Liisa; Korhonen, Vesa; Koski, Sanni; Laine, Veera; Lassila, Jussi; Mitikka, Eemil Johannes (Puolustusministeriö, 2019)