Browsing by Subject "Ecosystem services"

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  • Jacobs, Sander; Dendoncker, Nicolas; Martin-Lopez, Berta; Barton, David Nicholas; Gomez-Baggethun, Erik; Boeraeve, Fanny; McGrath, Francesca L.; Vierikko, Kati; Geneletti, Davide; Sevecke, Katharina J.; Pipart, Nathalie; Primmer, Eeva; Mederly, Peter; Schmidt, Stefan; Aragao, Alexandra; Baral, Himlal; Bark, Rosalind H.; Briceno, Tania; Brogna, Delphine; Cabral, Pedro; De Vreese, Rik; Liquete, Camino; Mueller, Hannah; Peh, Kelvin S. -H.; Phelan, Anna; Rincon, Alexander R.; Rogers, Shannon H.; Turkelboom, Francis; Van Reeth, Wouter; van Zanten, Boris T.; Wam, Hilde Karine; Washbourne, Carla-Leanne (2016)
    We are increasingly confronted with severe social and economic impacts of environmental degradation all over the world. From a valuation perspective, environmental problems and conflicts originate from trade-offs between values. The urgency and importance to integrate nature's diverse values in decisions and actions stand out more than ever. Valuation, in its broad sense of 'assigning importance', is inherently part of most decisions on natural resource and land use. Scholars from different traditions -while moving from heuristic interdisciplinary debate to applied transdisciplinary science- now acknowledge the need for combining multiple disciplines and methods to represent the diverse set of values of nature. This growing group of scientists and practitioners share the ambition to explore how combinations of ecological, socio-cultural and economic valuation tools can support real-life resource and land use decision-making. The current sustainability challenges and the ineffectiveness of single-value approaches to offer relief demonstrate that continuing along a single path is no option. We advocate for the adherence of a plural valuation culture and its establishment as a common practice, by contesting and complementing ineffective and discriminatory single-value approaches. In policy and decision contexts with a willingness to improve sustainability, integrated valuation approaches can be blended in existing processes, whereas in contexts of power asymmetries or environmental conflicts, integrated valuation can promote the inclusion of diverse values through action research and support the struggle for social and environmental justice. The special issue and this editorial synthesis paper bring together lessons from pioneer case studies and research papers, synthesizing main challenges and setting out priorities for the years to come for the field of integrated valuation.
  • Kemp, James; López-Baucells, Adrià; Rocha, Ricardo; Wangensteen, Owen S.; Andriatafika, Zo Emmanuel; Nair, Abhilash; Cabeza, Mar (2019)
    The conversion of natural habitats to agriculture is one of the main drivers of biotic change. Madagascar is no exception and land-use change, mostly driven by slash-and-burn agriculture, is impacting the island's exceptional biodiversity. Although most species are negatively affected by agricultural expansion, some, such as synanthropic bats, are capable of exploring newly available resources and benefit from man-made agricultural ecosystems. As bats are known predators of agricultural pests it seems possible that Malagasy bats may be preferentially foraging within agricultural areas and therefore provide important pest suppression services. To investigate the potential role of bats as pest suppressors, we conducted acoustic surveys of insectivorous bats in and around Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar, during November and December 2015. We surveyed five landcover types: irrigated rice, hillside rice, secondary vegetation, forest fragment and continuous forest. 9569 bat passes from a regional assemblage of 19 species were recorded. In parallel, we collected faeces from the six most common bat species to detect insect pest species in their diet using DNA metabarcoding. Total bat activity was higher over rice fields when compared to forest and bats belonging to the open space and edge space sonotypes were the most benefited by the conversion of forest to hillside and irrigated rice. Two economically important rice pests were detected in the faecal samples collected - the paddy swarming armyworm Spodoptera mauritia was detected in Mops leucogaster samples while the grass webworm Herpetogramma licarsisalis was detected from Mormopterus jugularis and Miniopterus majori samples. Other crops pests detected included the sugarcane cicada Yanga guttulata, the macadamia nut-borer Thaumatotibia batrachopa and the sober tabby Ericeia inangulata (a pest of citrus fruits). Samples from all bat species also contained reads from important insect disease vectors. In light of our results we argue that Malagasy insectivorous bats have the potential to suppress agricultural pests. It is important to retain and maximise Malagasy bat populations as they may contribute to higher agricultural yields and promote sustainable livelihoods.
  • Akujarvi, Anu; Repo, Anna; Akujarvi, Altti M.; Liski, Jari (2021)
    Background Increasing the use of forest harvest residues for bioenergy production reduces greenhouse emissions from the use of fossil fuels. However, it may also reduce carbon stocks and habitats for deadwood dependent species. Consequently, simple tools for assessing the trade-offs of alternative management practices on forest dynamics and their services to people are needed. The objectives of this study were to combine mapping and simulation modelling to investigate the effects of forest management on ecosystem services related to carbon cycle in the case of bioenergy production; and to evaluate the suitability of this approach for assessing ecosystem services at the landscape level. Stand level simulations of forest growth and carbon budget were combined with extensive multi-source forest inventory data across a southern boreal landscape in Finland. Stochastic changes in the stand age class distribution over the study region were simulated to mimic variation in management regimes. Results The mapping framework produced reasonable estimates of the effects of forest management on a set of key ecosystem service indicators: the annual carbon stocks and fluxes of forest biomass and soil, timber and energy-wood production and the coarse woody litter production over a simulation period 2012-2100. Regular harvesting, affecting the stand age class distribution, was a key driver of the carbon stock changes at a landscape level. Extracting forest harvest residues in the final felling caused carbon loss from litter and soil, particularly with combined aboveground residue and stump harvesting. It also reduced the annual coarse woody litter production, demonstrating negative impacts on deadwood abundance and, consequently, forest biodiversity. Conclusions The refined mapping framework was suitable for assessing ecosystem services at the landscape level. The procedure contributes to bridging the gap between ecosystem service mapping and detailed simulation modelling in boreal forests. It allows for visualizing ecosystem services as fine resolution maps to support sustainable land use planning. In the future, more detailed models and a wider variety of ecosystem service indicators could be added to develop the method.
  • Akujärvi, Anu; Repo, Anna; Akujärvi, Altti M; Liski, Jari (Springer Singapore, 2021)
    Abstract Background Increasing the use of forest harvest residues for bioenergy production reduces greenhouse emissions from the use of fossil fuels. However, it may also reduce carbon stocks and habitats for deadwood dependent species. Consequently, simple tools for assessing the trade-offs of alternative management practices on forest dynamics and their services to people are needed. The objectives of this study were to combine mapping and simulation modelling to investigate the effects of forest management on ecosystem services related to carbon cycle in the case of bioenergy production; and to evaluate the suitability of this approach for assessing ecosystem services at the landscape level. Stand level simulations of forest growth and carbon budget were combined with extensive multi-source forest inventory data across a southern boreal landscape in Finland. Stochastic changes in the stand age class distribution over the study region were simulated to mimic variation in management regimes. Results The mapping framework produced reasonable estimates of the effects of forest management on a set of key ecosystem service indicators: the annual carbon stocks and fluxes of forest biomass and soil, timber and energy-wood production and the coarse woody litter production over a simulation period 2012–2100. Regular harvesting, affecting the stand age class distribution, was a key driver of the carbon stock changes at a landscape level. Extracting forest harvest residues in the final felling caused carbon loss from litter and soil, particularly with combined aboveground residue and stump harvesting. It also reduced the annual coarse woody litter production, demonstrating negative impacts on deadwood abundance and, consequently, forest biodiversity. Conclusions The refined mapping framework was suitable for assessing ecosystem services at the landscape level. The procedure contributes to bridging the gap between ecosystem service mapping and detailed simulation modelling in boreal forests. It allows for visualizing ecosystem services as fine resolution maps to support sustainable land use planning. In the future, more detailed models and a wider variety of ecosystem service indicators could be added to develop the method.
  • Mozumder, Mohammad Mojibul Hoque; Shamsuzzaman, Md.Mostafa (2018)
    The present study provides a comprehensive synthesis of secondary data from available web-based published articles. Some stakeholders including community members, environmental and community NGOs, universities, research institutions, development agencies, donors are involved in the utilization of coastal services. The ecosystem services of the Bay of Bengal (BoB) are in danger due to overfishing, destructive fishing methods, sedimentation, and pollution. Hence, it is essential to utilize the resources sustainably for the betterment of coastal community livelihoods to receive continuous ecosystem services.
  • Hokkanen, H. M. T.; Menzler-Hokkanen, I. (2018)
    In this review, we examine how the principles of ecostacking could be used to manage the pollen beetle Brassicogethes aeneus in oilseed crucifer crops. We further describe hindrances preventing progress of keeping the pest under full biological control across Europe, and for other similar pest management situations. Ecological processes at different levels need to be considered and understood. The beneficial functions, which the various ecosystem service providers offer, need to be combined and exploited in an additive or synergistic manner, i.e., ecostacked. Levels to consider include landscape and off-crop habitats (e.g., field margins) and their effects on pest management in the rapeseed crop; and possibilities to generate the key ecosystem services within the crop itself; for example, by vegetation management (e.g., undersowing, variety mixtures, companion and trap crops), soil management (biotic and abiotic; fostering and steering soil microbial communities to benefit biocontrol), and crop management, including crop protection treatments and their impacts on ecosystem service provision. All these processes affect the populations of the pollen beetle. Abundant information exists about most of the key processes important in this context. Utilizing this knowledge and stacking the various beneficial ecosystem service functions into a comprehensive management strategy for the pollen beetle, has not been attempted nor described. After illustrating the potential of ecostacking in solving crop protection problems, as it is apparent in the case of the pollen beetle, we analyze a situation where our approach was lost in translation. The European Union Horizon 2020 program chose to support our vision of ecostacking with a 10million euro grant. Administrative decisions by the coordinating university (not to accept to host the grant), and subsequent failure of the European Commission and its Research Executive Agency to demonstrate leadership on issues of research policy, integrity, and ethics in the handling of the project, resulted in a shift of emphasis away from solutions based on integrative biocontrol.
  • Mesimäki, Marja Helena; Hauru, Kaisa Matilda; Lehvävirta, Susanna (2019)
    Growing and densifying cities set challenges for preserving and enhancing sufficient and good quality green urban environment. Rooftops offer vacant room for additional urban greening that may contribute to the well-being of people and the liveability of cities, but this potential lacks empirical support. In spite of the fact that even small green spaces produce, for example restorative experiences, the literature concerning the experiential and recreational benefits of green roofs is still scarce. To identify the experiential potential of a small urban green roof we explored restorative and other experiences of 178 people visiting a sparsely vegetated green roof in the centre of Helsinki, Finland, using a questionnaire. We showed that the studied green roof provided restorative and other positive experiences to the visitors. The level of perceived restorativeness was relatively high. In addition, the results revealed multiple perceived qualities that reflected visual as well as other sensory experiences, beauty, suitability of the place for oneself and the urban context, nature, desire to explore the place and interestedness, positive excitement, and safety. Furthermore, answers to the open questions revealed a wide range of other observations and feelings, such as peace, joy, excitement and hope. Our study indicates that even a small and rather ascetic accessible green roof has potential to offer a moment of respite in the middle of urban everyday hassle, thus implying that these kinds of solutions may allow for a pinch of beneficial green in places where more diverse and lusher solutions are not possible due to, e.g. the load capacity of a roof
  • Setälä, Heikki (EASAC Secretariat, The Royal Society, 2009)
    EASAC policy report
  • Raymond, Christopher M.; Kenter, Jasper O.; van Riper, Carena J.; Rawluk, Andrea; Kendal, Dave (2019)
    This special feature provides an impression of the plurality of social values for sustainability, taking into account theoretical traditions within mainstream and heterodox economics; positive, social and environmental psychology; human geography; anthropology; sociology; religious and indigenous studies and business management. Papers in this issue respond to questions of: how do we conceptualise social values; how do we integrate or share social values; what are processes for learning about and mechanisms for forming and changing social values; and what are the associations between social values and behaviour or well-being? Consistent with post-normal science, we suggest that there is no one correct way of conceptualising, assessing, integrating or activating social values for sustainability. We present five arguments: (1) the plurality of social values can be conceptualised along many different dimensions, with reference to value, epistemic and procedural lenses; (2) values are nested in different hierarchies, resulting in the potential for different forms of value articulations and pathways of value expression; (3) not all social values are pre-formed and readily drawn upon, instead needing pathways of deliberation or intervention to be activated; (4) social values may change through different processes or pathways of intervention, and; (5) power matters in the formation and assessment of social values. We discuss the tensions that arise when attempting to integrate different perspectives and introduce the notion of ‘navigation’ to begin to address these tensions. Navigation requires scholars to adopt a more critical and reflexive approach to value enquiry than is currently espoused in sustainability science and practice.
  • Viippola, Viljami; Yli-Pelkonen, Vesa; Järvi, Leena; Kulmala, Markku; Setälä, Heikki (2020)
    Trees and other vegetation have been advocated as a mitigation measure for urban air pollution mainly due to the fact that they passively filter particles from the air. However, mounting evidence suggests that vegetation may also worsen air quality by slowing the dispersion of pollutants and by producing volatile organic compounds that contribute to formation of ozone and other secondary pollutants. We monitored nanoparticle (>10 nm) counts along distance gradients away from major roads along paired transects across open and forested landscapes in Baltimore (USA), Helsinki (Finland) and Shenyang (China) − i.e. sites in three biomes with different pollution levels − using condensation particle counters. Mean particle number concentrations averaged across all sampling sites were clearly reduced (15 %) by the presence of forest cover only in Helsinki. For Baltimore and Shenyang, levels showed no significant difference between the open and forested transects at any of the sampling distances. This suggests that nanoparticle deposition on trees is often counterbalanced by other factors, including differing flow fields and aerosol processes under varying meteorological conditions. Similarly, consistent differences in high frequency data patterns between the transects were detected only in Helsinki. No correlations between nanoparticle concentrations and solar radiation or local wind speed as affecting nanoparticle abundances were found, but they were to some extent associated with canopy closure. These data add to the accumulating evidence according to which trees do not necessarily improve air quality in near-road environments.
  • D'Amato, D.; Rekola, M.; Wan, M.; Cai, D.; Toppinen, A. (2017)
    This paper addresses the current research void on local community views of changes in ecosystem services associated with rapid land use transformation in the context of plantation-based forestry. This interview-based study, conducted in southern China, aims at assessing the perspectives of local communities of: 1) the effects of Eucalyptus industrial plantations on selected ecosystem services and on local development; and 2) opportunities for future community livelihood development, based on the relations with the government and with forest industry operating locally. We analysed data from semi-structured interviews with 70 villagers for their views on changes in ecosystem services after the establishment of plantations, and their future expectations on the local livelihood development. Most interviewees mentioned some negative development on environmental quality after the establishment of the industrial plantations, especially on soil and water. Furthermore, the reduced productivity of cropland surrounding industrial plantations, coupled with other financial drivers, induced several villagers to switch from agricultural crops to household plantations. In the absence of destructive typhoons, household plantations can provide owners more free time, higher income, while industrial plantations provided some employment opportunities. Interviewees' expectations for the future included receiving financial support and capacity building for household plantations and crops, support to local roads and schools, and higher employment opportunities. Some interviewees suggested that solutions should be implemented for improving degraded water quality, while others suggested reducing forestry operations. Even though being highly context-specific, our findings open up the discussion about the further community development opportunities in the context of plantation forestry. In particular, the potential of value sharing mechanisms between the private sector and the local communities should be further studied. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Wan, Minli; D'amato, Dalia; Toppinen, Anne Maarit Kristiina; Rekola, Mika Olavi (2017)
    Global awareness of sustainability issues is growing rapidly, and business organizations are called to address wider social and environmental concerns along with economic performance. However, limited systematic knowledge exists on the interactions between forest industries and natural ecosystems. We thus investigated the role of ecosystem services in the context of China's forest sector. A qualitative research approach was used to elicit company external expert viewpoints on the topic. Our analysis focused on three themes: (1) forest company dependencies and impacts on ecosystem services; (2) business risks arising from dependencies and impacts; and (3) risk response strategies. The interviewed 20 experts identified a series of forest company dependencies and impacts (including negative and positive impacts) on several ecosystem services. The extent of dependencies and impacts is largely influenced by the business portfolio of the company. The perceived business risks include intense competition and the consequently increasing price for natural resources, which would affect forest company business plans, costs and outputs. The suggested strategies for turning risks into opportunities include outsourcing wood, changing production focus, promoting industrial upgrading and implementing regular assessments of corporate dependencies and impacts on ecosystem services. The findings of our study can guide companies' decision-making in managing forest ecosystems sustainably.
  • Buizer, Marleen; Elands, Birgit; Vierikko, Kati (2016)
    With the aim to embed ecology more forcefully into decision-making, the concept of Ecosystems Services (ES) has gained significant ground amongpolicy-makers and researchers. The increasing recognition of the importance of urban green areas for the quality of life in growing cities has led proponents of ES approaches to argue for an uptake of the approach in urban environmental decision-making. However, the ES approach has been criticized for standing too much at a distance from local communities and their day-to-day practices and for insufficiently taking into account the potential trade-offs between different qualities or preferences. In this paper we argue that other concepts, doing other work, need to be added to the debate about futures of urban governance and research. Biocultural diversity is suggested as one such alternative concept. By its emphasis On diversity, biocultural diversity can account for the many ways in which people live with green areas in the urban landscape, acknowledges the different knowledges this involves, and can reveal conflicts and ambivalence that may be at stake. This sets up for a reflexive, transdisciplinary research process that questions and contextualizes knowledge and worldviews including those of researchers. A reflexive, transdisciplinary research, then, is a productive catalyst for forms of reflexive urban governance that recognise and respond to this diversity and provide platforms for contestation. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Carstensen, Jacob; Conley, Daniel J.; Bonsdorff, Erik; Gustafsson, Bo G.; Hietanen, Susanna; Janas, Urzsula; Jilbert, Tom; Maximov, Alexey; Norkko, Alf; Norkko, Joanna; Reed, Daniel C.; Slomp, Caroline P.; Timmermann, Karen; Voss, Maren (2014)
  • Pellikka, P.K.E.; Heikinheimo, V.; Hietanen, J.; Schäfer, E.; Siljander, M.; Heiskanen, J. (2018)
    Land cover change takes place in sub-Saharan Africa as forests and shrublands are converted to agricultural lands in order to meet the needs of growing population. Changes in land cover also impact carbon sequestration in vegetation cover with an influence on climate on continental scale. The impact of land cover change on tree aboveground carbon stocks was studied in Taita Hills, Kenya. The land cover change between 1987 and 2011 for four points of time was assessed using SPOT satellite imagery, while the carbon density in various land cover types was assessed with field measurements, allometric biomass functions and airborne laser scanning data. Finally, the mean carbon densities of land cover types were combined with land cover maps resulting in carbon stock values for given land cover types for each point of time studied. Expansion of croplands has been taking place since 1987 and before on the cost of thickets and shrublands, especially on the foothills and lowlands. Due to the land cover changes, the carbon stock of trees was decreasing until 2003, after which there has been an increase. The findings of the research is supported by forest transition model, which emphasizes increase of awareness of forests' role in providing ecosystem services, such as habitats for pollinators, water harvesting and storage at the same time when economic reasons in making land-use choices between cropland and woodland, and governmental legislation supports trees on farms.
  • Fernández Castellano, Juan (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Since the 1990s, globalization effects have driven forest investments to developing economies, establishing industrial plantations of Eucalyptus in areas such as Guangxi in China. The different ecosystem services, from which local communities benefit, are facing deterioration. This happens partly due to the replacement of natural forests for industrial commercial plantations. Previous research has shown that the establishment of such plantations has both positive and negative effects on the environment and the livelihoods of rural communities. Nevertheless, the local communities’ perspective is lacking in most of these studies. The research surrounding the villagers and their perceptions is especially relevant in the case of China, where land cannot be bought by private companies and has to be leased from either the state or individual household collectives. This study firstly aims to identify how are demographic variables (gender factor, age and education level) likely to affect the decision to lend land to the forest company in a tree plantation area. Secondly, the study examines how people’s perception of changes, which occurred in the ecosystem services after the establishment of the forest plantations, varies according to these demographic variables. Responses to a qualitative questionnaire to 70 residents were used for the research. The results indicate that men are more likely to lease land than women. Besides, men and women perceive the changes in the ecosystem services in a different way. Such disparity can be explained by the differentiated role that women play in forest activities in China comparing to men.
  • Di Minin, Enrico; Soutullo, Alvaro; Bartesaghi, Lucia; Rios, Mariana; Szephegyi, Maria Nube; Moilanen, Atte (2017)
    Gaps in research exist for country-wide analyses to identify areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem services to help reach Aichi Target 11 in developing countries. Here we provide a spatial conservation prioritization approach that ranks landowners for maximizing the representation of biodiversity features and ecosystem services, while exploring the trade-offs with agricultural and commercial forestry production and land cost, using Uruguay as a case study. Specifically, we explored four policy scenarios, ranging from a business as usual scenario where only biodiversity and ecosystem services were included in the analysis to a potentially unsustainable scenario where expansion of alternative land uses and economic development would be given higher priority over biodiversity and ecosystem services. At the 17% land target proposed for conservation, the representation levels for biodiversity and ecosystem services were, on average, higher under the business as usual scenario. However, a small addition to the proposed target (from 17 to 20%) allowed to meet same representation levels for biodiversity and ecosystem services, while decreasing conflict with agricultural and commercial forestry production and opportunity costs to local landowners. Under the unsustainable scenario, a striking 41% addition to the conservation target (from 17 to 58%) was needed to meet same representation levels for threatened ecosystems and ecosystem services, which are crucial to sustain human well-being. Our results highlight that more realistic and potentially higher conservation targets, than politically set targets, can be achieved at the country level when sustainable development needs are also accounted for. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Coll, Lluis; Ameztegui, Aitor; Collet, Catherine; Lof, Magnus; Mason, Bill; Pach, Maciej; Verheyen, Kris; Abrudan, Loan; Barbati, Anna; Barreiro, Susana; Bielak, Kamil; Bravo-Oviedo, Andres; Ferrari, Barbara; Govedar, Zoran; Kulhavy, Jiri; Lazdina, Dagnija; Metslaid, Marek; Mohrens, Frits; Pereira, Mario; Peric, Sanja; Rasztovits, Ervin; Short, Ian; Spathelf, Peter; Sterba, Hubert; Stojanovic, Dejan; Valsta, Lauri; Zlatanov, Tzvetan; Ponette, Quentin (2018)
    Research into mixed-forests has increased substantially in the last decades but the extent to which the new knowledge generated meets practitioners' concerns and is adequately transmitted to them is unknown. Here we provide the current state of knowledge and future research directions with regards to 10 questions about mixed forest functioning and management identified and selected by a range of European forest managers during an extensive participatory process. The set of 10 questions were the highest ranked questions from an online prioritization exercise involving 168 managers from 22 different European countries. In general, the topics of major concern for forest managers coincided with the ones that are at the heart of most research projects. They covered important issues related to the management of mixed forests and the role of mixtures for the stability of forests faced with environmental changes and the provision of ecosystem services to society. Our analysis showed that the current scientific knowledge about these questions was rather variable and particularly low for those related to the management of mixed forests over time and the associated costs. We also found that whereas most research projects have sought to evaluate whether mixed forests are more stable or provide more goods and services than monocultures, there is still little information on the underlying mechanisms and trade-offs behind these effects. Similarly, we identified a lack of knowledge on the spatio-temporal scales at which the effects of mixtures on the resistance and adaptability to environmental changes are operating. Our analysis may help researchers to identify what knowledge needs to be better transferred and to better design future research initiatives meeting practitioner's concerns.
  • Verbrugge, L.N.H.; de Hoop, L.; Aukema, R.; Beringen, R.; Creemers, R.C.M.; van Duinen, G.A.; Hollander, H.; de Hullu, E.; Scherpenisse, M.; Spikmans, F.; van Turnhout, C.A.M.; Wijnhoven, S.; Leuven, R.S.E.W. (2019)
    Limiting the spread and impacts of invasive alien species (IAS) on biodiversity and ecosystems has become a goal of global, regional and national biodiversity policies. Evidence based management of IAS requires support by risk assessments, which are often based on expert judgment. We developed a tool to prioritize potentially new IAS based on their ecological risks, socio-economic impact and feasibility of management using multidisciplinary expert panels. Nine expert panels reviewed scientific studies, grey literature and expert knowledge for 152 species. The quality assessment of available knowledge revealed a lack of peer-reviewed data and high dependency on best professional judgments, especially for impacts on ecosystem services and feasibility of management. Expert consultation is crucial for conducting and validating rapid assessments of alien species. There is still a lack of attention for systematic and methodologically sound assessment of impacts on ecosystem services and weighting negative and positive effects of alien species.
  • Kenter, Jasper O.; Raymond, Christopher M.; van Riper, Carena J.; Azzopardi, Elaine; Brear, Michelle R.; Calcagni, Fulvia; Christie, Ian; Christie, Michael; Fordham, Anne; Gould, Rachelle K.; Ives, Christopher D.; Hejnowicz, Adam P.; Gunton, Richard; Horcea-Milcu, Andra-Ioana; Kendal, Dave; Kronenberg, Jakub; Massenberg, Julian R.; O’Connor, Seb; Ravenscroft, Neil; Rawluk, Andrea; Raymond, Ivan J.; Rodríguez-Morales, Jorge; Thankappan, Samarthia (2019)
    This paper concludes a special feature of Sustainability Science that explores a broad range of social value theoretical traditions, such as religious studies, social psychology, indigenous knowledge, economics, sociology, and philosophy. We introduce a novel transdisciplinary conceptual framework that revolves around concepts of ‘lenses’ and ‘tensions’ to help navigate value diversity. First, we consider the notion of lenses: perspectives on value and valuation along diverse dimensions that describe what values focus on, how their sociality is envisioned, and what epistemic and procedural assumptions are made. We characterise fourteen of such dimensions. This provides a foundation for exploration of seven areas of tension, between: (1) the values of individuals vs collectives; (2) values as discrete and held vs embedded and constructed; (3) value as static or changeable; (4) valuation as descriptive vs normative and transformative; (5) social vs relational values; (6) different rationalities and their relation to value integration; (7) degrees of acknowledgment of the role of power in navigating value conflicts. In doing so, we embrace the ‘mess’ of diversity, yet also provide a framework to organise this mess and support and encourage active transdisciplinary collaboration. We identify key research areas where such collaborations can be harnessed for sustainability transformation. Here it is crucial to understand how certain social value lenses are privileged over others and build capacity in decision-making for understanding and drawing on multiple value, epistemic and procedural lenses.