Browsing by Subject "Egypt"

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  • Abo-Hasseba, Ahmed; Waaramaa, Tteija; Alku, Paavo; Geneid, Ahmed (2017)
    Objective. This study aimed to assess teachers' voice symptoms and noise in schools in Upper Egypt and to study possible differences between teachers in public and private schools. Study Design. A cross-sectional analysis via questionnaire was carried out, Methods. Four schools were chosen randomly to represent primary and preparatory schools as well as public and private ones, In these schools, a total of 140 teachers participated in the study. They answered a questionnaire on vocal and throat symptoms and their effects on working and social activities, as well as levels and effects of experienced noise. Results. Of all teachers, 47.9% reported moderate or severe dysphonia within the last 6 months, and 21.4% reported daily dysphonia. All teachers reported frequent feelings of being in noise, with 82.2% feeling it sometimes or always during the working day, resulting in a need to raise their voice. Teachers in public schools experienced more noise from nearby classes. Conclusion. The working conditions and vocal health of teachers in Upper Egypt, especially in public schools, are alarming.
  • Frerichs, Sabine (2016)
    The Egyptian Revolution 2011 has its roots in neoliberal policies, the premises of which are not shared by a large part of the Egyptian population. Starting from the call for “bread, freedom, social justice”, this paper sheds light on the moral economy of the Egyptian people and finds the seeds of the revolution in a loss of entitlements which structural adjustment policies entailed for Egyptians as producers and consumers of bread, the symbol of life.
  • Wasmuth, Melanie (2020)
    The contribution at hand provides a synthetic response to the special issue on “Udjahorresnet and his World,” published as Journal of Ancient Egyptian Interconnections 26. After introducing the aims and motivation behind the volume, I present a concise summary of the key questions, investigation lines and major results of the volume’s contributions. These fall into four major thematic blocks. Three papers are primarily concerned with a re-evaluation of the material culture commemorating Udjahorresnet, three take up the question of his professional and social environment, four focus on Udjahorresnet as a cross-regional agent, while the last three draw on Udjahorresnet and the textual evidence on his naophorous statue in the Musei Vaticani as a historiographical mediator. The final section showcases synthetically the key advances in the study of Udjahorresnet and his world jointly achieved by the author collective.
  • Wasmuth, Melanie (TOPOI, 2018)
    Berlin Studies of the Ancient World
    The social and cultural developments in the Eastern Mediterranean Area of Connectivity in the 8th to 6th c. BC are strongly rooted in the cross-regional mobility and subsequent cultural diversity that resulted from the various local strategies in the southern Levant and the Nile delta of challenging and outmaneuvering the super-powers. Yet, historiographical maps of 7th c. Egypt predominantly depict the political landscape – if at all – as the dominion of politically homogeneous entities: as part either of the Assyrian empire, or of the Kushite empire, or of a local power. By contrast, this paper discusses an alternative visualization, which indicates historical complexity with the aim of triggering further research.
  • Rommel, Carl Anders Truls (2018)
    This article explores men at a state-owned youth center in Cairo, struggling to cope with uncertainties and change in the aftermath of Egypt's January 2011 Revolution. Conceptually, the article critically engages anthropologist Laura Bear's suggestion that an ethics of productivity saturate neoliberal masculinity. As my ethnographic stories about football coaches and state bureaucrats illustrate, being a good man recurrently surfaced as a problem of how to work productively in and on time: as ambiguities between discordant futures that left material needs, familiar care, and development of football talents difficult to reconcile. Often, my interlocutors linked this conundrum to a wide-ranging opacity, conjured as corruption (fisad). My analysis of this male predicament allows me to spotlight one of the Egyptian revolution's most luring promises: a transparent and meritocratic system, where a man's work would finally be allowed to work on all futures deemed morally and materially significant.
  • Jyrkiäinen, Senni (2010)
    This is an ethnographic study of the mobility of women in Upper Egypt. It is based on two months of fieldwork conducted in the governorate of Sohag. A central argument of this study is that the critical re-evaluation of spatial divisions is needed to come to grips with the complexity of ways in which space is actually understood. Upper Egypt or the Sa’id is a culturally specific region that is labelled as traditionalist, family-centred and patriarchal. Sa'idi women negotiate mobility in public space within the community with regard to such principles as the avoidance of shame and respect towards familial authorities. Despite the small size of the governorate the ideas and practices related to mobility are diverse. The aim of this study is to ethnographically illustrate the heterogeneity that is linked with spatial constructions. Using the theory of practice, I show that women, as active mobile agents, construct, negotiate, regulate, and finally give social meanings to space. By means of participant observation and interviews I study two socially distinguishable groups. I concentrate on highly-educated middle class women living in urban surroundings. As a reference point, I have a group of rural non-educated women. With regard to the two mentioned groups the following themes are studied: how women, as active agents, negotiate their mobility in public space, how the question of women’s mobility is related to the morals of the patriarchally arranged community and how the different social classes regard spatial organisation. Mobility is an embodied activity that is founded on the inseparable relationship between body and space. In feminist anthropology, the theoretical division between male-oriented public and female-oriented private space has evoked a lot of discussion. This study reveals that, not so much the concepts of public and private, but the spatial division between familiar and unfamiliar helps to understand on what basis the mobility of women is regulated and negotiated. Moreover, it is shown that the urban middle class and the rural lower class have very different kinds of spatial practices. The data displays that the ability to regulate privacy and to make spatial divisions requires resources. Finally, the results suggest that there is no single Egyptian understanding of space. Spatial categorisations are renegotiated all the time, as is gender. As commonly shared ideas of womanhood change, spatial practices find new forms. This study is an attempt to understand contemporary spatial practices in the relatively little studied Sa’idi region and to provide a reconsideration of spatial divisions in the light of the ethnographic data.
  • Lorenzon, Marta; Nitschke, Jessica L.; Littman, Robert J.; Silverstein, Jay E. (2020)
    The Graeco-Roman site of Tell Timai (ancient Thmuis) in Lower Egypt is among the largest urban tells in the Nile Delta, boasting substantial amounts of preserved earthen architecture. Although earthen architecture made up the vast majority of public and domestic structures in ancient Egypt, it still does not receive the same analytical attention from archaeologists as other categories of evidence. This paper presents a case study for the archaeological investigation of the earthen architecture at Tell Timai. The goal was to develop a methodology that can be implemented in the field by excavators with little geoarchaeological training and limited laboratory access in order to generate useful data for determining building stratigraphy and studying construction processes. Through the close examination and sampling of three buildings of different periods and scales, we tested a new field methodology combining geoarchaeological techniques and mensiochronology. The results provide information useful for stratigraphy and phasing as well as for identifying specific patterns of mudbrick manufacturing, production, and construction during the Graeco-Roman period at Tell Timai.
  • Helmy, Mohamed M.; Frerichs, Sabine (2013)
    The Egyptian Revolution 2011 has shaken the Arab world and stirred up Middle-East politics. Moreover, it caused a rush in political science and the neighboring disciplines, which had not predicted an event like this and now have troubles explaining it. While many things can be learned from the popular uprising, and from the limitations of previous scholarship, our focus will be on a moral resource, which has occasionally been noticed, but not sufficiently explored: the role of humor in keeping up the spirit of the Revolution. For eighteen days, protestors persevered at Liberation Square in Central Cairo, the epicenter of resistance; at times a few dozens, at times hundreds of thousands. What they did was to fight the terror of the regime, which reached absurd peaks during those days, with humor – successfully. We offer a social-functionalist account of the uprising, which includes behavioral as well as cultural levels of analysis, and illuminates how humorous means helped to achieve deadly serious goals. By reconstructing how Egyptians laughed themselves into democracy, we outline a social psychology of resistance, which uses humor both as a sword and a shield.
  • Obatnin, Georgii (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    In a history written by men, women are typically assigned minimal agency, hardly indicative of their real roles in the society. Traditionally, scholarship on women under Islam has been reliant on medieval Islamic historical, literary and legal works. These works were often written long after the events they depict and when it comes to depicting women, tend to be prescriptive, rather than descriptive. When it comes to Arabic documents written on papyrus, parchment and paper, these biases are largely nonexistent, as we are provided with a contemporaneous window into everyday life—something none of the sources mentioned above can do. In this thesis I am working with documentary sources to explore the roles of women in Egypt under early medieval Islam. Due to the scarcity of prior scholarship, apart from reconstructing some aspects of women’s lives, this thesis has two additional aims. First, it aims to build a frame of reference that can be used to read and understand Arabic documents pertaining to women. Second, it seeks to assess how and in what capacity these sources can be used in the future. Throughout the three main chapters of this thesis, twelve documents are utilized to talk about women owning and operating with real estate, slaves and businesses, as well as women’s position within the family and the society. The investigation covers the period from 750 to 969 CE and deals with all three main ethno-religious communities of Egypt—Muslim, Jewish and Coptic. Eleven out of the twelve documents presented in this work are used for the first time to study women appearing in them, while five of them have seen here their first translation into English. By reading these documents and comparing them to other, more traditional, sources, as well as works of prior scholarship, this thesis builds a more balanced picture of early medieval Egyptian life and women’s role in it. It also surveys the themes and topics present in the documentary record and maps out potential avenues for future research.
  • Wasmuth, Melanie (2019)
    The statue of Darius I found at Susa provides a striking example for petrifying an identity construction that is transient in nature. Darius I is simultaneously Persian Great King and Egyptian pharaoh. Usually, either one or the other aspect is put to the fore in the preserved media of presentation. Characteristically, the statue in its current headless state combines these identities and presents a new image, which follows neither regional tradition, but is understandable in either of the two (and beyond). As such, long-term and cross-cultural readability is explicitly ordered in the commission inscription on the statue, and this can be equally assumed for the missing head. Based on this hypothesis, I will reconsider the scope of potential reconstructions of the statue and, consequently, of the secondary context of erection at the gate building of the ‘palace of Darius’ at Susa.