Browsing by Subject "Electrocardiogram"

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  • Virtanen, Juhani; Leivo, Joni; Vehkaoja, Antti; Somppi, Sanni; Tornqvist, Heini; Fiedler, Patrique; Vaataja, Heli; Surakka, Veikko (ACM, 2018)
    Measuring the heart rate of animals is an important area of research which can be applied to numerous analyses. In this work we evaluate the performance of two dry contact electrocardiogram (ECG) electrode structures for monitoring the heart rate of domestic pets. The aim was to improve the operation of previously evaluated electrodes with some modifications. First, the thirty-pins of a previously studied polymer electrode with a silver/silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) coating were reduced to 12. Second, a 12-pin gold-plated metal electrode was coated with poly (3,4 ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT: PSS). These electrodes were attached to a specifically designed measurement harness and the performance of the electrodes was evaluated in terms of heartbeat detection coverage. The heart rate coverage was measured during four different behaviors: standing, sitting, lying, and walking (N=27/activity). The results were, in general, comparable to the previously reported performance but having fewer pins on a polymer electrode seemed to cause more variation in the coverage values. However, when measures such as the median value of the coverages are considered, there was no obvious difference, especially when the coverage values were observed altogether. Thus, new electrode solutions are worthy of further research.
  • Terho, Henri K.; Tikkanen, Jani T.; Kenttä, Tuomas V.; Junttila, Juhani M.; Aro, Aapo L.; Anttonen, Olli; Kerola, Tuomas; Rissanen, Harri A.; Knekt, Paul; Huikuri, Heikki V. (2018)
    Background: Abnormal 12 lead electrocardiogram (ECG) findings and proposing its ability for enhanced risk prediction, majority of the studies have been carried out with elderly populations with prior cardiovascular diseases. This study aims to denote the association of sudden cardiac death (SCD) and various abnormal ECG morphologies using middle-aged population without a known cardiac disease. Methods: In total, 9511 middle-aged subjects (mean age 42 +/- 8.2 years, 52% males) without a known cardiac disease were included in this study. Risk for SCD was assessed after 10 and 30-years of follow-up. Results: Abnormal ECG was present in 16.3% (N = 1548) of subjects. The incidence of SCD was distinctly higher among those with any ECG abnormality in 10 and 30-year follow-ups (1.7/1000 years vs. 0.6/1000 years, P <0.001; 3.4;1000 years vs. 1.9/1000 years, P <0.001). At 10-year point, competing risk multivariate regression model showed HR of 1.62 (95% CI 1.0-2.6, P = 0.05) for SCD in subjects with abnormal ECG. QRS duration 110 ms, QRST-angle > 100', left ventricular hypertrophy, and T-wave inversions were the most significant independent ECG risk markers for 10-year SCD prediction with up to 3-fold risk for SCD. Those with ECG abnormalities had a 1.3-fold risk (95% CI 1.07-1.57, P - 0.007) for SCD in 30-year follow-up, whereas QRST-angle > 100 degrees, LVH, ER 0.1 mV and 0.2 mV were the strongest individual predictors. Subjects with multiple ECG abnormalities had up to 6.6-fold risk for SCD (P <0.001). Conclusion: Several ECG abnormalities are associated with the occurrence of early and late SCD events in the middle-age subjects without known history of cardiac disease. (C) 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Kentta, Tuomas V.; Nearing, Bruce D.; Porthan, Kimmo; Tikkanen, Jani T.; Viitasalo, Matti; Nieminen, Markku S.; Salomaa, Veikko; Oikarinen, Lasse; Jula, Antti; Kontula, Kimmo; Newton-Cheh, Chris; Huikuri, Heikki V.; Verrier, Richard L. (2016)
    BACKGROUND Heterogeneity of depolarization and repolarization underlies the development of lethal arrhythmias. OBJECTIVE We investigated whether quantification of spatial depolarization and repolarization heterogeneity identifies individuals at risk for sudden cardiac death (SCD). METHODS Spatial R-, J-, and T-wave heterogeneity (RWH, JWH, and TWH, respectively) was analyzed using automated second central moment analysis of standard digital 12-lead electrocardiograms in 5618 adults (2588, 46% men; mean +/- SEM age 50.9 +/- 0.2 years), who took part in the epidemiological Health 2000 Survey as representative of the entire Finnish adult population. RESULTS During the follow-up period of 7.7 +/- 0.2 years, a total of 72 SCDs occurred (1.3%), with an average yearly incidence rate of 0.17% per year. Increased RWH, JWH, and TWH in left precordial leads (V-4-V-6) were univariately associated with SCD (P <.001 for each). When adjusted with standard clinical risk markers, JWH and TWH remained independent predictors of SCD. Increased TWH (>= 102 mu V) was associated with a 1.7-fold adjusted relative risk for SCD (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0-2.9; P = .048) and increased JWH (>= 123 mu V) with a 2.0-fold adjusted relative risk for SCD (95% CI 1.2-3.3; P = .006). When both TWH and JWH were above the threshold, the adjusted relative risk for SCD was 2.9-fold (95% CI 1.5-5.7; P = .002). When RWH (>= 470 mu V), JWH, and TWH were all above the threshold, the adjusted relative risk for SCD was 3.2-fold (95% CI 1.4-7.1; P = .009). CONCLUSION Second central moment analysis of standard resting 12-lead electrocardiographic morphology provides an ultrarapid means for the automated measurement of spatial RWH, JWH, and TWH, enabling analysis of high subject volumes and screening for SCD risk in the general population.
  • Pirinen, Jani; Putaala, Jukka; Aarnio, Karoliina; Aro, Aapo L.; Mustanoja, Satu; Sinisalo, Juha; Kaste, Markku; Haapaniemi, Elena; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Lehto, Mika (2017)
    Introduction: Ischaemic stroke at young age carries an increased risk for mortality in comparison to the general population, but factors associated with mortality have been poorly studied. We studied the role of electrocardiogram in mortality risk stratification in young stroke patients. Patients and methods: The Helsinki Young Stroke Registry encompasses 1008 patients aged <50 years with ischaemic stroke. We included 690 patients for this electrocardiogram substudy. Our endpoints were all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Cox regression models - adjusted for clinical and demographic characteristics - were used to identify the electrocardiogram parameters associated with these endpoints. Results: At a mean follow-up of 8.8 years, cumulative all-cause and cardiovascular mortality were 16.1 and 9.1%, respectively. Factors associated with both endpoints included diabetes (type 1 for all-cause, type 2 for cardiovascular mortality), heavy drinking, malignancy, as well as stroke severity and aetiology. Of the electrocardiogram parameters, higher heart rate (hazard ratio 1.35 per 10/min, 95% confidence interval 1.21-1.49), a shorter P-wave (hazard ratio 0.78 per 10 ms decrement, 0.64-0.92) and longer QTc interval (1.09 per 10 ms, 1.03-1.16) were associated with increased all-cause mortality. Only a higher heart rate (1.42 per 10/min, 1.24-1.60) was associated with death from cardiovascular causes. Conclusions: A higher heart rate during the subacute phase after stroke is associated with an elevated risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in young adults. A longer QTc interval is associated only with higher all-cause mortality. P-wave characteristics and their possible association with mortality need further studies.