Browsing by Subject "Emergency medicine"

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  • Jousi, Mille; Skrifvars, Markus B.; Nelskylä, Annika; Ristagno, Giuseppe; Schramko, Alexey; Nurmi, Jouni (2019)
    Introduction: Screening and correcting reversible causes of cardiac arrest (CA) are an essential part of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Point-ofcare (POC) laboratory analyses are used for screening pre-arrest pathologies, such as electrolyte disorders and acid-base balance disturbances. The aims of this study were to compare the intraosseous (10), arterial and central venous POC values during CA and CPR and to see how the CPR values reflect the pre-arrest state. Methods: We performed an experimental study on 23 anaesthetised pigs. After induction of ventricular fibrillation (VF), we obtained POC samples from the 10 space, artery and central vein simultaneously at three consecutive time points. We observed the development of the values during CA and CPR and compared the CPR values to the pre-arrest values. Results: The 10, arterial and venous values changed differently from one another during the course of CA and CPR. Base excess and pH decreased in the venous and 10 samples during untreated VF, but in the arterial samples, this only occurred after the onset of CPR. The 10, arterial and venous potassium values were higher during CPR compared to the pre-arrest arterial values (mean elevations 4.4 mmol/l (SD 0.72), 3.3 mmol/l (0.78) and 2.8 mmol/l (0.94), respectively). Conclusions: A dynamic change occurs in the common laboratory values during CA and CPR. POC analyses of lactate, pH, sodium and calcium within 10 samples are not different from analyses of arterial or venous blood. Potassium values in 10, arterial and venous samples during CPR are higher than the pre-arrest arterial values.
  • Saario, Eeva L.; Mäkinen, Marja T.; Jämsen, Esa R. K.; Nikander, Pia; Castren, Maaret K. (2021)
    Background: Inadequate nutrition, falls, and cognitive impairment are common problems among acutely ill older people and are associated with complicated and prolonged health problems and mortality. Objectives: To assess if the emergency medical services can identify patients with nutritional risk, falls risk, and cognitive impairment by using simple screening tools and to assess the prevalence of risks and rate they are reported to the emergency department. Setting: The study was carried out in Espoo, Finland to patients over the age of 70 requiring non-urgent ambulance transfer to the emergency department. Outcome measures: A set of validated electronic screening tools was used to identify patients at nutritional risk, risk of falling and having cognitive impairment. Main results: A total of 488 (8%) out of 5792 patients were screened. Of the patients 60%, (n = 292) had at least one risk: 17% (n = 81) had nutritional risk, 43% (n = 209) falls risk, and 28% (n = 137) cognitive impairment. Twenty-two (5%) were screened positive in all three categories. The observed risk was reported to the emergency department staff in 59% (n = 173) of the patients. Conclusion: The emergency medical services can be used in preventive health care to identify patients having nutritional risk, falls risk, or cognitive impairment.