Browsing by Subject "Engineering"

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  • Veira Canle, Daniel; Mäkinen, Joni Mikko Kristian; Blomqvist, Richard; Gritsevich, M.; Salmi, Ari; Haeggström, Edward (2021)
    The primary goal of this study is to localize a defect (cavity) in a curved geometry. Curved topologies exhibit multiple resonances and the presence of hotspots for acoustic waves. Launching acoustic waves along a specific direction e.g. by means of an extended laser source reduces the complexity of the scattering problem. We performed experiments to demonstrate the use of a laser line source and verified the experimental results in FEM simulations. In both cases, we could locate and determine the size of a pit in a steel hemisphere which allowed us to visualize the defect on a 3D model of the sample. Such an approach could benefit patients by enabling contactless inspection of acetabular cups.
  • Ijäs, Tero Tapio (2019)
    Synthetic biology is described as a new field of biotechnology that models itself on engineering sciences. However, this view of synthetic biology as an engineering field has received criticism, and both biologists and philosophers have argued for a more nuanced and heterogeneous understanding of the field. This paper elaborates the heterogeneity of synthetic biology by clarifying the role of design and the variability of design methodologies in synthetic biology. I focus on two prominent design methodologies: rational design and directed evolution. Rational design resembles the design methodology of traditional engineering sciences. However, it is often replaced and complemented by the more biologically-inspired method of directed evolution, which models itself on natural evolution. These two approaches take philosophically different stances to the design of biological systems. Rational design aims to make biological systems more machine-like, whereas directed evolution utilizes variation and emergent features of living systems. I provide an analysis of the methodological basis of these design approaches, and highlight important methodological differences between them. By analyzing the respective benefits and limitations of these approaches, I argue against the engineering-dominated conception of synthetic biology and its “methodological monism”, where the rational design approach is taken as the default design methodology. Alternative design methodologies, like directed evolution, should be considered as complementary, not competitive, to rational design.
  • Hartikainen, Susanna; Rintala, Heta; Pylväs, Laura; Nokelainen, Petri (2019)
    Active learning has gained growing political, instructional, and research interest. However, the definitions of active learning are wide. The learning outcomes related to it have been mostly positive but the measurement methods are not without problems. This review provides an overview of active learning, especially in the context of engineering higher education, by answering two research questions: (1) How is the concept of active learning defined and justified in engineering higher education research? (2) What are the learning outcomes connected to active learning and how is learning measured in engineering higher education research? Sixty-six empirical articles were analyzed inductively with qualitative content analysis. The analysis showed that active learning was defined in various ways, and in some articles, it was not defined at all. In addition, justification (theoretical or empirical) for the use of active learning was seldomly reported. Finally, the indicators used to measure the impact of active learning on students’ learning outcomes were mostly based on students’ self-report data and focused on course specific development in subject-related knowledge. More thorough descriptions and theoretical justifications, as well as the consideration of learning outcomes with appropriate research methods, could reinforce the transparency of empirical interventions and the application of active learning. © 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.