Browsing by Subject "Estonia"

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  • Peil, Nele (2010)
    The purpose of the thesis is to provide a critical analysis of the regime of social security in current-day Estonia in terms of its poverty-alleviating potential and effect on the significant income disparities between the winners and losers of market-liberalism. The analysis is carried out in three steps. The first step determines risk factors for poverty among a household’s socio-economic characteristics in a hypothetical natural market situation. An overview of the dynamics of poverty in different social groups, with social benefits removed from households’ incomes, is provided for the time period 2004-2007. The second step analyzes the redistributive impact of the regime of social benefits by looking at how adding in social transfers to households’ incomes changed the picture. This step indicates in what groups social benefits significantly decrease poverty and how they affect the situation of income inequality between social groups. The third step is a discussion of the results in the framework of distributive principles of social rights and justice. This step provides the regime characterization in theoretical terms. The analysis is based on survey data from the Estonian Social Survey (ESS), a national survey carried out by Statistics Estonia. The ESS is the official source of national data on incomes. The methods used to analyse the data were bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis. The findings indicate that the most important factors of poverty risk among households’ main socio-economic characteristics are the engagement of the head of the household in employment, along with his/her gender and level of education. Living in a city rather than the country, and in households larger than single-member ones, are also deterrents of poverty. Household ethnicity and the head of household’s age proved fairly insignificant as poverty risk factors. The number of children a household has had medium effect on its poverty risk, with poverty rates starting to climb from the third child onwards. In terms of regime characterization, the Estonian social security regime is exemplified by marginal income guarantees, universal eligibility, differentiated quality of social rights and de-commodification, a proportional nature and low potential for income redistribution.
  • Malkamäki, S.; Näreaho, A.; Lavikainen, A.; Oksanen, A.; Sukura, A. (2019)
    Berries and vegetables are potential transmission vehicles for eggs of pathogenic parasites, such as Echinococcus spp. We developed a SYBR Green based semi-quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) method for detection of Echinococcus multilocularis and Echinococcus canadensis DNA from berry samples. A set of primers based on the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) gene was designed and evaluated. To assess the efficacy of the assay, we spiked bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus) with a known amount of E. multilocularis eggs. The detection limit for the assay using the NAD1_88 primer set was 4.37 × 10−5 ng/μl of E. multilocularis DNA. Under artificial contamination of berries, 50 E. multilocularis eggs were reliably detected in 250 g of bilberries. Analytical sensitivity of the assay was determined to be 100% with three eggs. As an application of the assay, 21 bilberry samples from Finnish market places and 21 bilberry samples from Estonia were examined. Previously described sieving and DNA extraction methods were used, and the samples were analyzed for E. multilocularis and E. canadensis DNA using semi-quantitative real-time PCR and a melting curve analysis of the amplified products. Echinococcus DNA was not detected in any of the commercial berry samples. This easy and fast method can be used for an efficient detection of E. multilocularis and E. canadensis in bilberries or other berries, and it is applicable also for fruits and vegetables. © 2019 The Authors
  • Cedercreutz, Carl; Grönblad, Rolf; Eklund, Ole; Marklund, Gunnar; Buch, Hans; Fontell, C. W.; Kotilainen, Mauno J.; Warén, Harry (Societas pro fauna et flora Fennica, 1929)
    Acta Societatis pro Fauna et Flora Fennica ; 55
  • Lämsä, Anna-Maija; Ojasoo, Merle; Jyrkinen, Marjut; Pucetaite, Raminta (2022)
  • Lämsä, Anna-Maija; Ojasoo, Merle; Jyrkinen, Marjut; Pucetaite, Raminta (2022)
  • Gross, Toomas (2021)
    Recreational running has been a widely popular form of leisure for half a century, and many countries have experienced a marathon boom in the past decades. In recent years, however, runners have started to run in new ways, often in unconventional settings, and compete in races with various alternative formats. Through an ethnographic approach that builds on in-depth narrative interviews with recreational runners, analysis of runners’ blogs, and participant observation in running events in Estonia, I suggest that as completing a marathon becomes a routine activity, increasingly many dedicated runners turn their bodies into veritable “arenas of experimentation.” Drawing on Zeiler’s concept of bodily “eu-appearance” and Ingold’s concerted approach to movement, perception, and knowledge, and building more generally on Merleau-Ponty’s phenomenological perspective, I argue that such corporeal experimentation is motivated by novel sensorial experiences that lead to a heightened awareness of one’s own body as well as by a pursuit of altered and intensified perceptual awareness of the environment one runs in.
  • Pihlajamäki, Heikki (Brill, 2017)
    In Conquest and the Law in Swedish Livonia (ca. 1630-1710), Heikki Pihlajamäki offers an exciting account of the law and judiciary in seventeenth-century Livonia. Immediately after Sweden conquered the province in the 1620s, a reorganization of the Livonian judiciary began. Its legal order became largely modelled after Swedish law, which differed in important ways from its Livonian counterpart. While Livonian legal tradition was firmly anchored in the European ius commune, the conquerors’ law was, by nature, not founded in legal learning. The volume convincingly demonstrates how the differences in legal cultures decisively affected the way Livonian judicial and procedural systems were shaped. Based on archival sources, the study presents an important contribution to the comparative legal history of the early modern period.
  • Aalto, Pami (2001)
    Acta Politica ; 19
    This study explores the construction of political space in post-Soviet Estonia. To this end, the study develops a new 'critical geopolitics' approach to the study of International Relations by importing perspectives from Political Geography and social theory, and by making use of Q methodological discourse analysis. On the whole, the new approach departs clearly from traditional geopolitical scholarship in focusing on the political, discursive and subjective aspects of geopolitics. In particular, this approach helps us to obtain detailed knowledge of how discourse construction, identity politics and subjectively experienced everyday life result in the creation of new symbolic and material (territorial) boundaries between groups, states and groups of states. In the early 1990s, the ethnic Estonians initiated the practice of 'restorationist geopolitics'. By clinging to the principle of restoration of Estonia's statehood, they drove themselves into a border dispute with Russia. They also found themselves at odds with Russia in practising exclusionist citizenship policies towards Estonia's Russophone minority and by trying to disengage Estonia firmly from Russia after some 50 years of Soviet rule over Estonia. However, by making use of Q methodological discourse analysis and in-depth interviews, the study locates three discourses that introduce interesting alternatives to 'restorationist geopolitics'. The significance of these three discourses is that they indicate a relative opening up of political space in Estonia. Importantly, there is now more room for competing forms of identity politics as well. This also means the transformation of the rigid boundaries of the early 1990s between the ethnic Estonians and Estonia's Russophones into more permeable ones, with the Estonian government also opting for more inclusive policies. Estonian-Russian interstate relations continue to display a somewhat more mixed pattern, but the application of the new 'critical geopolitics' approach provides good grounds for finding further routes of peaceful development in the Baltic Region and post-Soviet space at large.
  • Uljas, Laila Irene (2007)
    The Estonian national and collective identity is heavily affected by a history of foreign intrusion and occupation. During the Soviet era a large population of Russian-speaking immigrants migrated to Estonia in hope of a better life. Now after independence, there has been tension and difficulty in creating a collective identity, which encompasses both the ethnic Estonians and Russian-speaking minority. My research shows that there are three main challenges that are present in the Estonian society. The three issues that need to be addressed are the citizen and language issue, the self-confidence and identity of the Estonians and the restructuring of civil society which has been weak after independence. These challenges are also the keys to a realistic model of solution which includes creating a stronger civil society that allows both ethnic Estonians and the Russian-speaking minority to participate in. My research shows that language is a very important part of Estonian identity and part of the barrier that exists between the two groups. Resolving the language issue and boosting the Estonian identity would improve joint participation in the civil society. This in turn would reinforce self-confidence of both groups and help build their collective identity. These three key aspects offer an avenue for helping the two groups live together, and not separately. The EU brings new perspectives to the issue, adding a new layer of identity but meanwhile also strengthening the Estonian identity. It allows Estonia to clearly belong to the west, cutting its umbilical cord with Russia.
  • Hietala, Reija; Ijäs, Asko; Pikner, Tarmo; Kull, Anne; Printsmann, Anu; Kuusik, Maila; Fagerholm, Nora; Vihervaara, Petteri; Nordström, Paulina; Kostamo, Kirsi (Springer Nature, 2021)
    Journal of Coastal Conservation 25 (2021), 47
    The Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP) Directive was ratified (2014/89/EU) along the Strategy of the European Union (EU) on the Blue Economy to contribute to the effective management of maritime activities and resources and incorporate the principal elements of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) (2002/413/EC) into planning at the land-sea interface. There is a need to develop the ICZM approach throughout Europe to realise the potential for both socio-economic and environmental targets set by the EU and national legislations. In this study, we co-developed different approaches for land-sea interactions in four case areas in Estonia and Finland based on the defined characteristics and key interests derived from local or regional challenges by integrating spatial data on human activities and ecology. Furthermore, four ICZM drafts were co-evaluated by stakeholders and the public using online map-based assessment tools (public participatory GIS). The ICZM approaches of the Estonian cases ranged from the diversification of land use to the enhancement of community-based entrepreneurship. The Finnish cases aimed to define the trends for sustainable marine and coastal tourism and introduce the ecosystem service concept in land use planning. During the project activities, we found that increased communication and exchange of local and regional views and values on the prevailing land-sea interactions were important for the entire process. Thereafter, the ICZM plans were applied to the MSP processes nationally, and they support the sustainable development of coastal areas in Estonia and Finland.
  • Waylen, Kerry; Blackstock, Kirsty; van Hulst, Freddy; Damian, Carmen; Horváth, Ferenc; Johnson, Richard; Kanka, Robert; Külvik, Mart; Macleod, Christopher J.A.; Meissner, Kristian; Oprina-Pavelescu, Mihaela M.; Pino, Joan; Primmer, Eeva; Rîșnoveanu, Geta; Šatalová, Barbora; Silander, Jari; Špulerová, Jana; Suškevičs, Monika; van Uytvanck, Jan (Elsevier, 2019)
    Data in Brief 23 (2019), 103785
    The data presented in this DiB article provide an overview of Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) carried out for 3 European environmental policies (the Water Framework Directive, the Natura 2000 network of protected areas, and Agri-Environment Schemes implemented under the Common Agricultural Policy), as implemented in 9 cases (Catalonia (Spain), Estonia, Finland, Flanders (Belgium), Hungary, Romania, Slovakia, Scotland (UK), Sweden). These data are derived from reports and documents about monitoring programs that were publicly-available online in 2017. The literature on M&E to support adaptive management structured the issues that have been extracted and summarized. The data is related to the research article entitled “Policy-driven monitoring and evaluation: does it support adaptive management of socio-ecological systems?” [Stem et al., 2005]. The information provides a first overview of monitoring and evaluation that has been implemented in response to key European environmental policies. It provides a structured overview that permits a comparison of cases and policies and can assist other scholars and practitioners working on monitoring and evaluation.
  • DIABIMMUNE Study Grp; Schmidt, Felicitas; Hose, Alexander J.; Siljander, Heli; Knip, Mikael; Ege, Markus J. (2019)
    Background: The prevalence of atopy is associated with a Western lifestyle, as shown by studies comparing neighboring regions with different socioeconomic backgrounds. Atopy might reflect various conditions differing in their susceptibility to environmental factors. Objective: We sought to define phenotypes of atopic sensitization in early childhood and examine their association with allergic diseases and hereditary background in Finland and Estonia. Methods: The analysis included 1603 Finnish and 1657 Estonian children from the DIABIMMUNE multicenter young children cohort. Specific IgE levels were measured at age 3, 4, and 5 years, respectively, and categorized into 3 CAP classes. Latent class analysis was performed with the statistical software package poLCA in R software. Results: Both populations differed in terms of socioeconomic status and environmental determinants, such as pet ownership, farm-related exposure, time spent playing outdoors, and prevalence of allergic diseases (all P Conclusion: Despite profound differences in environmental exposures, there might exist genuine patterns of atopic sensitization. The distribution of these patterns might determine the contribution of atopic sensitization to disease onset.
  • Marcinkute, Audrone; Sarkunas, Mindaugas; Moks, Epp; Saarma, Urmas; Jokelainen, Pikka; Bagrade, Guna; Laivacuma, Sniedze; Strupas, Kestutis; Sokolovas, Vitalijus; Deplazes, Peter (2015)
    In the Baltic countries, the two zoonotic diseases, alveolar echinococcosis (AE) caused by Echinococcus multilocularis, and cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by Echinococcus granulosus, are of increasing public health concern. Observations from Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania indicate that the distribution of both parasites is wider in the Baltics than previously expected. In this paper, we review and discuss the available data, regarding both parasitoses in animals and humans, from the Baltic countries and selected adjacent regions. The data are not easily comparable but reveal a worrisome situation as the number of human AE and CE cases is increasing. Despite improvements in diagnostics and treatment, AE has a high morbidity and mortality in the Baltic region. For the control of both zoonoses, monitoring transmission patterns and timely diagnosis in humans as well as the development of local control programs present major challenges. (C) 2015 Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Lipijäinen, Margarita (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    The debate on the topic of the merits of fiscal policy has re-emerged due to the financial crisis of 2008-10 and the effect of the zero lower bound on monetary policy. New research has added new models and identification methods to the growing body of literature on fiscal multipliers. The motivation for the paper was to investigate the effects of fiscal policy shocks using a structural VAR. The main goal has been to estimate the spending and tax multipliers for Estonia. Estonia was one of the first countries to put forth austere fiscal consolidation measures in response to the aforementioned crisis. Thereafter, it has become a peculiar case study for critics and advocates of austerity, as it managed to grow its way through the financial crisis despite significant austerity measures. A major challenge when using a SVAR is the identification of fiscal policy shocks. Due to the simplicity of the method and the lack of narrative data on fiscal measures, I opted to estimate the SVAR using the Cholesky decomposition. The estimated multipliers are small in magnitude, same as mostly found in the literature based on the Blanchard-Perotti identification scheme. However, the signs of the estimates are reversed compared to the usual. Estimation results show positive spending shocks to be contractionary and positive tax shocks to be expansionary. These can be interpreted as negative fiscal multipliers, as found in papers such as Giavazzi and Pagano (1990) and Alesina and Ardagna (1998). This suggests that fiscal austerity could be expansionary in the Estonian economy. Another explanation for the results is the possibility that the the spending-savings decisions of the Estonian firms and consumers are consistent with Ricardian equivalence. Furthermore, the small sample size and the possibility of a misspecified model are other important aspect to keep in mind when interpreting the results. Thus, further investigation is warranted. The study could be extended in many different directions. For instance, one could attempt to estimate state-dependent multipliers, control for fiscal foresight, test different SVAR identification schemes, include monetary policy interactions with fiscal policy, and extending the research to a panel study covering all the Baltic States. The latter could perhaps offer a way out of the small sample size problem, considering the similarity of Estonian and other Baltic economies.
  • Dovydaitis, Emily (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Finland and Estonia form a cross-border region in Europe. Unlike other cross-border regions, which share a land border with their neighbor, Finland and Estonia are separated by the Gulf of Finland. The distance is close enough to facilitate regular travel by ferry on a weekly or monthly basis, but for Estonian immigrants living in Finland, daily commutes are unlikely. Given that Finland is the top migration destination for Estonians, the cross-border region of Estonia-Finland poses an interesting case study. In this thesis, the integration and transnationalism of Estonians living in Finland are studied through a spatial mobility lens. First, a theoretical framework is proposed to facilitate empirical research. The framework jointly examines integration and transnationalism by partitioning them into separate domains: social, structural, cultural, civic & political, identity, and spatial. The aim of the framework is to narrow the socio-spatial gap in migration literature, by focusing on the interwoven nature of the social and spatial perspectives. Using data from a comprehensive survey about Estonian immigrants living in Finland, the proposed theoretical framework is operationalized for multiple correspondence analysis (MCA). Three MCA analyses are performed: 1) social integration with host society (Finland), 2) social transnationalism with the sending society (Estonia), and 3) spatial transnationalism between the host society (Finland) and the sending society (Estonia). MCA results show that transnationalism and integration vary both across and within domains. MCA results are connected to one another using correlation analysis and general linear model (GLM) analyses. Correlation analysis and GLM demonstrate that for the study population, integration in the host society and transnationalism with the sending society are inversely associated. This inverse relationship carries over into the spatial domain and can be seen based on which country an immigrant does certain activities (e.g., visiting family, working, accessing healthcare, enjoying leisure time). Immigrants with strong social connections to the host society are more likely to do activities in Finland whereas immigrants with strong social connections to the sending society are more likely to do activities in Estonia. Some immigrants exhibit a multilocal mobility pattern, in which they do activities equally in both Estonia and Finland.
  • Ronkainen, Rina; Kuusisto, Elina; Eisenschmidt, Eve; Tirri, Kirsi (2022)
    The purpose of this study was to investigate Finnish (n = 226) and Estonian (n = 347) teachers' views on the nature of intelligence. The study utilized a survey that included a qualitative, open-ended question about teachers' definition of intelligence and the quantitative inventory Implicit Theories of Intelligence (ITI). We then employed a convergent mixed-method design to understand teachers' views on the nature of intelligence. These views were divided into four main categories: the multidimensional nature of intelligence, manifestational nature of intelligence, developmental nature of intelligence, and creative nature of intelligence. Teachers from both countries highlighted cognitive features, such as memory, information processing, and problem-solving skills, as a part of the multidimensional nature of intelligence. In addition, teachers viewed intelligence as developmental when measured with the ITI inventory, indicating that intelligence is considered incremental. Lastly, when triangulating the qualitative and quantitative data of teachers' views on the nature of intelligence, only one statistically significant difference was found. Teachers with an entity view of intelligence also mentioned entity features in their own descriptions. The results showed that teachers views' on the nature of intelligence are rather broad; however, in future studies, teacher interviews and classroom observation might provide even more profound understanding of teachers' views on this topic.
  • Etverk, I. (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1980)
  • Kuprijanov, Ivan; Väli, Germo; Sharov, Andrey; Berezina, Nadezhda; Liblik, Taav; Lips, Urmas; Kolesova, Natalja; Mannio, Jaakko; Lips, Inga; Junttila, Ville (Macmillan, 2021)
    Marine Pollution Bulletin, 170 (2021), 112642
    Contamination by hazardous substances is one of the main environmental problems in the eastern Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea. A trilateral effort to sample and analyse heavy metals (HMs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and organotins from bottom sediments in 2019–2020 were conducted along with harvesting historical data in Russian, Estonian and Finnish waters. We suggest that the input of organotins still occurs along the ship traffic routes. The tributyltin content exceeded the established quality criteria up to more than 300 times. High contamination by PAHs found near the ports, most likely originate from incomplete fuel incineration processes. The Neva River Estuary and Luga Bay might potentially suffer from severe cadmium contamination. The high ecological risk attributed to the HMs was detected at deep offshore areas. The simulated accumulation pattern qualitatively agrees with field observations of HMs in sediments, demonstrating the potential of numerical tools to tackle the hazardous substances problems.
  • Kivimaa, Paula; Sivonen, Marja H. (Elsevier, 2021)
    Energy Research & Social Science 75 (2021), 102024
    Sustainable Development Goals aim for a better future, but gains are threatened by conflict and governance failures, exacerbated by climate change. While research on energy security is well-established, conceptual-analytical research on sustainability transitions has paid little attention to security threats as factors influencing transitions or security policy as part of policy mixes. This paper combines policy coherence and integration analysis of energy and security strategy documents with sustainability transitions’ research, considering how landscape pressures and energy niches are presented in documents pertaining to Estonia, Finland and Scotland during 2006–2020. The findings show that security and energy policies present a functional overlap. Yet, policy integration and coherence are insufficiently addressed, conflicts created by coexisting low-carbon and hydrocarbon-based security considerations. An increasingly multifaceted landscape creates a complicated policy environment where pursuing policy coherence becomes harder. Despite the accelerating energy transition, the security implications of energy niches have received too little attention.