Browsing by Subject "Estonia"

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  • Peil, Nele (2010)
    The purpose of the thesis is to provide a critical analysis of the regime of social security in current-day Estonia in terms of its poverty-alleviating potential and effect on the significant income disparities between the winners and losers of market-liberalism. The analysis is carried out in three steps. The first step determines risk factors for poverty among a household’s socio-economic characteristics in a hypothetical natural market situation. An overview of the dynamics of poverty in different social groups, with social benefits removed from households’ incomes, is provided for the time period 2004-2007. The second step analyzes the redistributive impact of the regime of social benefits by looking at how adding in social transfers to households’ incomes changed the picture. This step indicates in what groups social benefits significantly decrease poverty and how they affect the situation of income inequality between social groups. The third step is a discussion of the results in the framework of distributive principles of social rights and justice. This step provides the regime characterization in theoretical terms. The analysis is based on survey data from the Estonian Social Survey (ESS), a national survey carried out by Statistics Estonia. The ESS is the official source of national data on incomes. The methods used to analyse the data were bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis. The findings indicate that the most important factors of poverty risk among households’ main socio-economic characteristics are the engagement of the head of the household in employment, along with his/her gender and level of education. Living in a city rather than the country, and in households larger than single-member ones, are also deterrents of poverty. Household ethnicity and the head of household’s age proved fairly insignificant as poverty risk factors. The number of children a household has had medium effect on its poverty risk, with poverty rates starting to climb from the third child onwards. In terms of regime characterization, the Estonian social security regime is exemplified by marginal income guarantees, universal eligibility, differentiated quality of social rights and de-commodification, a proportional nature and low potential for income redistribution.
  • Malkamäki, S.; Näreaho, A.; Lavikainen, A.; Oksanen, A.; Sukura, A. (2019)
    Berries and vegetables are potential transmission vehicles for eggs of pathogenic parasites, such as Echinococcus spp. We developed a SYBR Green based semi-quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) method for detection of Echinococcus multilocularis and Echinococcus canadensis DNA from berry samples. A set of primers based on the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) gene was designed and evaluated. To assess the efficacy of the assay, we spiked bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus) with a known amount of E. multilocularis eggs. The detection limit for the assay using the NAD1_88 primer set was 4.37 × 10−5 ng/μl of E. multilocularis DNA. Under artificial contamination of berries, 50 E. multilocularis eggs were reliably detected in 250 g of bilberries. Analytical sensitivity of the assay was determined to be 100% with three eggs. As an application of the assay, 21 bilberry samples from Finnish market places and 21 bilberry samples from Estonia were examined. Previously described sieving and DNA extraction methods were used, and the samples were analyzed for E. multilocularis and E. canadensis DNA using semi-quantitative real-time PCR and a melting curve analysis of the amplified products. Echinococcus DNA was not detected in any of the commercial berry samples. This easy and fast method can be used for an efficient detection of E. multilocularis and E. canadensis in bilberries or other berries, and it is applicable also for fruits and vegetables. © 2019 The Authors
  • Cedercreutz, Carl; Grönblad, Rolf; Eklund, Ole; Marklund, Gunnar; Buch, Hans; Fontell, C. W.; Kotilainen, Mauno J.; Warén, Harry (Societas pro fauna et flora Fennica, 1929)
    Acta Societatis pro fauna et flora Fennica; 55
  • Gross, Toomas (2021)
    Recreational running has been a widely popular form of leisure for half a century, and many countries have experienced a marathon boom in the past decades. In recent years, however, runners have started to run in new ways, often in unconventional settings, and compete in races with various alternative formats. Through an ethnographic approach that builds on in-depth narrative interviews with recreational runners, analysis of runners’ blogs, and participant observation in running events in Estonia, I suggest that as completing a marathon becomes a routine activity, increasingly many dedicated runners turn their bodies into veritable “arenas of experimentation.” Drawing on Zeiler’s concept of bodily “eu-appearance” and Ingold’s concerted approach to movement, perception, and knowledge, and building more generally on Merleau-Ponty’s phenomenological perspective, I argue that such corporeal experimentation is motivated by novel sensorial experiences that lead to a heightened awareness of one’s own body as well as by a pursuit of altered and intensified perceptual awareness of the environment one runs in.
  • Pihlajamäki, Heikki (Brill, 2017)
    In Conquest and the Law in Swedish Livonia (ca. 1630-1710), Heikki Pihlajamäki offers an exciting account of the law and judiciary in seventeenth-century Livonia. Immediately after Sweden conquered the province in the 1620s, a reorganization of the Livonian judiciary began. Its legal order became largely modelled after Swedish law, which differed in important ways from its Livonian counterpart. While Livonian legal tradition was firmly anchored in the European ius commune, the conquerors’ law was, by nature, not founded in legal learning. The volume convincingly demonstrates how the differences in legal cultures decisively affected the way Livonian judicial and procedural systems were shaped. Based on archival sources, the study presents an important contribution to the comparative legal history of the early modern period.
  • Aalto, Pami (2001)
    This study explores the construction of political space in post-Soviet Estonia. To this end, the study develops a new 'critical geopolitics' approach to the study of International Relations by importing perspectives from Political Geography and social theory, and by making use of Q methodological discourse analysis. On the whole, the new approach departs clearly from traditional geopolitical scholarship in focusing on the political, discursive and subjective aspects of geopolitics. In particular, this approach helps us to obtain detailed knowledge of how discourse construction, identity politics and subjectively experienced everyday life result in the creation of new symbolic and material (territorial) boundaries between groups, states and groups of states. In the early 1990s, the ethnic Estonians initiated the practice of 'restorationist geopolitics'. By clinging to the principle of restoration of Estonia's statehood, they drove themselves into a border dispute with Russia. They also found themselves at odds with Russia in practising exclusionist citizenship policies towards Estonia's Russophone minority and by trying to disengage Estonia firmly from Russia after some 50 years of Soviet rule over Estonia. However, by making use of Q methodological discourse analysis and in-depth interviews, the study locates three discourses that introduce interesting alternatives to 'restorationist geopolitics'. The significance of these three discourses is that they indicate a relative opening up of political space in Estonia. Importantly, there is now more room for competing forms of identity politics as well. This also means the transformation of the rigid boundaries of the early 1990s between the ethnic Estonians and Estonia's Russophones into more permeable ones, with the Estonian government also opting for more inclusive policies. Estonian-Russian interstate relations continue to display a somewhat more mixed pattern, but the application of the new 'critical geopolitics' approach provides good grounds for finding further routes of peaceful development in the Baltic Region and post-Soviet space at large.
  • Uljas, Laila Irene (2007)
    The Estonian national and collective identity is heavily affected by a history of foreign intrusion and occupation. During the Soviet era a large population of Russian-speaking immigrants migrated to Estonia in hope of a better life. Now after independence, there has been tension and difficulty in creating a collective identity, which encompasses both the ethnic Estonians and Russian-speaking minority. My research shows that there are three main challenges that are present in the Estonian society. The three issues that need to be addressed are the citizen and language issue, the self-confidence and identity of the Estonians and the restructuring of civil society which has been weak after independence. These challenges are also the keys to a realistic model of solution which includes creating a stronger civil society that allows both ethnic Estonians and the Russian-speaking minority to participate in. My research shows that language is a very important part of Estonian identity and part of the barrier that exists between the two groups. Resolving the language issue and boosting the Estonian identity would improve joint participation in the civil society. This in turn would reinforce self-confidence of both groups and help build their collective identity. These three key aspects offer an avenue for helping the two groups live together, and not separately. The EU brings new perspectives to the issue, adding a new layer of identity but meanwhile also strengthening the Estonian identity. It allows Estonia to clearly belong to the west, cutting its umbilical cord with Russia.
  • Hietala, Reija; Ijäs, Asko; Pikner, Tarmo; Kull, Anne; Printsmann, Anu; Kuusik, Maila; Fagerholm, Nora; Vihervaara, Petteri; Nordström, Paulina; Kostamo, Kirsi (Springer Nature, 2021)
    Journal of Coastal Conservation 25 (2021), 47
    The Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP) Directive was ratified (2014/89/EU) along the Strategy of the European Union (EU) on the Blue Economy to contribute to the effective management of maritime activities and resources and incorporate the principal elements of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) (2002/413/EC) into planning at the land-sea interface. There is a need to develop the ICZM approach throughout Europe to realise the potential for both socio-economic and environmental targets set by the EU and national legislations. In this study, we co-developed different approaches for land-sea interactions in four case areas in Estonia and Finland based on the defined characteristics and key interests derived from local or regional challenges by integrating spatial data on human activities and ecology. Furthermore, four ICZM drafts were co-evaluated by stakeholders and the public using online map-based assessment tools (public participatory GIS). The ICZM approaches of the Estonian cases ranged from the diversification of land use to the enhancement of community-based entrepreneurship. The Finnish cases aimed to define the trends for sustainable marine and coastal tourism and introduce the ecosystem service concept in land use planning. During the project activities, we found that increased communication and exchange of local and regional views and values on the prevailing land-sea interactions were important for the entire process. Thereafter, the ICZM plans were applied to the MSP processes nationally, and they support the sustainable development of coastal areas in Estonia and Finland.
  • Diabimmune Study Grp; Schmidt, Felicitas; Hose, Alexander J.; Siljander, Heli; Knip, Mikael; Ege, Markus J. (2019)
    Background: The prevalence of atopy is associated with a Western lifestyle, as shown by studies comparing neighboring regions with different socioeconomic backgrounds. Atopy might reflect various conditions differing in their susceptibility to environmental factors. Objective: We sought to define phenotypes of atopic sensitization in early childhood and examine their association with allergic diseases and hereditary background in Finland and Estonia. Methods: The analysis included 1603 Finnish and 1657 Estonian children from the DIABIMMUNE multicenter young children cohort. Specific IgE levels were measured at age 3, 4, and 5 years, respectively, and categorized into 3 CAP classes. Latent class analysis was performed with the statistical software package poLCA in R software. Results: Both populations differed in terms of socioeconomic status and environmental determinants, such as pet ownership, farm-related exposure, time spent playing outdoors, and prevalence of allergic diseases (all P Conclusion: Despite profound differences in environmental exposures, there might exist genuine patterns of atopic sensitization. The distribution of these patterns might determine the contribution of atopic sensitization to disease onset.
  • Marcinkute, Audrone; Sarkunas, Mindaugas; Moks, Epp; Saarma, Urmas; Jokelainen, Pikka; Bagrade, Guna; Laivacuma, Sniedze; Strupas, Kestutis; Sokolovas, Vitalijus; Deplazes, Peter (2015)
    In the Baltic countries, the two zoonotic diseases, alveolar echinococcosis (AE) caused by Echinococcus multilocularis, and cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by Echinococcus granulosus, are of increasing public health concern. Observations from Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania indicate that the distribution of both parasites is wider in the Baltics than previously expected. In this paper, we review and discuss the available data, regarding both parasitoses in animals and humans, from the Baltic countries and selected adjacent regions. The data are not easily comparable but reveal a worrisome situation as the number of human AE and CE cases is increasing. Despite improvements in diagnostics and treatment, AE has a high morbidity and mortality in the Baltic region. For the control of both zoonoses, monitoring transmission patterns and timely diagnosis in humans as well as the development of local control programs present major challenges. (C) 2015 Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Lipijäinen, Margarita (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    The debate on the topic of the merits of fiscal policy has re-emerged due to the financial crisis of 2008-10 and the effect of the zero lower bound on monetary policy. New research has added new models and identification methods to the growing body of literature on fiscal multipliers. The motivation for the paper was to investigate the effects of fiscal policy shocks using a structural VAR. The main goal has been to estimate the spending and tax multipliers for Estonia. Estonia was one of the first countries to put forth austere fiscal consolidation measures in response to the aforementioned crisis. Thereafter, it has become a peculiar case study for critics and advocates of austerity, as it managed to grow its way through the financial crisis despite significant austerity measures. A major challenge when using a SVAR is the identification of fiscal policy shocks. Due to the simplicity of the method and the lack of narrative data on fiscal measures, I opted to estimate the SVAR using the Cholesky decomposition. The estimated multipliers are small in magnitude, same as mostly found in the literature based on the Blanchard-Perotti identification scheme. However, the signs of the estimates are reversed compared to the usual. Estimation results show positive spending shocks to be contractionary and positive tax shocks to be expansionary. These can be interpreted as negative fiscal multipliers, as found in papers such as Giavazzi and Pagano (1990) and Alesina and Ardagna (1998). This suggests that fiscal austerity could be expansionary in the Estonian economy. Another explanation for the results is the possibility that the the spending-savings decisions of the Estonian firms and consumers are consistent with Ricardian equivalence. Furthermore, the small sample size and the possibility of a misspecified model are other important aspect to keep in mind when interpreting the results. Thus, further investigation is warranted. The study could be extended in many different directions. For instance, one could attempt to estimate state-dependent multipliers, control for fiscal foresight, test different SVAR identification schemes, include monetary policy interactions with fiscal policy, and extending the research to a panel study covering all the Baltic States. The latter could perhaps offer a way out of the small sample size problem, considering the similarity of Estonian and other Baltic economies.
  • Etverk, I. (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1980)
  • Kivimaa, Paula; Sivonen, Marja H. (Elsevier, 2021)
    Energy Research & Social Science 75 (2021), 102024
    Sustainable Development Goals aim for a better future, but gains are threatened by conflict and governance failures, exacerbated by climate change. While research on energy security is well-established, conceptual-analytical research on sustainability transitions has paid little attention to security threats as factors influencing transitions or security policy as part of policy mixes. This paper combines policy coherence and integration analysis of energy and security strategy documents with sustainability transitions’ research, considering how landscape pressures and energy niches are presented in documents pertaining to Estonia, Finland and Scotland during 2006–2020. The findings show that security and energy policies present a functional overlap. Yet, policy integration and coherence are insufficiently addressed, conflicts created by coexisting low-carbon and hydrocarbon-based security considerations. An increasingly multifaceted landscape creates a complicated policy environment where pursuing policy coherence becomes harder. Despite the accelerating energy transition, the security implications of energy niches have received too little attention.
  • Plado, Juri; Ainsaar, Leho; Dmitrijeva, Marija; Poldsaar, Kairi; Ots, Siim; Pesonen, Lauri J.; Preeden, Ulla (2016)
    Magnetic susceptibility (MS), its frequency-dependence and anisotropy of the Middle Ordovician Dapingian and Darriwilian sedimentary sequence from three sites (Uuga, Testepere and Leetse) in the Pakri Peninsula, NW Estonia are analysed in combination with the mineralogical composition. The study is based on 463 cores drilled at intervals of a few centimetres to a maximum of about 1 m. All the samples show low and positive MS, which suggests the presence of small quantities of paraand/or ferromagnetic minerals. The stratigraphic units of the three studied sites have a similar along-section appearance, which provides a base for a composite curve. The relatively higher susceptibilities are carried by secondary Fe-Ti oxides (Toila Formation), goethite ooids (Kandle Formation) and ferrous dolomite (Pae Member), whereas paramagnetic minerals are mostly responsible for the rest of the sequence. Considering the dependence of MS on regressive transgressive cycles (high/low MS within deposits of regressive/transgressive parts of the cycles, respectively), the MS data do not agree with sedimentologically derived sea-level compilations. The measured changes in MS in the Pakri Peninsula outcrops correlate at certain characteristic levels with those deposited in the deeper part of the palaeobasin (Viki core), indicating that the post-depositional iron mobilization within the sediments took place at least at a regional level. Because of post-depositional reorganization of ferromagnetic carrier minerals, the MS values may, however, not be used as a detrital proxy.
  • Polese, Abel; Seliverstova, Oleksandra; Kerikmae, Tanel; Cheskin, Ammon (2020)
    Political debates on the Baltics, and in particular Estonia, have often pointed to "nationalisting" and exclusive narratives constructed at the institutional level. Accordingly, emphasis has been put on the lack of opportunities for Russians to integrate into an Estonian context. While acknowledging the shortfalls of the Estonian political project, this article contrasts these views in two ways. By emphasizing people's agency and their capacity to question, contrast, or even reject the identity markers proposed by Estonian official narratives, we maintain that the integration of Russians might be more advanced than insofar claimed by other studies. We then look at the way identities are lived in an everyday context by inhabitants of Estonia to counterpose national narratives proposed by the state and its political institutions, with the way people live and whether they accept these narratives. By doing this, we explore the role of the everyday in the reconstruction of national identity narratives, in which citizens actively participate in their individual capacity. We suggest that, from a James Scott "infrapolitics" perspective, these micro-actions have a fundamental role in the reshaping of a national identity and its acceptance among citizens.
  • Bobrova, Veera; Heinamäki, Jyrki; Honkanen, Outi; Desselle, Shane; Airaksinen, Marja; Volmer, Daisy (2019)
    Background: Multi-dose dispensing (MDD) of medications is a health technology designed to promote medication adherence and patient safety. MDD has been used as an alternative to ordinary prescription dispensing for patients, mostly elderly with high medication use. Objective: To evaluate the initiation phase of the MDD service to older adults >= 65 years and assess wheter the medication use of the new MDD patients is appropriate in terms of drug related problems. Methods: The European Union EU(7)-PIM list and the Inxbase databases were used for identifying potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) and drug-drug interactions (DDIs). The study sample consisted of a total of 208 patients aged 65-108 years who were involved in the MDD service (PharmaService Ltd.) in Finland in 2015-2016. Clinically significant differences of PIM and DDI occurrences were identified using a Pearson's chi-square test throughout the demographic groups under study. Results: Results demonstrate that for 81% of the study participants, at least one medication from the EU (7)-PIM list was prescribed, and up to 64% of PIMs were clinically significant. According to the Inxbase database, five patients (2.4%) were prescribed category D clinically significant DDIs. Additionally, 61% of the patients saw an increase in the number of medications prescribed within six months after the initial MDD order. Conclusions: The results suggest that the MDD service should be accompanied by a regular medication review tailored to specific patient groups (i.e., older patients) to avoid potential DRPs.
  • Plado, Juri; Preeden, Ulla; Joeleht, Argo; Pesonen, Lauri J.; Mertanen, Satu (2016)
    The hill range of Vaivara Sinimaed in northeast Estonia consists of several narrow east-to northeast-trending glaciotectonic fold structures. The folds include tilted (dips 4-75 degrees) Middle Ordovician (early Darriwilian) layered carbonate strata that were studied by mineralogical, palaeomagnetic, and rock magnetic methods in order to specify the post-sedimentational history of the area and to obtain a better control over the palaeogeographic position of Baltica during the Ordovician. Mineralogical studies revealed that (titano) magnetite, hematite, and goethite are carriers of magnetization. Based on data from 5 sites that positively passed a DC tilt test, a south-easterly downward directed component A (D-ref = 154.6 degrees +/- 15.3 degrees, I-ref = 60.9 degrees +/- 9.7 degrees) was identified. The component is carried by (titano) magnetite, dates to the Middle Ordovician (Plat = 17.9 degrees, Plon = 47.3 degrees, K = 46.7, A95 = 11.3 degrees), and places Baltica at mid-southerly latitudes. Observations suggest that in sites that do not pass the tilt test, the glaciotectonic event has caused some rotation of blocks around their vertical axis.