Browsing by Subject "Ethics"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-20 of 20
  • de Hulster, Izaak J.; Nicolet, Valérie; Nikolsky, Ronit; Silverman, Jason M (2021)
  • Janket, Sok-Ja; Meurman, Jukka; Diamandis, Eleftherios P. (2020)
    We teach and practice ethical behavior with all clinical and research activities. Notably, we are well educated to treat the subjects participating in research studies with high ethical standards. However, the ethics of interacting with colleagues, or with junior faculty members, are neither well defined nor taught. Dealing with junior faculty has parallels to dealing with vulnerable research subjects such as children, mentally or physically challenged groups, prison inmates or army recruits. Like any other vulnerable population, lower-ranking faculty members are often at the mercy of department chairs or other higher-ranked faculty members. Herein we present some potentially unethical or unfair examples related to academic research. Our goal is to educate the academic community of conceptual paths and to prevent similar untoward occurrences from happening in the future. Unethical behaviors related to sexual misconduct have already been described elsewhere and are not included in this manuscript. © 2020 Janket SJ et al.
  • CENTER-TBI Investigators; van Veen, Ernest; van der Jagt, Mathieu; Cnossen, Maryse C.; Maas, Andrew I. R.; de Beaufort, Inez D.; Menon, David K.; Citerio, Giuseppe; Stocchetti, Nino; Rietdijk, Wim J. R.; van Dijck, Jeroen T. J. M.; Kompanje, Erwin J. O.; Raj, Rahul (2018)
    BackgroundWe aimed to investigate the extent of the agreement on practices around brain death and postmortem organ donation.MethodsInvestigators from 67 Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in Traumatic Brain Injury (CENTER-TBI) study centers completed several questionnaires (response rate: 99%).ResultsRegarding practices around brain death, we found agreement on the clinical evaluation (prerequisites and neurological assessment) for brain death determination (BDD) in 100% of the centers. However, ancillary tests were required for BDD in 64% of the centers. BDD for nondonor patients was deemed mandatory in 18% of the centers before withdrawing life-sustaining measures (LSM). Also, practices around postmortem organ donation varied. Organ donation after circulatory arrest was forbidden in 45% of the centers. When withdrawal of LSM was contemplated, in 67% of centers the patients with a ventricular drain in situ had this removed, either sometimes or all of the time.ConclusionsThis study showed both agreement and some regional differences regarding practices around brain death and postmortem organ donation. We hope our results help quantify and understand potential differences, and provide impetus for current dialogs toward further harmonization of practices around brain death and postmortem organ donation.
  • Tammeleht, Anu; Rodriguez-Triana, Maria Jesus; Koort, Kairi; Lofstrom, Erika (2019)
    The increasing concern about ethics and integrity in research communities has brought attention to how students and junior academics can be trained on this regard. Moreover, it is known that ethical behaviour and integrity not only involve individual but also group norms and considerations. Thus, through action research and participant observation, this research investigates the learning processes through which 64 students collaboratively develop research ethics and integrity competencies. The aim was to understand how bachelor, master and PhD students approach ethical dilemma cases through a collaborative process. The data consisted of recorded group work on ethics cases, student group reports, and post-training questionnaires. Later, the analyses considered groups as the unit of analysis. These data were analysed through content analysis utilizing the SOLO taxonomy to identify levels of understanding and assess evolvement of ethical sensitivity during a casebased training session. The results show that all groups reached the level of understanding where the groups demonstrated that concepts had been understood appropriately, but occasionally struggled to make connections between them. Students perceived working collaboratively as beneficial. The results help teachers of research ethics and integrity to make pedagogically justified choices in their teaching. Drawing on the results of this study, we propose a tool for the formative assessment of student learning of research ethics and integrity.
  • Tirri, Kirsi (Springer Science+Business Media, 2019)
    Springer Nature
  • Helenius, Timo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The philosophical problem explored in this thesis concerns the metaethical demand of impartiality as a condition for ethics. The thesis holds its focus on impartiality while approaching it through an ethico-political set-up concerning the ethics of nationality and its demands. In order to provide a framing for the exploration, the thesis adopts a restricted view to the issue by way of studying leadership that could be called ethical. Moreover, a case study pertaining to the current U.S. Presidential Administration binds the questions together and provides material for conclusions regarding the issue of impartiality as a metaethical demand. In sum, the thesis adopts multiple levels of exploration albeit in the final analysis remaining to be focused in the philosophical question pertaining to the conditions of ethics itself. The thesis is executed in four stages. Chapter one studies some relevant theories of nationality, the relating demands of impartiality, and pins these questions on ethical leadership. The argument is that David Miller’s claim about the plausibility of the ethics of nationality can be challenged due to a tension that remains in stances espousing universalist particularism. This results in the challenge for ethically concerned (national) leaders to not adopt a mistaken cognitive stance in moral reasoning regarding the justified scope of moral worth as theorized by Terry L. Price. On this basis, chapter two outlines a case study in order to concretize the particular challenges that can be met in terms of the reviewed theories. Drawing from Walter Fluker, environmental concern should be an integral aspect of any conception of ethical leadership that itself, however, appears in the same analysis more as a quest rather than a readily executable stance of moral reasoning. Counter to Fluker’s insight, the current U.S. Presidential Administration has wilfully executed policies that aggravate the environmental impacts of climate change. This observation results in the need to clarify the administration’s stance. By way of attempting to comprehend the undercurrents of the case study, chapter three probes into the potential moral and intellectual justifications that would grant some legitimation for the hard-line nationalistic policy-stances as exposed by the case study. The theories by Thomas Malthus and Samuel Huntington as well as the matching applicative ideologization by Steve Bannon provides a framing that would justify the current U.S. Presidential Administration’s nationalistic “America First” program that also covers the field of environmental policymaking. Finally, chapter four ties the analyses together by re-examining un/ethical leadership, the aporia of im/partiality, and the viability of nationalist universalism. As a result, the thesis observes that David Miller’s and Yael Tamir’s respective attempts at defending nationalism fail as in the end they are not able to overcome the evident tension regarding the scope of moral obligations pertaining to im/partiality. Such failures point out an inherent difficulty for any ethical thought in that insofar as there seems not to be an uncontestable justification for defining a restricted scope of moral demands, then all models of normative ethics but pure universalism have been left without proper legitimatization.
  • Clarke, Angus J.; Wallgren-Pettersson, Carina (2019)
    Difficult ethical issues arise for patients and professionals in medical genetics, and often relate to the patient’s family or their social context. Tackling these issues requires sensitivity to nuances of communication and a commitment to clarity and consistency. It also benefits from an awareness of different approaches to ethical theory. Many of the ethical problems encountered in genetics relate to tensions between the wishes or interests of different people, sometimes even people who do not (yet) exist or exist as embryos, either in an established pregnancy or in vitro. Concern for the long-term welfare of a child or young person, or possible future children, or for other members of the family, may lead to tensions felt by the patient (client) in genetic counselling. Differences in perspective may also arise between the patient and professional when the latter recommends disclosure of information to relatives and the patient finds that too difficult, or when the professional considers the genetic testing of a child, sought by parents, to be inappropriate. The expectations of a patient’s community may also lead to the differences in perspective between patient and counsellor. Recent developments of genetic technology permit genome-wide investigations. These have generated additional and more complex data that amplify and exacerbate some pre-existing ethical problems, including those presented by incidental (additional sought and secondary) findings and the recognition of variants currently of uncertain significance, so that reports of genomic investigations may often be provisional rather than definitive. Experience is being gained with these problems but substantial challenges are likely to persist in the long term.
  • Löfström, Erika; Pyhältö, Kirsi (2017)
    This study explored the perceptions of ethical issues in supervision among doctoral students and supervisors. The nature of ethical issues identified by doctoral students (n = 28) and their supervisors (n = 14) is explored and the degree of fit and misfit between their perceptions in two cases representing the natural and behavioural sciences is analysed. Supervisors and students identified different ethical issues, which suggest that there are aspects in the supervisory relationship about which there is no shared understanding. There were also differences between the ethical issues emphasised in the natural sciences from those emphasised in the behavioural sciences, suggesting differences between the domains.
  • Mair, Jonathan (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2014)
    COLLeGIUM: Studies across Disciplines in the Humanities and Social Sciences 15
    On the basis of a study of an international Buddhist movement, this article defines “ethical conversations across borders” – acts of ethical deliberation, evaluation or argument that take place in cognisance of multiple ethical regimes – and proposes the conditions under which they can take place. Fo Guang Shan, described in the first part of the article, is a Buddhist movement that originated in Taiwan, but which now has branches around the world. It seeks to promote the cultivation of virtue among its members and among other people with which it has contact. The teachings of Master Hsing Yun, the movement’s founder, advocate two methods through which this project can be realised, “sowing seeds of affinity” and “convenience”. The second part of the article generalises observations made in relation to Fo Guang Shan and draws the conclusion that all “ethical conversations across borders” require two things, namely, the identification of similarities or “affinities”, and an account of difference that stipulates the units between which the conversation is to be carried on.
  • de Hulster, Izaak J.; Nikolsky, Ronit; Nicolet, Valérie; Silverman, Jason M (2021)
  • CENTER-TB1 Investigators; van Wijk, Roel P. J.; van Dijck, Jeroen T. J. M.; Timmers, Marjolein; Palotie, Aarno; Piippo-Karjalainen, Anna; Pirinen, Matti; Raj, Rahul; Ripatti, Samuli (2020)
    Purpose: Enrolling traumatic brain injury (731) patients with an inability to provide informed consent in research is challenging. Alternatives to patient consent are not sufficiently embedded in European and national legislation, which allows procedural variation and bias. We aimed to quantify variations in informed consent policy and practice. Methods: Variation was explored in the CENTER-TBI study. Policies were reported by using a questionnaire and national legislation. Data on used informed consent procedures were available for 4498 patients from 57 centres across 17 European countries. Results: Variation in the use of informed consent procedures was found between and within EU member states. Proxy informed consent (N = 1377;64%) was the most frequently used type of consent in the ICU, followed by patient informed consent (N 426;20%) and deferred consent (N 334;16%). Deferred consent was only actively used in 15 centres (26%), although it was considered valid in 47 centres (82%). Conclusions: Alternatives to patient consent are essential for TBI research. While there seems to be concordance amongst national legislations, there is regional variability in institutional practices with respect to the use of different informed consent procedures. Variation could be caused by several reasons, including inconsistencies in clear legislation or knowledge of such legislation amongst researchers. (C) 2020 Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • Soininen, Paivi; Putkonen, Hanna; Joffe, Grigori; Korkeila, Jyrki; Valimaki, Maritta (2014)
  • Thomas, Suzie (2017)
    Many professional archaeologists will engage with television. There seems to be little guidance- other than trial and error and personal communications - for navigating interactions with media production companies. Here, through a series of informal questions and answers, I present some issues with which one might be confronted in such engagements. I base my discussions on personal experience, literature, and conversations with experienced colleagues. A key point is that media production companies' agendas and priorities often differ from those of archaeologists. While the article draws on experiences from Europe and North America, it has relevance for archaeologists working with television everywhere.
  • Chesterman, Andrew (2019)
    Six cases or case types are briefly presented, illustrating a number of loose ends in translation ethics. These cases are related to reactions by different agents or voices to a clear error, and the ethical implications of these reactions. Case 1 is invented; it raises questions of accountability. Case 2 concerns reactions to errors in the source text, and official guidelines in this respect. Case 3 problematizes a literary translator’s refusal to correct certain errors. Case 4 discusses the descriptivist scholar’s problem of how to deal with clear errors. Case 5 is about a creative reaction to a serious problem in court interpreting. And case 6 analyses the ethical dilemma of trying to change traditional interpretations of passages in a sacred text, for good utilitarian reasons. Loose ends include: the need to revise codes of ethics; the clash between contractual and utilitarian ethics; clashes between voices; and the relation between personal and professional ethics (e.g. in interventionist translation).
  • Hynninen, Elina; Moliner, Rafael; Ekelund, Jesper; Korpi, Esa R.; Elsilä, Lauri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Psykedeelit eli serotonergiset hallusinogeenit ovat herättäneet uutta mielenkiintoa neurotieteissä ja psykiatriassa viime vuosina. Psykedeelejä tutkitaan nykyään pääsiassa psykedeeliavusteisen terapian muodossa. Tähänastiset tutkimukset antavat viitteitä mahdollisista hoidollisista ominaisuuksista muun muassa masennuksen, ahdistuksen, riippuvuuksien sekä kivun hoidossa. Nykyisten tutkimustulosten mukaan hoidolliset vaikutukset saattavat osalla potilaista jatkua pitkään hoitojakson jälkeen. Psykedeelit sitoutuvat keskushermostossa useisiin välittäjäainereseptoreihin, mutta niiden pääasiallinen molekulaarinen vaikutusmekanismi on serotonergisen 5-HT2A-reseptorin aktivaatio. Subjektiivisesti koetut vaikutukset välittyvät useita eri välittäjäaineita käyttävien hermoratojen toiminnallisten muutosten kautta, toistaiseksi melko huonosti tunnetuilla molekulaarisilla mekanismeilla. Aivotasolla psykedeelien on havaittu vähentävän tärkeiden yhteyskeskusten aktiivisuutta, lisäävän toiminnallisia yhteyksiä korkean tason aistikeskusten välillä sekä lisäävän hermosolujen muovautuvuutta. Psykedeelien voimakkaita psykologisia vaikutuksia ovat muutokset omassa kehonkuvassa ja ympäröivän maailman havainnoinnissa. Lisääntynyt hyvänolontunne, joka kuitenkin voi hetkessä muuttua voimakkaaksi ahdistukseksi on tyypillistä. Psykedeelien aikaansaama kokemus riippuu vahvasti käyttäjän omasta mielentilasta ja käytönaikaisesta ympäristöstä. Yliannostustilanteessa yleisiä haittoja ovat oksentelu, kuume, veren hyytymisen häiriöt, sympaattinen yliaktiivisuus ja lyhyet koomajaksot. Psykedeelejä pidetään fysiologisesti turvallisina aineina, mutta valvomattomissa olosuhteissa psykedeelien käyttäjä voi ajautua voimakkaiden psyykkisten vaikutusten alaisena vaarallisiin tilanteisiin ja onnettomuuksiin. Toleranssi psykedeeleihin kehittyy jo muutaman keskisuuren päivittäisen annoksen jälkeen. Lääketieteellinen psykedeelitutkimus on hyvin alkuvaiheessa. Tutkimukset ovat toistaiseksi olleet otannoiltaan pieniä ja asetelmiltaan usein avoimia ja kontrolloimattomia, minkä vuoksi ne ovat toistaiseksi riittämättömiä kuvastamaaan psykedeelien todellista vaikuttavuutta ja turvallisuutta.
  • Pietilä, Tuulikki (Gaudeamus, 2011)
  • Heikkurinen, Pasi (2018)
    Purpose This article examines how responsibility and strategy can and should be connected in a business organization. Design/methodology/approach The article offers a review of the field by mapping previous studies according to their strategy and responsibility orientations and, consequently, identifies the classic perspective, as well as the major deficiencies and prevailing research gaps in the literature. Findings The article contributes to the field of strategic corporate responsibility by reframing the field with a contender perspective that challenges the classic view of strategy and responsibility amalgamation. Together, the classic and the contender perspectives are synthesized to form an integrative perspective that is more holistic than those currently available. Originality/value The article ends by calling for a reimagining of the relationship between corporate responsibility and strategy to find promising future research avenues and effective business practices suitable to meet the challenges of the twenty-first century.
  • Roinila, Markku (Georg Olms Verlag, 2016)
    The Battle of the Endeavors: Dynamics of the Mind and Deliberation in New Essays, book IIAbstract for the 2016 Leibniz-Kongress, Hannover Markku Roinila In New Essays on Human Understanding, book II, chapter xxi Leibniz presents an interesting picture of the human mind as not only populated by perceptions, volitions and appetitions, but also by endeavours. The endeavours in question can be divided to entelechy and effort; Leibniz calls entelechy as primitive active forces and efforts as derivative forces. The entelechy, understood as primitive active force is to be equated with a substantial form, as Leibniz says: “When an entelechy – i.e. a primary or substantial endeavour – is accompanied by perception, it is a soul” (NE II, xxi, §1; RB, 170). What about efforts, then? One is certainly the will. In NE, II, xxi, §5 Leibniz argues that volition is the effort (conatus) to move towards what one finds good and away from what one finds bad and that this endeavor arises from the perceptions we are aware of. As an endeavour results in action unless it is prevented, from will (which is always directed to the good) and power together follows action. However, this is not so simple. Leibniz argues that there is also a second class of efforts: “There are other efforts, arising from insensible perceptions, which we are not aware of; I prefer to call these ‘appetitions’ rather than volitions” (NE II, xxi, §5; RB, 173). Although there are appetitions of which one can be aware, usually these appetitions arise from the insensible petite perceptions and are consequently affecting us subconsciously. Now, although all minute perceptions are confused perceptions, they are always related to pleasure and displeasure and also to perfection and imperfection. From this follows that there can be different efforts present in the soul at the same time: the will which is directed to apperceived good and several separate appetitions which lead to different goals, both to those which bring about perfection and pleasure of the mind (joy) and those which bring about displeasure and imperfection (sorrow). These efforts are not only in conflict with each other but may also be in conflict with entelechy. A typical case is perceiving a sensual pleasure. Our entelechy which is always directed to final causes (perfection) may be in conflict with several different appetitions which are related in different ways to the sensual pleasure in question. If our understanding is developed enough, our will resists the temptation posed by the pleasure (agreeing with entelechy), but if the temptation is too strong, the appetitions outweigh the will and the resulting action bring about imperfection and sorrow as it is related to imperfection. In this paper I will argue that deliberation in the human soul is a battle of different endeavors described above: the entelechy in the soul strives according to its law-of-the-series towards its telos (perfection) and the will accompanies it by being automatically directed to the good. This thrust towards the apparent good is aided or hindered by the appetitions which can be thought as derivative forces in the Leibnizian dynamics. Depending on whether the predominant appetitions are related to good or bad desires, the deliberation succeeds or fails in achieving the real good which is the goal of human deliberation. The successs can be facilitated beforehand by developing our understanding so that we are less easily swept away by the derivative forces (NE II, xxi, §19). A central role in this task is played by strong willing. As Martha Bolton has noted in her recent paper, an essential feature of the basic, standing endeavors is that they are continuous – although the power balance in the soul changes from moment to moment, something lingers from our previous volitions. That is why Leibniz argues that we pave way for the future deliberations by our previous voluntary actions (NE II, xxi, §23). In contrast, the appetitions are temporary, fliegende Gedanken as Leibniz says in NE II, xxi, §12. Therefore there is a constant, always changing power balance between two kinds of endeavors in the soul: primitive active force versus derivative forces. I will argue that the behavior of the forces in the soul can be understood with a vectorial model which is related to Leibniz’s early ideas of calculus of variations and which was anticipated by Arnauld and Nicole’s Port-Royal Logic. The central idea in the model is that the options are in tension towards each other and the ratio between them at each moment determines the consequent outcome. The proper relationship between the endeavors is not a simple balance, two options which exhaust each other, but a case where different efforts complement each other: “Since the final result is determined by how things weigh against one another, I should think it could happen that he most pressing disquiet did not prevail; for even If it prevailed over each of the contrary endeavours taken singly, it may be outweighed by all of them together.” Leibniz continues : “Everything which then impinges on us weighs in the balance and contributes to determining a resultant direction, almost as in mechanics” (NE II, xxi, §40; RB, 193). The different endeavors can be understood as vectors leading to different directions and the end result is a certain direction that deliberation takes. The dynamical tension between the different endeavors presents a situation where everything affects everything and the following direction, the resulting volition follows more or less automatically. In Theodicy, §325 Leibniz describes the deliberation as follows: “One might, instead of the balance, compare the soul with a force that puts forth an effort on various sides simultaneously, but which acts only at the spot where action is easiest or there is least resistance” (Huggard, 322) This kind of dynamical tension can be understood in terms of the calculus of variations where there are several possible variations available but where the dynamics of the situation results in the decision taking the “easiest” route which is more or less objectively good depending on the level of the deliberator’s understanding. In his comments to Bayle’s note L of “Rorarius” Leibniz says: “The soul, even though it has no parts, has within it, because of the multitude of representations of external things, or rather because of the representation of the universe lodged within it by the creator, a great number, or rather an infinite number, of variations (Woolhouse & Francks (ed.), ‘New System’ and Associated Texts, 101). This kind of deliberation is comparable to God’s choice of the best world with the difference that God’s understanding is infinite which again results in the fact that the choice is the best possible. Whereas in nature the easiest route taken is always optimal as nature is God’s creation, in men the goodness or badness of men’s actions is dependent on their state of wisdom, that is, how developed their understanding is. The more wise men are, the more metaphysical goodness or perfection follows from their actions.
  • Jakola, Lassi (2020)
    The development of G. H. von Wright’s work in ethics is traced from the early 1950s to the publication of The Varieties of Goodness in 1963, with special focus on the influences stemming from Wittgenstein’s later thought. In 1952, von Wright published an essay suggesting a formal analysis of the concept of value. This attempt was soon abandoned. The change of approach took place at the time von Wright started his work on Wittgenstein’s Nachlass and tried to articulate the main lines of Wittgenstein’s Philosophische Untersuchungen in spoken and written form. This preoccupation with Wittgenstein led to a new approach to value judgments in an 1954 article, which shows strong late-Wittgensteinian influences on methodical as well as stylistic levels. Some traces of the 1954 approach are still visible in The Varieties of Goodness, while the stylistic imitations and allusions have mostly been dropped. Furthermore, von Wright’s approach in The Varieties is wider in scope, aiming at a broad overview of the phenomenon von Wright calls the “varieties of goodness”. But new conncections to the later Wittgenstein also seem to emerge: the idea of a "perspicuous presentation" of ethical concepts and the will to make philosophy relevant for "kulturens större sammanhang".