Browsing by Subject "Ethiopia"

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  • Christersson, Jenni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This case study sheds new light on rural water use and related social, aconomic and environmental dimensions and proposes government intervention in order to ensure water rights and protect public value of fairness. The aim is to highlight farmers’ perspectives on irrigation water use and related obstacles, and specifically distinguish if views are connected to farmers’ underlying socioeconomic or agro-ecologic factors. For further considerations adaptive capacity of community for irrigation water fees is explored. The research material consists of semi-structured interviews for farmers (n=63), government organizations (n=3) and agricultural enterprises (n=2). Economic groups were formed via analysis of asset-based economic status. Grouping based on agricultural water use was conducted through categorization. Costs and lack of knowledge were identified as the main barriers for adopting advanced irrigation technology. The study showed prevailing allocation system is in need of reformation. When designing rural policy, farmers’ perceptions should be respected. Water allocation is considered unfair community-wide and social conflicts are largely faced. Those who do not suffer from conflicts are most commonly rich. Technology transfer offer potential benefits, but community needs to be mobilized. Grouping based on irrigation water usage may be used for targeting policies. Economic grouping may be used for distinguishing farmers’ behavior when designing change in economic conditions or conflict resolution strategy. The complementary role of this study is to bring out special focus on development for institutional capacity-building; strengthening the forcing nature of laws and user rights. This may reduce the attractiveness for corruption in the process. Under these conditions, the greatest benefits may be obtained by giving top priority instead of irrigation improvement, but conflict mediation and establishment of water markets.
  • Nygren, Anja Kaarina; Wayessa, Gutu Olana (2018)
    This article examines the politics of institutional governance of displacements and the intersecting experiences of environmental justice, drawing on case studies of flood disasters and urban displacements in Villahermosa, Mexico, and government-sponsored displacements and resettlements in rural Oromia, Ethiopia. We argue that a fuller understanding of how institutional governance produces multiple marginalisations requires political-ecological and intersectional analyses of residents' experiences of injustices that encompass interlinkages between social position, gender and political power. The analysis is based on ethnographic fieldwork conducted in Mexico and Ethiopia, comprising interviews, participant observation, document analysis and surveys. The study shows similarities and differences in patterns of governance, mechanisms of marginalisation and relations of authority and power concerning differentiated displacements and everyday vulnerabilities in different contexts of the global South. Our analysis enriches theoretical understanding of governance and justice, demonstrating how multiple marginalities are produced, reinforced and contested through political processes imbricated with forms of governance characterised by institutional intrusion and absence.
  • Waldén, Pirjetta; Ollikainen, Markku; Kahiluoto, Helena (2020)
    The impact of carbon revenue on the profitability of agroforestry systems in comparison to monocultures is unexplored in regard to Sub-Saharan Africa. This study creates a multivariate model to evaluate the impact of carbon revenue on the profitability of agroforestry relative to the dominant monocultures in Ethiopia by using stylized plots. Yields and carbon stock changes of eight agroforestry systems were modeled based on data from agroforestry plots in the Ethiopian Central Rift Valley. According to our model, agroforestry was, on average, four times more profitable than the main monoculture systems (wheat, barley, maize, teff, sorghum, sugarcane and lentil) even when carbon revenues were excluded, primarily due to the higher prices of fruit produce. Carbon revenues were estimated using a plausible carbon price ranging from US$8/tCO2e to $40/tCO2e and carbon sequestration rates of 0.59 to 17.2 Mg C ha−1 year−1. The possibility of receiving carbon revenue increased the profitability of agroforestry by 0.5% when using the lowest utilized carbon price and carbon sequestration rate, by 20% when using the carbon price of $20 and the average carbon sequestration rate, and by 70% when using the highest price and highest sequestration rate of carbon. On average, carbon revenue increased the profitability of agroforestry by 150% in comparison to monoculture farming. We conclude that carbon income may have significant potential to motivate smallholders to convert to agroforestry when there is a proper management system, a sufficiently high carbon price and effective institutional support to mitigate the transition and transaction costs.
  • Aserse, Aregu Amsalu; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Whitman, William B.; Lindström, Kristina (2017)
    Rhizobium aethiopicum sp. nov. is a newly proposed species within the genus Rhizobium. This species includes six rhizobial strains; which were isolated from root nodules of the legume plant Phaseolus vulgaris growing in soils of Ethiopia. The species fixes nitrogen effectively in symbiosis with the host plant P. vulgaris, and is composed of aerobic, Gram-negative staining, rod-shaped bacteria. The genome of type strain HBR26(T) of R. aethiopicum sp. nov. was one of the rhizobial genomes sequenced as a part of the DOE JGI 2014 Genomic Encyclopedia project designed for soil and plant-associated and newly described type strains. The genome sequence is arranged in 62 scaffolds and consists of 6,557,588 bp length, with a 61% G + C content and 6221 protein-coding and 86 RNAs genes. The genome of HBR26(T) contains repABC genes (plasmid replication genes) homologous to the genes found in five different Rhizobium etli CFN42(T) plasmids, suggesting that HBR26(T) may have five additional replicons other than the chromosome. In the genome of HBR26(T), the nodulation genes nodB, nodC, nodS, nodI, nodJ and nodD are located in the same module, and organized in a similar way as nod genes found in the genome of other known common bean-nodulating rhizobial species. nodA gene is found in a different scaffold, but it is also very similar to nodA genes of other bean-nodulating rhizobial strains. Though HBR26(T) is distinct on the phylogenetic tree and based on ANI analysis (the highest value 90.2% ANI with CFN42(T)) from other bean-nodulating species, these nod genes and most nitrogen-fixing genes found in the genome of HBR26(T) share high identity with the corresponding genes of known bean-nodulating rhizobial species (96-100% identity). This suggests that symbiotic genes might be shared between bean-nodulating rhizobia through horizontal gene transfer. R. aethiopicum sp. nov. was grouped into the genus Rhizobium but was distinct from all recognized species of that genus by phylogenetic analyses of combined sequences of the housekeeping genes recA and glnII. The closest reference type strains for HBR26(T) were R. etli CFN42(T) (94% similarity of the combined recA and glnII sequences) and Rhizobium bangladeshense BLR175(T) (93%). Genomic ANI calculation based on protein-coding genes also revealed that the closest reference strains were R. bangladeshense BLR175(T) and R. etli CFN42(T) with ANI values 91.8 and 90.2%, respectively. Nevertheless, the ANI values between HBR26(T) and BLR175(T) or CFN42(T) are far lower than the cutoff value of ANI (> = 96%) between strains in the same species, confirming that HBR26(T) belongs to a novel species. Thus, on the basis of phylogenetic, comparative genomic analyses and ANI results, we formally propose the creation of R. aethiopicum sp. nov. with strain HBR26(T) (= HAMBI 3550(T)= LMG 29711(T)) as the type strain. The genome assembly and annotation data is deposited in the DOE JGI portal and also available at European Nucleotide Archive under accession numbers FMAJ01000001-FMAJ01000062.
  • Aserse, Aregu A; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Whitman, William B; Lindström, Kristina (BioMed Central, 2017)
    Abstract Rhizobium aethiopicum sp. nov. is a newly proposed species within the genus Rhizobium. This species includes six rhizobial strains; which were isolated from root nodules of the legume plant Phaseolus vulgaris growing in soils of Ethiopia. The species fixes nitrogen effectively in symbiosis with the host plant P. vulgaris, and is composed of aerobic, Gram-negative staining, rod-shaped bacteria. The genome of type strain HBR26T of R. aethiopicum sp. nov. was one of the rhizobial genomes sequenced as a part of the DOE JGI 2014 Genomic Encyclopedia project designed for soil and plant-associated and newly described type strains. The genome sequence is arranged in 62 scaffolds and consists of 6,557,588 bp length, with a 61% G + C content and 6221 protein-coding and 86 RNAs genes. The genome of HBR26T contains repABC genes (plasmid replication genes) homologous to the genes found in five different Rhizobium etli CFN42T plasmids, suggesting that HBR26T may have five additional replicons other than the chromosome. In the genome of HBR26T, the nodulation genes nodB, nodC, nodS, nodI, nodJ and nodD are located in the same module, and organized in a similar way as nod genes found in the genome of other known common bean-nodulating rhizobial species. nodA gene is found in a different scaffold, but it is also very similar to nodA genes of other bean-nodulating rhizobial strains. Though HBR26T is distinct on the phylogenetic tree and based on ANI analysis (the highest value 90.2% ANI with CFN42T) from other bean-nodulating species, these nod genes and most nitrogen-fixing genes found in the genome of HBR26T share high identity with the corresponding genes of known bean-nodulating rhizobial species (96–100% identity). This suggests that symbiotic genes might be shared between bean-nodulating rhizobia through horizontal gene transfer. R. aethiopicum sp. nov. was grouped into the genus Rhizobium but was distinct from all recognized species of that genus by phylogenetic analyses of combined sequences of the housekeeping genes recA and glnII. The closest reference type strains for HBR26T were R. etli CFN42T (94% similarity of the combined recA and glnII sequences) and Rhizobium bangladeshense BLR175T (93%). Genomic ANI calculation based on protein-coding genes also revealed that the closest reference strains were R. bangladeshense BLR175T and R. etli CFN42T with ANI values 91.8 and 90.2%, respectively. Nevertheless, the ANI values between HBR26T and BLR175T or CFN42T are far lower than the cutoff value of ANI (> = 96%) between strains in the same species, confirming that HBR26T belongs to a novel species. Thus, on the basis of phylogenetic, comparative genomic analyses and ANI results, we formally propose the creation of R. aethiopicum sp. nov. with strain HBR26T (=HAMBI 3550T=LMG 29711T) as the type strain. The genome assembly and annotation data is deposited in the DOE JGI portal and also available at European Nucleotide Archive under accession numbers FMAJ01000001-FMAJ01000062.
  • Aserse, Aregu Amsalu; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Whitman, William B.; Lindstrom, Kristina (2017)
    The type strain of the prospective Bradyrhizobium shewense sp. nov. ERR11(T), was isolated from a nodule of the leguminous tree Erythrina brucei native to Ethiopia. The type strain Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense CCBAU 10071(T), was isolated from the nodules of Lespedeza cuneata in Beijing, China. The genomes of ERR11(T) and CCBAU 10071(T) were sequenced by DOE-JGI and deposited at the DOE-JGI genome portal as well as at the European Nucleotide Archive. The genome of ERR11(T) is 9,163,226 bp in length and has 102 scaffolds, containing 8548 protein-coding and 86 RNA genes. The CCBAU 10071(T) genome is arranged in 108 scaffolds and consists of 8,201,522 bp long and 7776 protein-coding and 85 RNA genes. Both genomes contain symbiotic genes, which are homologous to the genes found in the complete genome sequence of Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens USDA110(T). The genes encoding for nodulation and nitrogen fixation in ERR11(T) showed high sequence similarity with homologous genes found in the draft genome of peanut-nodulating Bradyrhizobium arachidis LMG 26795(T). The nodulation genes nolYAnodD2D1YABCSUIJ-nolO-nodZ of ERR11(T) and CCBAU 10071(T) are organized in a similar way to the homologous genes identified in the genomes of USDA110(T), Bradyrhizobium ottawaense USDA 4 and Bradyrhizobium liaoningense CCBAU 05525. The genomes harbor hupSLCFHK and hypBFDE genes that code the expression of hydrogenase, an enzyme that helps rhizobia to uptake hydrogen released by the N2-fixation process and genes encoding denitrification functions napEDABC and norCBQD for nitrate and nitric oxide reduction, respectively. The genome of ERR11(T) also contains nosRZDFYLX genes encoding nitrous oxide reductase. Based on multilocus sequence analysis of housekeeping genes, the novel species, which contains eight strains formed a unique group close to the B. ottawaense branch. Genome Average Nucleotide Identity (ANI) calculated between the genome sequences of ERR11(T) and closely related sequences revealed that strains belonging to B. ottawaense branch (USDA4 and CCBAU15615), were the closest strains to the strain ERR11(T) with 95.2% ANI. Type strain ERR11(T) showed the highest DDH predicted value with CCBAU15615 (58.5%), followed by USDA 4 (53.1%). Nevertheless, the ANI and DDH values obtained between ERR11(T) and CCBAU 15615 or USDA 4 were below the cutoff values (ANI = 96.5%; DDH = 70%) for strains belonging to the same species, suggesting that ERR11(T) is a new species. Therefore, based on the phylogenetic analysis, ANI and DDH values, we formally propose the creation of B. shewense sp. nov. with strain ERR11(T) (HAMBI 3532(T)= LMG 30162(T)) as the type strain.
  • Aserse, Aregu A; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Whitman, William B; Lindström, Kristina (BioMed Central, 2017)
    Abstract The type strain of the prospective Bradyrhizobium shewense sp. nov. ERR11T, was isolated from a nodule of the leguminous tree Erythrina brucei native to Ethiopia. The type strain Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense CCBAU 10071 T, was isolated from the nodules of Lespedeza cuneata in Beijing, China. The genomes of ERR11T and CCBAU 10071 T were sequenced by DOE–JGI and deposited at the DOE–JGI genome portal as well as at the European Nucleotide Archive. The genome of ERR11T is 9,163,226 bp in length and has 102 scaffolds, containing 8548 protein–coding and 86 RNA genes. The CCBAU 10071 T genome is arranged in 108 scaffolds and consists of 8,201,522 bp long and 7776 protein–coding and 85 RNA genes. Both genomes contain symbiotic genes, which are homologous to the genes found in the complete genome sequence of Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens USDA110 T. The genes encoding for nodulation and nitrogen fixation in ERR11T showed high sequence similarity with homologous genes found in the draft genome of peanut–nodulating Bradyrhizobium arachidis LMG 26795 T. The nodulation genes nolYA-nodD2D1YABCSUIJ-nolO-nodZ of ERR11T and CCBAU 10071 T are organized in a similar way to the homologous genes identified in the genomes of USDA110 T , Bradyrhizobium ottawaense USDA 4 and Bradyrhizobium liaoningense CCBAU 05525 . The genomes harbor hupSLCFHK and hypBFDE genes that code the expression of hydrogenase, an enzyme that helps rhizobia to uptake hydrogen released by the N2-fixation process and genes encoding denitrification functions napEDABC and norCBQD for nitrate and nitric oxide reduction, respectively. The genome of ERR11T also contains nosRZDFYLX genes encoding nitrous oxide reductase. Based on multilocus sequence analysis of housekeeping genes, the novel species, which contains eight strains formed a unique group close to the B. ottawaense branch. Genome Average Nucleotide Identity (ANI) calculated between the genome sequences of ERR11T and closely related sequences revealed that strains belonging to B. ottawaense branch ( USDA4 and CCBAU15615 ), were the closest strains to the strain ERR11T with 95.2% ANI. Type strain ERR11T showed the highest DDH predicted value with CCBAU15615 (58.5%), followed by USDA 4 (53.1%). Nevertheless, the ANI and DDH values obtained between ERR11T and CCBAU 15615 or USDA 4 were below the cutoff values (ANI ≥ 96.5%; DDH ≥ 70%) for strains belonging to the same species, suggesting that ERR11T is a new species. Therefore, based on the phylogenetic analysis, ANI and DDH values, we formally propose the creation of B. shewense sp. nov. with strain ERR11T ( HAMBI 3532 T= LMG 30162 T) as the type strain.
  • Deressa, Abdenna; Yli-Halla, Markku; Mohamed, Muktar; Wogi, Lemma (2020)
    Acid soils with pH-H2O < 5.5 are widely distributed in humid tropical Western Ethiopia. Liming is used to amend soil acidity and exchangeable aluminum (Alex) toxicity through precipitating Alexand increasing pH. Liming requirement (LR) for humid tropical Western Ethiopia on the basis of KCl extractable Alexhas not yet been established but there is a strong need for this recommendation as a rapid and reliable method for reclaiming soil acidity. The objectives of this study were to determine LR of Ultisols and Alfisols, establish relationship between LR and Alex, and further verify the results through a greenhouse pot experiment. Soil samples were collected from Ultisols and Alfisols from 0 to 20 cm depth. Seven samples with Al saturation ranging from 7 to 75% and pH from 4.7 to 5.2 were screened and advancedto a 60-day incubation experiment. The LR was determined from intercepts of regression equations of lime (CaCO3) rate versus Alex. The LR ranged from 1.72 to 9.24 cmolc CaCO3kg-1which is equivalent to 1.54 to 11.41 ton CaCO3ha-1. These LR recommendations contradict with the 3 ton CaCO3ha-1blanket recommendation developed 35 years ago. The LR and Alexof experimental soils fit to an inverse quadratic relationship, where the LR (i.e., CaCO3needed) and Alexare expressed as cmolc kg-1soil. Aluminum saturation becomes zero at pH 5.1 to 5.2. The linear model of 퐿푅is expressed as LR = 1.47∗퐴푙ex (cmolc CaCO3kg-1soil), (R2 = 0.72), and the quadratic one as LR = 2.56*Alex-0.19∗(퐴푙ex)2(cmolc CaCO3kg-1soil) (R2 = 0.90). The quadratic model fitted well with results of LR of previous studies and predicted properly LR of test soil used for verification. The LR of Ultisols and Alfisols of humid tropical Western Ethiopia can be reliably predicted by use of this quadratic model of LR determination on the basis of exchangeable Al.
  • Matthies, Brent (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    In this study the financial returns related to smallholders’ return on investments in Eucalyptus globulus (Labill.) were analyzed for the Kentai sub-watershed in the Tana-Beles Watershed Monitoring and Evaluation project in Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia. This was accomplished by reviewing the inputs used in activities carried out by smallholders. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to analyze the inputs and outputs realized by different household investment choices. The Net Present Value (NPV), Equivalent Annual Income (EAI), Benefit-Cost Ratio (BCR), and Internal Rate of Return (IRR) of investments were estimated. The NPVs ranged between -65,750 Br/ha (-2,670 €/ha) and 1,389,920 Br/ha (56,350 €/ha) over a 30-year period at interest rates of 10, 20 and 30%. The EAIs corresponded with the NPVs, and were used in comparison with agricultural crops. In almost all cases EAI of E. globulus exceeded that of other crops. BCRs varied from 0.13 to 118 at an interest rate of 10%. The maximum IRR achieved was 383% and the minimum was ?4%. The average IRR was 60%. Additionally, the financial returns for revenue from sales, cost savings from household consumption and reinvestment were analyzed in five scenarios. Reinvestment in rental homes proved the most lucrative return, followed by use of poles for home construction, for fuelwood consumption, and, finally, only for sale. Additional use of wood at home or reinvestment of earnings was more profitable than only selling poles on the local market. The study found that most households have profitable financial returns from investment in E. globulus. Those households with negative returns may plant for non-monetary benefits or carry out non-profit maximizing behaviour due to personal, cultural, or other reasons not captured in this analysis. It is believed that continued adoption of E. globulus will plateau in the near future. This study suggests a number of measures that could be implemented to increase returns and reduce costs including: co-operative development, recognition of smallholder plantations by government, and tenure security improvements.
  • Yli-Halla, Markku Juhani; Rimhanen, Karoliina; Muurinen, Johanna; Kaseva, Janne; Kahiluoto, Helena (2018)
    Soil carbon (C) represents the largest terrestrial carbon stock and is key for soil productivity. Major fractions of soil C consist of organic C, carbonates and black C. The turnover rate of black C is lower than that of organic C, and black C abundance decreases the vulnerablility of soil C stock to decomposition under climate change. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of soil C in different pools and impact of agricultural management on the abundance of different species. Soil C fractions were quantified in the topsoils (0-15 cm) of 23 sites in the tropical highlands of Ethiopia. The sites in central Ethiopia represented paired plots of agroforestry and adjacent control plots where cereal crops were traditionally grown in clayey soils. In the sandy loam and loam soils of northern Ethiopia, the pairs represented restrained grazing with adjacent control plots with free grazing, and terracing with cereal-based cropping with adjacent control plots without terracing. Soil C contained in carbonates, organic matter and black C along with total C was determined. The total C median was 1.5% (range 0.33.6%). The median proportion of organic C was 85% (range 53-94%). 6% (0-41%) for carbonate C and 6% (421%) for black C. An increase was observed in the organic C and black C fractions attributable to agroforestry and restrained grazing. The very low concentration of the relatively stable black C fraction and the dominance of organic C in these Ethiopian soils suggest vulnerability to degradation and the necessity for cultivation practices maintaining the C stock. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Pohjonen, Veli; Pukkala, Timo (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1988)
  • Fróis, Nadira (Helsingfors universitet, 2010)
    Regeneration ecology, diversity of native woody species and its potential for landscape restoration was studied in the remnant natural forest at the College of Forestry and Natural Resources at Wondo Genet, Ethiopia. The type of forest is Afromontane rainforest , with many valuable tree species like Aningeria adolfi-friederici, and it is an important provider of ecological, social and economical services for the population that lives in this area. The study contains two parts, natural regeneration studies (at the natural forest) and interviews with farmers in the nearby village of the remnant patch. The objective of the first part was to investigate the floristic composition, densitiy and regeneration profiles of native woody species in the forest, paying special attention to woody species that are considered the most relevant (socio-economic). The second part provided information on woody species preferred by the farmers and on multiple uses of the adjacent natural forest, it also provided information and analysed perceptions on forest degradation. Systematic plot sampling was used in the forest inventory. Twenty square plots of 20 x 20 m were assessed, with 38 identified woody species (the total number of species was 45), representing 26 families. Of these species 61% were trees, 13% shrubs, 11% lianas and 16% species that could have both life forms. An analysis of natural regeneration of five important tree species in the natural forest showed that Aningeria adolfi-friederici had the best regeneration results. An analysis of population structure (as determined by height classes) of two commercially important woody species in the forest, Aningeria adolfi-friederici and Podocarpus falcatus, showed a marked difference: Aningeria had a typical “reversed J” frequency distribution, while Podocarpus showed very low values in all height classes. Multi dimensional scaling (MDS) was used to map the sample plots according to their similarity in species composition, using the Sørensen quantitative index, coupled with indicator species analysis .Three groups were identified with respective indicator species: Group 1 – Adhatoda schimperiana, Group 2 – Olea hochstetteri , Group 3 – Acacia senegal and Aningeria adolfi-friederici. Thirty questionnaire interviews were conducted with farmers in the village of Gotu Onoma that use the nearby remant forest patch. Their tree preferences were exotic species such as Eucalyptus globulus for construction and fuelwood and Grevillea robusta for shade and fertility. Considering forest land degradation farmers were aware of the problem and suggested that the governmental institutions address the problem by planting more Eucalyptus globulus. The natural forest seemed to have moderate levels of disturbance and it was still floristically diverse. However, the low rate of natural regeneration of Podocarpus falcatus suggested that this species is threatened and must be a priority in conservation actions. Plantations and agroforestry seem to be possible solutions for rehabilitation of the surrounding degraded lands, thereby decreasing the existent pressure in the remnant natural forest.
  • Perez-Tanoira, Ramon; Zarco Olivo, Carlos; Fortes Alen, Jose; Prieto-Perez, Laura; Cabello, Alfonso; Ramos Rincon, Jose Manuel; Cuadros, Juan; Gorgolas, Miguel (2018)
    Tinea nigra is an infrequent, superficial fungal infection, mainly caused by Hortaea werneckii, which is still underreported in Ethiopia. An asymptomatic 62-year-old male patient sought a rural hospital of Ethiopia, showing dark plaques on the palms of both hands. A superficial mycosis was suspected and a direct light microscopic mycological examination from skin scrapings revealed short brownish hyphae. To our knowledge, this is the first case of tinea nigra from the Ethiopian highlands. This may be due to the actual rarity of the condition or to underreporting.
  • Nacke, Jonas Roland (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Eucalyptus growing by smallholders for financial income has rapidly expanded in the district of Mecha, Amhara region, Ethiopia. Nevertheless, a lack of market knowledge on final consumer markets is limiting the income that smallholders receive for their eucalyptus poles. This study aims to uncover the barriers to market knowledge transfer hindering smallholders from receiving higher incomes for their products by analyzing the vertical coordination of actors in the value chain. The qualitative study was based on the Global Value Chain framework, which uses the theory of chain governance to explain the vertical coordination amongst actors. For the study, 18 semi-structured interviews (5 smallholders, 6 traders, 3 service providers, 2 experts, 2 regulators) were conducted with individuals and groups representing a total of 21 individuals. The interviews were transcribed and edited for theory-driven thematic analysis. The coordination between smallholders and traders falls closest to the market governance type meaning that transactions are based on price and product specification. The increased demand for high-quality eucalyptus poles in Bahir Dar reflected by high prices is not communicated through the chain to the producers. This lack of knowledge on the price variation for different pole qualities, together with unclear local pole classification system, leads to the possibility for traders to exploit smallholder tree growers to gain higher rent. Linking woodlot valuation to the market demand in Bahir Dar, increasing smallholders’ knowledge on the price variation for different qualities of poles, and improving the local pole classification system to include pole quality could enable tree growers in Mecha district to achieve higher financial benefits from their participation in the eucalyptus pole value chain.
  • She, Ji (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    This study scrutinizes the domestic fuel consumption pattern and relating issues using survey data for households in three Peasant Associations Wosha, Kela, and Basha in Wondo Genet, south-central Ethiopia. It is found that in this region, households are still heavily reliant on traditional biomass fuels, particularly woodfuels (fuelwood and charcoal). Fuelwood is the most common and important fuel type for the majority of households and there are normally three sources for it, namely self-collection from non-private forests, private plantation, and market fuelwood sellers. A multinomial probit model is employed for the empirical analysis and it indicates in Wondo Genet, the probability for households obtaining fuelwood from these three sources is 0.1825, 0.0867, and 0.7308 respectively. Purchasing fuelwood from markets has replaced self-collection as the primary fuelwood source for households. Household size, economic status, availability of crop residues and modern fuels, and location are the main factors affecting households’ choices. In addition, charcoal is the main fuel substitute/ supplement to fuelwood and is also widely used. Transition towards use of modern fuels is taking place slowly among wealthy households, largely restrained by limitations in people’s perception, infrastructure, fuel supply, etc. This implies that the role of government is of extreme importance in the process of energy transition and development of people’s livelihood.