Browsing by Subject "Ethnicity"

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  • Liebkind, Karmela; Henning-Lindblom, Anna (Svenska Litteratursällskapet, 2015)
    Skrifter utgivna av Svenska litteratursällskapet i Finland
  • Gamburg, Bogdana (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    This thesis examines the ways of how different elements of identity are performed in massively multiplayer online games. It tries to find patterns in identity construction through observation of features, such as gender, age, race, ethnicity, status and religion and how individuals interact with each other. The aim is to explore the premise that because online games provide endless opportunities for identity performance, and thus these identities might have little to do with reality and the offline world. In order to analyze identities online, a number of key topics are covered. These include identity, performativity of identity, online games and players behavior online. Cross-disciplinary theoretical approach is used to attack the problem. Several identity theories are overviewed (Boellstorff, 2008, 2012; Deterding, Waltz, 2012; Jenkins, 2004; Gilchrist et al. 2015; Wetherell, 2015; Goffman, 1959, 1961a; Appelrouth & Desfor, 2008; Crenshaw, 1989). Here identity is understood as an action - individual’s reaction to the society and as a process. Next, performativity of identity is discussed. Special attention is given to the deeply rooted performance discourse in games (Butler, 1990, 1997, 1999; Deterding, Waltz, 2012; Schechner, 2006; Brooks, 2011; Turner, 1982). Finally, key issues on identity performing online are discussed. Those include interconnectivity of offline and online identity, and how they might correlate (Boellstorff, 2008; Horns, Miller 2012; Kozinets, 2011; McGonigal 2012; Thomas 2007; Nakamura, 2002; Sarkeesian, 2012). The methodology used for collecting and analyzing the data draws from netnography, a sub-discipline of online ethnography and digital anthropology, which allows observing online games as a spectacle (Kozinets, 2011; Boellstorff, 2008; Boellstorff et al. 2012). Massively multiplayer online games provide a good possibility to have a large human sample for performance, games, sociological and cultural studies. Online communities of one such game, Clash of Clans, are observed in the game environment and at forums, where players are interacting with each other through written communication over an extended period of time. Number of observations on how age, status, gender and other elements of identity are performed online are recorded. The examples of online conversations are documented and analyzed and parts of the collected data are presented in the paper. Key findings show that individuals demonstrate their feelings and opinions stronger than in offline setting, since online world assumes less moderation and social constraints. However, even though there is a certain degree of freedom online, it is used sparingly. Certain identity experiments are happening online, for example individuals are trying to play a game as a player of an opposite sex. However, on a verbal level, individuals tend to be more truth to their opinions and beliefs (Schau and Gilly, 2003; Whitty, 2004). A strong interconnectivity of online and offline identities in a digital age is found, so the basic hypothesis is contested. Currently hundreds of millions of people of all age groups are the participants of the massively multiplayer online games daily. Players start to take their online identities seriously and their online life starts to affect offline life, cultural, social norms and beliefs. And since we understand that online and offline identity is affecting each other on a deeper level than ever before, research in online massive multiplayer online games should be carried further. The field of game studies and performativity online should not be overlooked. The way identities are presented online mirror identity presentation in offline world closely.
  • Kletter, Raz (2014)
    Archaeology cannot find ethnicity "independently", but only with the help of written sources. The way one defines "ethnicity" is critical to ones' conclusions. Ethnic groups, as a type of imagined community, most likely existed already in prehistory; but without written sources, at least a collective name, we cannot fish them out. The article reviews a series of papers which try, in vain, to 'get' to ethnicity from material remains; and another series which tries, in vain, to prove (or refute) "Iron I Ethnic Israel". Bagira appears in a photo in the text.
  • Ruuth, Maija; Janssen, Laura G. M.; Aikas, Lauri; Tigistu-Sahle, Feven; Nahon, Kimberly J.; Ritvos, Olli; Ruhanen, Hanna; Käkelä, Reijo; Boon, Marlette R.; Öörni, Katariina; Rensen, Patrick C. N. (2019)
    BACKGROUND: South Asians are more prone to develop atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) compared with white Caucasians, which is not fully explained by classical risk factors. We recently reported that the presence of aggregation-prone low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in the circulation is associated with increased ASCVD mortality. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that LDL of South Asians is more prone to aggregate, which may be explained by differences in their LDL lipid composition. METHODS: In this cross-sectional hypothesis-generating study, LDL was isolated from plasma of healthy South Asians (n = 12) and age- and BMI-matched white Caucasians (n = 12), and its aggregation susceptibility and lipid composition were analyzed. RESULTS: LDL from South Asians was markedly more prone to aggregate compared with white Caucasians. Among all measured lipids, sphingomyelin 24:0 and triacylglycerol 56:8 showed the highest positive correlation with LDL aggregation. In addition, LDL from South Asians was enriched in arachidonic acid containing phosphatidylcholine 38:4 and had less phosphatidylcholines and cholesteryl esters containing monounsaturated fatty acids. Interestingly, body fat percentage, which was higher in South Asians (+26%), positively correlated with LDL aggregation and highly positively correlated with triacylglycerol 56:8, sphingomyelin 24:0, and total sphingomyelin. CONCLUSIONS: LDL aggregation susceptibility is higher in healthy young South Asians compared with white Caucasians. This may be partly explained by the higher body fat percentage of South Asians, leading to sphingomyelin enrichment of LDL. We anticipate that the presence of sphingomyelin-rich, aggregation -prone LDL particles in young South Asians may increase LDL accumulation in the arterial wall and thereby contribute to their increased risk of developing ASCVD later in life. (C) 2019 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • Keskinen, Suvi Päivikki; Skaptadottir, Unnur Dis; Toivanen, Mari (Routledge, 2019)
    Studies in Migration and Diaspora
  • Pöllänen, Katri (2021)
    This article explores the organizational culture of the startup scene in Finland. Startup companies offer an interesting setting for research, because their organizational culture, hierarchy and power structures differ from those of large traditional organizations. The method used in this study was an organizational ethnography in a startup company in Finland, which included participant observation, and interviews with employees. The organizational culture of the startup was informal, relaxed, low in hierarchy, and employees had autonomy for deciding on their working times and locations. Masculinities were visible in the organizational culture of the startup company in the form of ‘harsh’ language and rambunctious humor, men changing their behavior and discussion topics when women were around, and managers communicating more aggressively with men than with women. The results further showed that gender was a criterion for inclusion and exclusion. The research concludes that startup companies are not gender-neutral spaces.
  • Ahmed, Safaet (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The world is currently experiencing a notable shift in the pattern of migration. Immigrant receiving countries in different parts of the world have promoted integration policies to minimise the inequality. My purpose of this paper is to learn how immigrant entrepreneurship contributes to self-employment by the use of ethnicity and transnational connection. This text examines the role of ethnicity in the development and sustenance of the Nepalese entrepreneurship in the context of Finland, drawing from the first-hand data. I have found that the involvement of ethnic resources, co-ethnic employment, and transnational connection lead to a profitable return for the Nepalese ethnic entrepreneurship. Instead of conceptualising a general economic model of entrepreneurship, I argue that it should be understood holistically how these immigrant entrepreneurs construct such opportunities by depending on ethnicity and co-ethnic relationship. I conduct this study with a great interest in the context of Finland, with an effort to understand the function of the Nepalese caste system as it is one of the essential features of this entrepreneurship model. I combined certain statistical information from various Finnish and Nepalese official sources to illustrate my arguments. The study shows how the Nepalese immigrant/ethnic entrepreneurs and soon-to-be entrepreneurs’ tactics to seek opportunities attempts to encounter mainstream labour market exclusion.
  • Keskinen, Suvi Päivikki; Skaptadottir, Unnur Dis; Toivanen, Mari; Helsinki Inequality Initiative (INEQ); Swedish School of Social Science Subunit; CEREN (The Centre for Research on Ethnic Relations and Nationalism); Migration and Diaspora Studies Research Group (Routledge, 2019)
    Studies in Migration and Diaspora
  • Varjonen, Sirkku Anneli; Jurva, Katrina; Jasinskaja-Lahti, Inga (2015)
    In this article, we take a discursive psychological approach to study how ethnic return migrants discuss and account for episodes of discrimination, with a special focus on discursive strategies employed to deal with discrimination. The data come from nine focus group discussions held with ethnic Finnish migrants who have moved to Finland in adulthood from Russia, Canada, or the United States. Results of the analysis show two distinct ways of dealing with discrimination: problematising discrimination and downplaying discrimination. Problematising was accomplished by showing the critical difference between being categorised as Finnish or non-Finnish and challenging the criteria of Finnishness. Strategies of downplaying included normalising discrimination and emphasising positive experiences. The findings are discussed in relation to ethnic return migrants’ identity work and belonging to broader society.