Browsing by Subject "Etiology"

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  • Brucoli, Matteo; Boffano, Paolo; Romeo, Irene; Corio, Chiara; Benech, Arnaldo; Ruslin, Muhammad; Forouzanfar, Tymour; Jensen, Thomas Starch-; Rodríguez-Santamarta, Tanía; de Vicente, Juan Carlos; Snäll, Johanna; Thorén, Hanna; Aničić, Boban; Konstantinovic, Vitomir S.; Pechalova, Petia; Pavlov, Nikolai; Daskalov, Hristo; Doykova, Iva; Kelemith, Kadri; Tamme, Tiia; Kopchak, Andrey; Shumynskyi, Ievgen; Corre, Pierre; Bertin, Helios; Goguet, Quentin; Anquetil, Marine; Louvrier, Aurélien; Meyer, Christophe; Dovšak, Tadej; Vozlič, David; Birk, Anže; Tarle, Marko; Dediol, Emil (2020)
    ABSTRACT Introduction: The progressive aging of European population seems to determine a change in the epidemiology, incidence and etiology of maxillofacial fractures with an increase in the frequency of old patients sustaining craniofacial trauma. The objective of the present study was to assess the demographic variables, causes, and patterns of facial fractures in elderly population (with 70 years or more). Materials and Methods: The data from all geriatric patients (70 years or more) with facial fractures between January 1, 2013, and December 31, 2017, were collected. The following data were recorded for each patient: gender, age, voluptuary habits, comorbidities, etiology, site of facial fractures, synchronous body injuries, Facial Injury Severity Score (FISS). Results: A total of 1334 patients (599 male and 735 female patients) were included in the study. Mean age was 79.3 years, and 66% of patients reported one or more comorbidities. The most frequent cause of injury was fall and zygomatic fractures were the most frequently observed injuries. Falls were associated with a low FISS value (p<.005). Concomitant injuries were observed in 27.3% of patients. Falls were associated with the absence of concomitant injuries. The ninth decade (p <.05) and a high FISS score (p <.005) were associated with concomitant body injuries too. Conclusions: This study confirms the role of falls in the epidemiology of facial trauma in the elderly, but also highlights the frequency of involvement of females, and the high frequency of zygomatic fractures.
  • Koskinen, Sari; Keski-Filppula, Riikka; Alapulli, Heikki; Nieminen, Pekka; Anttonen, Vuokko (2019)
    Objective Tooth agenesis is one of the most common craniofacial developmental anomalies. In hypodontia, one to five teeth are missing, whereas oligodontia refers to the absence of at least six teeth, excluding the third molars. Mutations in several genes including MSX1, PAX9, AXIN2, and WNT10A have been shown to cause non-syndromic tooth agenesis. Regional odontodysplasia (RO), also known as "ghost teeth," is a rare developmental anomaly of tooth formation affecting both dentitions. Some possible causes of RO have been suggested, yet the etiology remains unknown. Because the phenotypes of both oligodontia and RO co-occur in one Finnish family, the aim here was to investigate the genetic etiology of the two conditions. Materials and methods A mutation screening of the genes MSX1, PAX9, AXIN2, and WNT10A was performed for the family members of a RO patient and family history of oligodontia. Results An initiation codon mutation of the PAX9 gene was found in the proband and segregating with oligodontia in the family. Conclusions The etiology of regional odontodysplasia (RO) may be genetic and the same genes can be involved both in RO and tooth agenesis.
  • Järvenpää, Pia; Arkkila, Perttu; Aaltonen, Leena-Maija (2018)
    Globus is a non-painful sensation of a lump or a foreign body in the throat, and it frequently improves with eating. Although globus is a common symptom, only little is known about the etiology, and the causes have remained controversial. Previously, globus was labelled as a hysterical symptom. However, nowadays, the research has been mainly focused on somatic causes and it is suspected that the etiology is complex. Because of the unclear etiology, the diagnostics and treatment are varying, predisposing patients to possible unnecessary investigations. This review presents the current literature of globus: its etiology, diagnostics, and treatment. In addition, a special aim is to discuss the rational investigation methods in globus diagnostics and present a diagnostic algorithm based on recent researches.
  • Mosztbacher, Dóra; Hanák, Lilla; Farkas, Nelli; Szentesi, Andrea; Mikó, Alexandra; Bajor, Judit; Sarlós, Patrícia; Czimmer, József; Vincze, Áron; Hegyi, Péter Jenő; Erőss, Bálint; Takács, Tamás; Czakó, László; Németh, Balázs Csaba; Izbéki, Ferenc; Halász, Adrienn; Gajdán, László; Hamvas, József; Papp, Mária; Földi, Ildikó; Fehér, Krisztina Eszter; Varga, Márta; Csefkó, Klára; Török, Imola; Farkas, Hunor Pál; Mickevicius, Artautas; Maldonado, Elena Ramirez; Sallinen, Ville; Novák, János; Ince, Ali Tüzün; Galeev, Shamil; Bod, Barnabás; Sümegi, János; Pencik, Petr; Dubravcsik, Zsolt; Illés, Dóra; Gódi, Szilárd; Kui, Balázs; Márta, Katalin; Pécsi, Dániel; Varjú, Péter; Szakács, Zsolt; Darvasi, Erika; Párniczky, Andrea; Hegyi, Péter (2020)
    Background Hypertriglyceridemia is the third most common cause of acute pancreatitis (AP). It has been shown that hypertriglyceridemia aggravates the severity and related complications of AP; however, detailed analyses of large cohorts are inadequate and contradictory. Our aim was to investigate the dose-dependent effect of hypertriglyceridemia on AP. Methods AP patients over 18 years old who underwent triglyceride measurement within the initial three days were included into our cohort analysis from a prospective international, multicenter AP registry operated by the Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group. Data on 716 AP cases were analyzed. Six groups were created based on the highest triglyceride level (
  • Aukio, Lasse (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Hammasimplantit ovat yleistyvä tapa puuttuvan hampaan korvaamiseen. Implantti-hoidon yleistyessä myös sen liitännäistaudit, perimukosiitti ja siitä kudostuhoa aiheut-tavampi tautimuoto, peri-implantiitti, yleistyvät. Taudit muistuttavat kliinisesesti ja hoitokäytännöiltään nk. pysyvien hampaiden vastaavia kiinnityskudossairauksa. Kui-tenkin peri-implantiitti vastaa hoitoon huonommin ja eroavaisuuksia on löydettävissä niin etiologialtaan kuin kliinisiltä ominaisuuksiltaan parodontiittiin verrattuna. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena on perehtyä erityisesti peri-implantiitin patogeneesiin ja sel-vittää mahdollisten erojen merkitystä taudin ennaltaehkäisyyn, tunnistamiseen ja hoi-toon liittyen. Taudin ennaltaehkäisy on hankalaa, koska taudin varhaisasteen havaitsemiseen ei ole ollut hyvää mittaria. Pitkäkestoinen tutkimustyö on tuomassa tähän apua: biomarkke-reihin, erityisesti aktiiviseen MMP-8 muotoon perustuvat testit PerioSafe® ja vastaava ImplantSafe® vaikuttavat hyvin lupaavilta varhaisasteisen iensairauden erimuotojen tunnistamisessa. Molemmat testit ovat paraikaa rantautumassa Suomeen ja siten muu-tamien vuosien päästä laajasti kliinikoiden apuna niin iensairauksien varhaisdiagostii-kassa kuin hoidon seurannassa. Näin ollen on hienoa, että vihdoin ollaan saamassa konkreettisia apuvälineitä erityisesti implanttien kiinnittymiseen vaikuttavien kudosten terveyden tilan seurantaan.
  • Aronen, Matti; Viikari, Laura; Kohonen, Ia; Vuorinen, Tytti; Hämeenaho, Mira; Wuorela, Maarit; Sadeghi, Mohammadreza; Söderlund-Venermo, Maria; Viitanen, Matti; Jartti, Tuomas (2019)
    Background: In children suffering from severe lower airway illnesses, respiratory virus detection has given good prognostic information, but such reports in the elderly are scarce. Therefore, our aim was to study whether the detection of nasopharyngeal viral pathogens and conventional inflammatory markers in the frail elderly correlate to the presence, signs and symptoms or prognosis of radiographically-verified pneumonia. Methods: Consecutive episodes of hospital care of patients 65years and older with respiratory symptoms (N = 382) were prospectively studied as a cohort. Standard clinical questionnaire was filled by the study physician. Laboratory analyses included PCR diagnostics of nasopharyngeal swab samples for 14 respiratory viruses, C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell count (WBC). Chest radiographs were systematically analysed by a study radiologist. The length of hospital stay, hospital revisit and death at ward were used as clinical endpoints. Results: Median age of the patients was 83years (range 76-90). Pneumonia was diagnosed in 112/382 (29%) of the studied episodes. One or more respiratory viruses were detected in 141/382 (37%) episodes and in 34/112 (30%) episodes also diagnosed with pneumonia. Pneumonia was associated with a WBC over 15 x 10(9)/L (P = .006) and a CRP value over 80 mg/l (P <.05). A virus was detected in 30% of pneumonia episodes and in 40% of non-pneumonia episodes, but this difference was not significant (P = 0.09). The presence of a respiratory virus was associated with fewer revisits to the hospital (P <.05), whereas a CRP value over 100 mg/l was associated with death during hospital stay (P <.05). Respiratory virus detections did not correlate to WBC or CRP values, signs and symptoms or prognosis of radiographically-verified pneumonia episodes. Conclusion: Among the elderly with respiratory symptoms, respiratory virus detection was not associated with an increased risk of pneumonia or with a more severe clinical course of the illness. CRP and WBC remain important indicators of pneumonia, and according to our findings, pneumonia should be treated as a bacterial disease regardless of the virus findings. Our data does not support routine virus diagnostics for the elderly patients with pneumonia outside the epidemic seasons.
  • Aronen, Matti; Viikari, Laura; Kohonen, Ia; Vuorinen, Tytti; Hämeenaho, Mira; Wuorela, Maarit; Sadeghi, Mohammadreza; Söderlund-Venermo, Maria; Viitanen, Matti; Jartti, Tuomas (BioMed Central, 2019)
    Abstract Background In children suffering from severe lower airway illnesses, respiratory virus detection has given good prognostic information, but such reports in the elderly are scarce. Therefore, our aim was to study whether the detection of nasopharyngeal viral pathogens and conventional inflammatory markers in the frail elderly correlate to the presence, signs and symptoms or prognosis of radiographically-verified pneumonia. Methods Consecutive episodes of hospital care of patients 65 years and older with respiratory symptoms (N = 382) were prospectively studied as a cohort. Standard clinical questionnaire was filled by the study physician. Laboratory analyses included PCR diagnostics of nasopharyngeal swab samples for 14 respiratory viruses, C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell count (WBC). Chest radiographs were systematically analysed by a study radiologist. The length of hospital stay, hospital revisit and death at ward were used as clinical endpoints. Results Median age of the patients was 83 years (range 76–90). Pneumonia was diagnosed in 112/382 (29%) of the studied episodes. One or more respiratory viruses were detected in 141/382 (37%) episodes and in 34/112 (30%) episodes also diagnosed with pneumonia. Pneumonia was associated with a WBC over 15 × 109/L (P = .006) and a CRP value over 80 mg/l (P < .05). A virus was detected in 30% of pneumonia episodes and in 40% of non-pneumonia episodes, but this difference was not significant (P = 0.09). The presence of a respiratory virus was associated with fewer revisits to the hospital (P < .05), whereas a CRP value over 100 mg/l was associated with death during hospital stay (P < .05). Respiratory virus detections did not correlate to WBC or CRP values, signs and symptoms or prognosis of radiographically-verified pneumonia episodes. Conclusion Among the elderly with respiratory symptoms, respiratory virus detection was not associated with an increased risk of pneumonia or with a more severe clinical course of the illness. CRP and WBC remain important indicators of pneumonia, and according to our findings, pneumonia should be treated as a bacterial disease regardless of the virus findings. Our data does not support routine virus diagnostics for the elderly patients with pneumonia outside the epidemic seasons.
  • Pöllänen, Jesse (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Sydäninfarktiksi kutsutaan tilannetta, jossa hapenpuutteen takia sydänlihas menee kuolioon. Tilannetta, jossa on todettu sydäninfarkti, mutta sepelvaltimoissa ei todeta sepelvaltimoiden varjoainekuvauksessa ahtautuneita suonia, kutsutaan termillä ”Myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries” eli MINOCA. Tämän tutkielman tavoite on tarkastella sepelvaltimotautiin liittymättömien sydäninfarktien yleisyyttä, etiologiaa ja ennustetta. Aineistona käytettiin HUS-alueen potilaista kansallisesta FinnHeart-hoitorekisteristä löytyviä kardiologisia kortteja aikaväliltä 8/2012–9/2016 yhdistettynä tehtyjen sepelvaltimoiden varjoainekuvausten sairaskertomustietoihin. Tutkimukseen valikoitui ne potilaat, joilla oli todettu sydäninfarktista johtuva troponiinipäästö, mutta varjoainekuvauksessa ei todettu ahtautuneita sepelvaltimoita. Näiden perusteella kerätylle aineistolle tehtiin vielä tilastollinen analyysi. Saaduissa tuloksissa huomiota kiinnitettiin potilaiden riskitietoihin, kohtausoireistoon, tutkimuslöydöksiin, hoitojakson diagnoosiin ja vuoden seurannassa kuolleisuuteen ja sydän- ja verisuoniperäisiin päätetapahtumiin. Tutkimuksen tulokset vastaavat pitkälti aiheesta aikaisemmin julkaistua tutkimusta. Huomionarvoista meidän aineistossamme oli suuri naisten osuus. Noin neljällä viidestä oli vähintään yksi sydän- ja verisuonitautien riskitekijä. Yleisimmät syyt kohtaukselle olivat takotsubo ja myokardiitti. Seurannassa potilaiden kokonaiskuolleisuus oli 4,2 % ja sydän- ja verisuoniperäisiä päätetapahtumia 2,6 %. (149 sanaa)
  • Mäkitie, Antti; Tuokkola, Iida; Laurell, Göran; Mäkitie, Outi; Olsen, Kerry; Takes, Robert P.; Florek, Ewa; Szyfter, Krzysztof; Sier, Cornelis F. M.; Ferlito, Alfio (2021)
    Purpose of review Observational studies have shown that serum 25-OH vitamin D [25(OH)D] is inversely associated with overall cancer risk in many malignancies. We performed a systematic literature review to determine whether vitamin D deficiency is related to head and neck cancer (HNC) etiology and outcome. Recent findings The search yielded five prospective studies reporting 25(OH)D levels prior to cancer diagnosis and their effect on the risk of HNC. Eight studies were cross-sectional or case-control studies, in which 25(OH)D levels were only measured after cancer diagnosis. Two studies found an inverse association between 25(OH)D level and HNC risk, while two other prospective cohort studies demonstrated no connection between 25(OH)D and HNC risk. Several studies reported cancer patients to have significantly lower 25(OH)D levels than controls. Associations between 25(OH)D and prognosis and mortality were variable. The link between vitamin D and HNC has so far only been investigated in a few observational, prospective, and case-control studies. Vitamin D deficiency may be more common in HNC patients than in the healthy population. There is no evidence for a causal relationship. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether low 25(OH)D concentrations play a role in the development or outcome of HNCs.