Browsing by Subject "Euraasia"

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  • Lappalainen, Hanna K.; Petäjä, Tuukka; Vihma, Timo; Räisänen, Jouni; Baklanov, Alexander; Chalov, Sergey; Esau, Igor; Ezhova, Ekaterina; Leppäranta, Matti; Pozdnyakov, Dmitry; Pumpanen, Jukka; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Arshinov, Mikhail; Asmi, Eija; Bai, Jianhui; Bashmachnikov, Igor; Belan, Boris; Bianchi, Federico; Biskaborn, Boris; Boy, Michael; Bäck, Jaana; Cheng, Bin; Chubarova, Natalia; Duplissy, Jonathan; Dyukarev, Egor; Eleftheriadis, Konstantinos; Forsius, Martin; Heimann, Martin; Juhola, Sirkku; Konovalov, Vladimir; Konovalov, Igor; Konstantinov, Pavel; Köster, Kajar; Lapshina, Elena; Lintunen, Anna; Mahura, Alexander; Makkonen, Risto; Malkhazova, Svetlana; Mammarella, Ivan; Mammola, Stefano; Buenrostro Mazon, Stephany; Meinander, Outi; Mikhailov, Eugene; Miles, Victoria; Myslenkov, Stanislav; Orlov, Dmitry; Paris, Jean-Daniel; Pirazzini, Roberta; Popovicheva, Olga; Pulliainen, Jouni; Rautiainen, Kimmo; Sachs, Torsten; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Skorokhod, Andrey; Stohl, Andreas; Suhonen, Elli; Thomson, Erik S.; Tsidilina, Marina; Tynkkynen, Veli-Pekka; Uotila, Petteri; Virkkula, Aki; Voropay, Nadezhda; Wolf, Tobias; Yasunaka, Sayaka; Zhang, Jiahua; Qiu, Yubao; Ding, Aijun; Guo, Huadong; Bondur, Valery; Kasimov, Nikolay; Zilitinkevich, Sergej; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Kulmala, Markku (Copernicus GmbH, 2022)
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
    The Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) Science Plan, released in 2015, addressed a need for a holistic system understanding and outlined the most urgent research needs for the rapidly changing Arctic-boreal region. Air quality in China, together with the long-range transport of atmospheric pollutants, was also indicated as one of the most crucial topics of the research agenda. These two geographical regions, the northern Eurasian Arctic-boreal region and China, especially the megacities in China, were identified as a “PEEX region”. It is also important to recognize that the PEEX geographical region is an area where science-based policy actions would have significant impacts on the global climate. This paper summarizes results obtained during the last 5 years in the northern Eurasian region, together with recent observations of the air quality in the urban environments in China, in the context of the PEEX programme. The main regions of interest are the Russian Arctic, northern Eurasian boreal forests (Siberia) and peatlands, and the megacities in China. We frame our analysis against research themes introduced in the PEEX Science Plan in 2015. We summarize recent progress towards an enhanced holistic understanding of the land–atmosphere–ocean systems feedbacks. We conclude that although the scientific knowledge in these regions has increased, the new results are in many cases insufficient, and there are still gaps in our understanding of large-scale climate–Earth surface interactions and feedbacks. This arises from limitations in research infrastructures, especially the lack of coordinated, continuous and comprehensive in situ observations of the study region as well as integrative data analyses, hindering a comprehensive system analysis. The fast-changing environment and ecosystem changes driven by climate change, socio-economic activities like the China Silk Road Initiative, and the global trends like urbanization further complicate such analyses. We recognize new topics with an increasing importance in the near future, especially “the enhancing biological sequestration capacity of greenhouse gases into forests and soils to mitigate climate change” and the “socio-economic development to tackle air quality issues”.
  • Vehkasalo, Veera Kaisa (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    In this thesis I study the Neo-Eurasianist movement in Russia and the ways the activists of the movement construct Eurasia as a unified entity and an empire. The central research questions of this work are: What is the empire and what are its central motivations and themes? How is the idea of empire constructed or understood, and how can this be interpreted? What could be seen to be the effects of their ways of imagining Eurasia? My material consists of interviews that were collected during the spring of 2008, and written materials produced by the movement (various printed publications and internet sites). By the Neo-Eurasianist movement I here mean the activists of the International Eurasianist Movement (Meždunarodnoe Evrazijskoe Dviženie) and its youth section the Eurasian Youth Union (Evrazijskij Sojuz Molodëži). The movement has been officially founded in 2003, but it draws a strong historical continuity from a movement in the 1930s called classic Eurasianism. Apart from this its discourse has a lot of on Soviet, fascist, neo-conservative and nationalist characteristics, among others. Its leader is the philosopher-geopolitician Alexander Dugin. In the background to this work I am interested in the ways the so called intelligentsia or intellectuals affect nationalism, or discourses that define the change and development of social groups. I look at my material from a discourse analytical point of view. I see discourse analysis as the research of the ways of producing social reality in different social practices. At the same the research of these discourses, following a Foucauldian tradition, critically examines the (actualized or potential) power relations that they produce. I also use the concept of 'imagined communities' of Benedict Anderson, which contributes to understanding the way my subjects build the empire as a community. In the speech of the activists the empire (imperiâ) comes out mostly as a positive thing, and as 'their own,' whereas the term imperialism (imperialism) mostly has a negative connotation, and is related to the main enemy, the USA. I separate the various themes that arise in to five main themes. Out of these I examine more closely the theme of empire as the benefactor of all peoples (political side), the source of external power (historical-geopolitical side) and as the creator of the collective subject (imperial-nationalist side). Throughout the work I try to contextualize the discourse and examine the ways it draws motives also from the historical-cultural ways of perceiving the area and its inhabitants. I also discuss the concepts of people, nation, ethnos and nationalism and how they are used in the Neo-Eurasianist discourse. The concept of imperial nationalism (imperskij nacionalizm) helps in understanding the ways the movement is trying to distance itself from nationalism and at the same time use some of the basic themes of the nationalist discourse. One of the main differences to the so called mainstream of nationalism is that the word 'nation (naciâ)' has a strong negative connotation. In opposition to nation, the concept of people (narod) is highlighted. However, at the same time the concept russkij (more an ethnic Russia) is used in a wider and more all-encompassing way than usually, and first and foremost Russia is the main referent of the empire. Of the positive images attached to the Eurasian empire, I look more closely in to the idea of multinationalism and the empire as the house of peoples, which I see to be a considerable rhetoric theme in all the material. Closely related to this there is also the 'liberating' role of empire, which I see as a branch of the same discussion. I interpret that their empire -discourse has an instrumentalist character: it legitimizes Russian claims to influence especially over the area of the former Soviet Union. The 'Eurasian people' works as a possible unifying factor instead of the 'Soviet people' for Eurasia. On the basis of my material I interpret that on the background of this 'people' is Russia and Russian -specific claims more than others. I also shortly discuss the reasons for the criticism of nation in Russia and the suitability of the term to Russia, and the stratification of concepts of Russianness. All in all, the empire is presented as an abstract, utopian and a 'total' entity.