Browsing by Subject "Eurasia"

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  • Särkinen, Tiina; Poczai, Péter; Barboza, Gloria; van der Weerden, Gerard M.; Baden, Maria; Knapp, Sandra (2018)
    The Morelloid Glade, also known as the black nightshades or "Maurella" (Morella), is one of the 10 major Glades within Solanum L. The pantropical Glade consists of 75 currently recognised non-spiny herbaceous and suffrutescent species with simple or branched hairs with or without glandular tips, with a centre of distribution in the tropical Andes. A secondary centre of diversity is found in Africa, where a set of mainly polyploid taxa occur. A yet smaller set of species is found in Australasia and Europe, including Solanum nigrum L., the type of the genus Solanum. Due to the large number of published synonyms, combined with complex morphological variation, our understanding of species limits and diversity in the Morelloid Glade has remained poor despite detailed morphological studies carried out in conjunction with breeding experiments. Here we provide the first taxonomic overview since the 19th century of the entire group in the Old World, including Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe and islands of the Pacific. Complete synonymy, morphological descriptions, distribution maps and common names and uses are provided for all 19 species occurring outside the Americas (i.e. Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe and islands of the Pacific). We treat 12 species native to the Old World, as well as 7 taxa that are putatively introduced and/or invasive in the region. The current knowledge of the origin of the polyploid species is summarised. A key to all of the species occurring in the Old World is provided, together with line drawings and colour figures to aid identification both in herbaria and in the field. Preliminary conservation assessments arc provided for all species.
  • Grünthal, Riho; Heyd, Volker; Holopainen, Sampsa; Janhunen, Juha; Khanina, Olga; Miestamo, Matti; Nichols, Johanna; Saarikivi, Janne; Sinnemäki, Kaius (2022)
    The widespread Uralic family offers several advantages for tracing prehistory: a firm absolute chronological anchor point in an ancient contact episode with well-dated Indo-Iranian; other points of intersection or diagnostic non-intersection with early Indo-European (the Late Proto-Indo-European-speaking Yamnaya culture of the western steppe, the Afanasievo culture of the upper Yenisei, and the Fatyanovo culture of the middle Volga); lexical and morphological reconstruction sufficient to establish critical absences of sharings and contacts. We add information on climate, linguistic geography, typology, and cognate frequency distributions to reconstruct the Uralic origin and spread. We argue that the Uralic homeland was east of the Urals and initially out of contact with Indo-European. The spread was rapid and without widespread shared substratal effects. We reconstruct its cause as the interconnected reactions of early Uralic and Indo-European populations to a catastrophic climate change episode and interregionalization opportunities which advantaged riverine hunter-fishers over herders.
  • Bernor, Raymond L.; Kaya, Ferhat; Kaakinen, Anu; Saarinen, Juha; Fortelius, Mikael (2021)
    Nearly five decades ago Berggren and Van Couvering proposed an Old World "Hipparion Datum" wherein a North American Hipparion extended its range across Eurasia and Africa as an "instantaneous prochoresis" populating the Old World. Four decades ago Woodburne and Bernor examined European and North African hipparion assemblages and proposed a number of distinct hipparion lineages, sharply departing from the mono-generic paradigm of previous work. Through the 1980s until now, hipparion systematic studies have delineated multiple superspecific groups of hipparions. Herein, we define 10 recognizable genus-rank Eurasian and African taxa delineating their chronologic occurrences, geographic extent and where data exists, their body mass and paleodietary preferences. Our study supports the current interpretation that a species of North American Cormohipparion extended its range into the Old World in the early late Miocene. Regional first occurrences of Cormohipparion are recognized in the Potwar Plateau, Pakistan and Sinap Tepe, Turkey 10.8 Ma. The slightly derived lineage Hippotherium is recorded earlier in the Pannonian C of the Vienna Basin, 11.4-11.0 Ma marking the chronologic "Hipparion" Datum at the lower boundary of Mammal Neogene (MN) Unit 9. Within MN 9, 11.2-9.9 Ma, Cormohipparion underwent a minor diversification whereas Hippotherium diversified in Central and Western Europe and China and Sivalhippus (S. nagriensis) originated in the Indian Subcontinent. Whereas Cormohipparion did not survive into the late Vallesian, MN10 (9.9-8.9 Ma), Hippotherium and Sivalhippus did and the Cremohipparion and Hipparion s.s. lineages originated. During the early and middle Turolian (MN11-12, 8.9-6.8 Ma) Hippotherium, Sivalhippus, Cremohipparion and Hipparion persisted and new lineages, Eurygnathohippus, Plesiohipparion, Baryhipparion and Shanxihippus originated. An initial extinction interval occurred at the end of the Miocene, MN13 (6.8-5.3 Ma) wherein all but one endemic species of Hippotherium, H. malpassi (Italy), Hipparion and several species of Cremohipparion became extinct. Lineage and species reduction continued across the MioPliocene boundary so that by the beginning of the Pliocene (MN14, 5.3 Ma) only African species of Eurygnathohippus, Chinese Plesiohipparion houfenense and Proboscidipparion sinense remained. The later Pliocene (MN15-16, ca. 5.0-2.5 Ma) documents the persistence of endemic Chinese Baryhipparion insperatum, modest diversification of African Eurygnatohippus spp. and Chinese Plesiohipparion and Proboscidipparion spp. Eurygnathohippus made a limited geographic extension into the Indian subcontinent during MN16, whereas Pleisohipparion and Proboscidipparion extended their ranges into Eurasia during MN15 and MN16. The latest occurring hipparions are Proboscidipparion sinense at 1.0 Ma in China and Eurygnathohippus cornelianus in Africa 300 kg), with the smaller forms being predominately grass feeders and larger ones being mixed feeders. Decreased hipparion lineage and species diversity in the Pliocene was accompanied by increased average body size and hypsodonty probably in response to more seasonal Eurasian and African environments. There is no evidence that hipparions ever adapted to cold and dry Old World Pleistocene environments.
  • Kurhinen, J.; Bolshakov, V. N.; Delgado, M.; Prokhorov, I.; Ovaskainen, Otso (НИЦ НБ РС(Я), 2019)
    The article is devoted to the international project — “The Eurasian Chronicle of Nature: a large-scale analysis of changing ecosystems”, the history of the project from 2011 to 2019 is given. The significance of the long-term data of the “Annals of Nature” of the protected areas when studying the dynamics of the biological diversity of the biota of Eurasia, including the assessment of the effects of climate change, is emphasized.
  • Gelman, Vladimir (Издательство Европейского университета в Санкт-Петербурге, 2016)
    Серия препринтов. Центр исследований модернизации