Browsing by Subject "Europe"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-20 of 90
  • Cavalli, F.; Alastuey, A.; Areskoug, H.; Ceburnis, D.; Cech, J.; Genberg, J.; Harrison, R. M.; Jaffrezo, J. L.; Kiss, G.; Laj, P.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Perez, N.; Quincey, P.; Schwarz, J.; Sellegri, K.; Spindler, G.; Swietlicki, E.; Theodosi, C.; Yttri, K. E.; Aas, W.; Putaud, J. P. (2016)
    Although particulate organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) are important constituents of the suspended atmospheric particulate matter (PM), measurements of OC and EC are much less common and More uncertain than measurements of e.g. the ionic components of PM. In the framework of atmospheric research infrastructures supported by the European Union, actions have been undertaken to determine and mitigate sampling artefacts, and assess the comparability of OC and EC data obtained in a network of 10 atmospheric observatories across Europe. Positive sampling artefacts (from 0:4 to 2.8 mu g C/m(3)) and analytical discrepancies (between -50% and +40% for the EC/TC ratio) have been taken into account to generate a robust data set, from which we established the phenomenology of carbonaceous aerosols at regional background sites in Europe. Across the network, TC and EC annual average concentrations range from 0.4 to 9 mu g C/m(3), and from 0.1 to 2 mu g C/m(3), respectively. TC/PM10 annual mean ratios range from 0.11 at a Mediterranean site to 0.34 at the most polluted continental site, and TC/PM2.5 ratios are slightly greater at all sites (0.15-0.42). EC/TC annual mean ratios range from 0.10 to 0.22, and do not depend much on PM concentration levels, especially in winter. Seasonal variations in PM and TC concentrations, and in TC/PM and EC/TC ratios, differ across the network, which can be explained by seasonal changes in PM source contributions at some sites. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Zanatta, M.; Gysel, M.; Bukowiecki, N.; Mueller, T.; Weingartner, E.; Areskoug, H.; Fiebig, M.; Yttri, K. E.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Kouvarakis, G.; Beddows, D.; Harrison, R. M.; Cavalli, F.; Putaud, J. P.; Spindler, G.; Wiedensohler, A.; Alastuey, A.; Pandolfi, M.; Sellegri, K.; Swietlicki, E.; Jaffrezo, J. L.; Baltensperger, U.; Laj, P. (2016)
    A reliable assessment of the optical properties of atmospheric black carbon is of crucial importance for an accurate estimation of radiative forcing. In this study we investigated the spatio-temporal variability of the mass absorption cross-section (MAC) of atmospheric black carbon, defined as light absorption coefficient (sigma(ap)) divided by elemental carbon mass concentration (m(EC)). sigma(ap) and m(EC) have been monitored at supersites of the ACTRIS network for a minimum period of one year. The 9 rural background sites considered in this study cover southern Scandinavia, central Europe and the Mediterranean. sigma(ap) was determined using filter based absorption photometers and m(EC) using a thermal-optical technique. Homogeneity of the data-set was ensured by harmonization of all involved methods and instruments during extensive intercomparison exercises at the European Center for Aerosol Calibration (ECAC). Annual mean values of sigma(ap) at a wavelength of 637 nm vary between 0.66 and 1.3 Mm(-1) in southern Scandinavia, 3.7-11 Mm(-1) in Central Europe and the British Isles, and 2.3-2.8 Mm(-1) in the Mediterranean. Annual mean values of mEC vary between 0.084 and 0.23 mu g m(-3) in southern Scandinavia, 0.28 -1.1 in Central Europe and the British Isles, and 0.22-0.26 in the Mediterranean. Both sigma(ap) and mEC in southern Scandinavia and Central Europe have a distinct seasonality with maxima during the cold season and minima during summer, whereas at the Mediterranean sites an opposite trend was observed. Annual mean MAC values were quite similar across all sites and the seasonal variability was small at most sites. Consequently, a MAC value of 10.0 m(2) g(-1) (geometric standard deviation = 133) at a wavelength of 637 nm can be considered to be representative of the mixed boundary layer at European background sites, where BC is expected to be internally mixed to a large extent. The observed spatial variability is rather small compared to the variability of values in previous literature, indicating that the harmonization efforts resulted in substantially increased precision of the reported MAC. However, absolute uncertainties of the reported MAC values remain as high as +/- 30-70% due to the lack of appropriate reference methods and calibration materials. The mass ratio between elemental carbon and non-light-absorbing matter was used as a proxy for the thickness of coatings around the BC cores, in order to assess the influence of the mixing state on the MAC of BC. Indeed, the MAC was found to increase with increasing values of the coating thickness proxy. This provides evidence that coatings do increase the MAC of atmospheric BC to some extent, which is commonly referred to as lensing effect. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Poikane, Sandra; Birk, Sebastian; Boehmer, Juergen; Carvalho, Laurence; de Hoyos, Caridad; Gassner, Hubert; Hellsten, Seppo; Kelly, Martyn; Solheim, Anne Lyche; Olin, Mikko; Pall, Karin; Phillips, Geoff; Portielje, Rob; Ritterbusch, David; Sandin, Leonard; Schartau, Ann-Kristin; Solimini, Angelo G.; van den Berg, Marcel; Wolfram, Georg; van de Bund, Wouter (2015)
    The Water Framework Directive is the first international legislation to require European countries to establish comparable ecological assessment schemes for their freshwaters. A key element in harmonising quality classification within and between Europe's river basins is an "Intercalibration" exercise, stipulated by the WFD, to ensure that the good status boundaries in all of the biological assessment methods correspond to similar levels of anthropogenic pressure. In this article, we provide a comprehensive overview of this international comparison, focusing on the assessment schemes developed for freshwater lakes. Out of 82 lake ecological assessment methods reported for the comparison, 62 were successfully intercalibrated and included in the EC Decision on intercalibration, with a high proportion of phytoplankton (18), macrophyte (17) and benthic fauna (13) assessment methods. All the lake assessment methods are reviewed in this article, including the results of intercalibration. Furthermore, the current gaps and way forward to reach consistent management objectives for European lakes are discussed. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Särkinen, Tiina; Poczai, Péter; Barboza, Gloria; van der Weerden, Gerard M.; Baden, Maria; Knapp, Sandra (2018)
    The Morelloid Glade, also known as the black nightshades or "Maurella" (Morella), is one of the 10 major Glades within Solanum L. The pantropical Glade consists of 75 currently recognised non-spiny herbaceous and suffrutescent species with simple or branched hairs with or without glandular tips, with a centre of distribution in the tropical Andes. A secondary centre of diversity is found in Africa, where a set of mainly polyploid taxa occur. A yet smaller set of species is found in Australasia and Europe, including Solanum nigrum L., the type of the genus Solanum. Due to the large number of published synonyms, combined with complex morphological variation, our understanding of species limits and diversity in the Morelloid Glade has remained poor despite detailed morphological studies carried out in conjunction with breeding experiments. Here we provide the first taxonomic overview since the 19th century of the entire group in the Old World, including Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe and islands of the Pacific. Complete synonymy, morphological descriptions, distribution maps and common names and uses are provided for all 19 species occurring outside the Americas (i.e. Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe and islands of the Pacific). We treat 12 species native to the Old World, as well as 7 taxa that are putatively introduced and/or invasive in the region. The current knowledge of the origin of the polyploid species is summarised. A key to all of the species occurring in the Old World is provided, together with line drawings and colour figures to aid identification both in herbaria and in the field. Preliminary conservation assessments arc provided for all species.
  • Hodgetts, N. G.; Söderström, Lars; Blockeel, T. L.; Caspari, S.; Ignatov, M.S; Konstantinova, Nadezhda A.; Lockhart, N.; Papp, B.; Schröck, C.; Sim-Sim, M.; Bell, D.; Blom, H.; Bruggeman-Nannenga, M. A; Brugues, M; Enroth, Johannes; Garilleti, R.; Flatberg, K. I; Hedenäs, L; Holyoak, D. T; Hugonnot, V; Kariyawasam, I.; Köckinger, H.; Kucera, J.; Lara, F.; Porley, R. D. (2020)
    Introduction. Following on from work on the European bryophyte Red List, the taxonomically and nomenclaturally updated spreadsheets used for that project have been expanded into a new checklist for the bryophytes of Europe. Methods. A steering group of ten European bryologists was convened, and over the course of a year, the spreadsheets were compared with previous European checklists, and all changes noted. Recent literature was searched extensively. A taxonomic system was agreed, and the advice and expertise of many European bryologists sought. Key results. A new European checklist of bryophytes, comprising hornworts, liverworts and mosses, is presented. Fifteen new combinations are proposed. Conclusions. This checklist provides a snapshot of the current European bryophyte flora in 2019. It will already be out-of-date on publication, and further research, particularly molecular work, can be expected to result in many more changes over the next few years.
  • University of Helsinki, Finnish Museum of Natural History; University of Helsinki, Finnish Museum of Natural History; University of Helsinki, Finnish Museum of Natural History; Kurtto, Arto Kalevi; Sennikov, Alexander Nikolaevich; Lampinen, Raino Ensio; (The Committee for Mapping the Flora of Europe & Societas Biologica Fennica Vanamo, 2018)
  • Elands, B.H.M.; Vierikko, K.; Andersson, E.; Fischer, L.K.; Gonçalves, P.; Haase, D.; Kowarik, I.; Luz, A.C.; Niemelä, J.; Santos-Reis, M.; Wiersum, K.F. (2019)
    Biocultural diversity is an evolving perspective for studying the interrelatedness between people and their natural environment, not only in ecoregional hotspots and cultural landscapes, but also in urban green spaces. Developed in the 1990s in order to denote the diversity of life in all its manifestations. biological, cultural and linguistic. co-evolving within complex socio-ecological systems such as cities, biocultural diversity was identified in the GREEN SURGE project as a response to recent challenges cities face. Most important challenges are the loss of nature and degradation of ecosystems in and around cities as well as an alienation of urban residents from and loss of interaction with nature. The notion of biocultural diversity is dynamic in nature and takes local values and practices of relating to biodiversity of different cultural groups as a starting point for sustainable living with biodiversity. The issue is not only how to preserve or restore biocultural practices and values, but also how to modify, adapt and create biocultural diversity in ways that resonate with urban transformations. As future societies will largely diverge from today's societies, the cultural perspective on living with (urban) nature needs careful reconsideration. Biocultural diversity is not conceived as a definite concept providing prescriptions of what to see and study, but as a reflexive and sensitising concept that can be used to assess the different values and knowledge of people that reflect how they live with biodiversity. This short communication paper introduces a conceptual framework for studying the multi-dimensional features of biocultural diversity in cities along the three key dimensions of materialized, lived and stewardship, being departure points from which biocultural diversity can be studied.
  • Jiang, Jianhui; Aksoyoglu, Sebnem; Ciarelli, Giancarlo; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S.H. (2020)
    Air pollution is among the top threats to human health and ecosystems despite the substantial decrease in anthropogenic emissions. Meanwhile, the role of ship emissions on air quality is becoming increasingly important with the growing maritime transport and less strict regulations. In this study, we modeled the air quality in Europe between 1990 and 2030 with ten-year intervals, using the regional air quality model CAMx version 6.50, to investigate the changes in the past (1990-2010) as well as the effects of different land and ship emission scenarios in the future (2020,2030). The modeled mean ozone levels decreased slightly during the first decade but then started increasing again especially in polluted areas. Results from the future scenarios suggest that by 2030 the peak ozone would decrease, leading to a decrease in the days exceeding the maximum daily 8-h average ozone (MDA8) limit values (60 ppb) by 51% in southern Europe relative to 1990. The model results show a decrease of 56% (6.3 mu g m(-3)) in PM2.5 concentrations from 1990 to 2030 under current legislation, mostly due to a large drop in sulfate (representing up to 44% of the total PM2.5 decrease during 1990-2000) while nitrate concentrations were predicted to go down with an increasing rate (10% of total PM2.5 decrease during 1990-2000 while 36% during 2020-2030). The ship emissions if reduced according to the maximum technically feasible reduction (MTFR) scenario were predicted to contribute up to 19% of the decrease in the PM2.5 concentrations over land between 2010 and 2030. Ship emission reductions according to the MTFR scenario would lead to a decrease in the days with MDA8 exceeding EU limits by 24-28% (10-14 days) around the coastal regions. The results obtained in our study show the increasing importance of ship emission reductions, after a relatively large decrease in land emissions was achieved in Europe. (c) 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
  • Sortheix, Florencia M.; Parker, Philip D.; Lechner, Clemens; Schwartz, Shalom (2019)
    We investigate the impact of the global financial crisis (GFC) on the personal values of youth and young adults (age 16-35 years) from 16 European countries. Using time series cross-sectional data from seven waves (2002-2014) of the European Social Survey, we examined (1) whether the GFC led to value shifts between cohorts of young people and (2) whether welfare state provision moderate the expected value shifts. Multilevel analyses showed that, following the GFC, the importance of security, tradition, benevolence, and, to a lesser extent, conformity values increased. In contrast, hedonism, self-direction, and stimulation values decreased. In line with our moderation hypothesis, power, and, to a lesser extent, achievement values increased following the GFC in countries low on welfare expenditures but decreased in countries high on welfare expenditures. Contrary to expectations, increases in tradition and benevolence values were more pronounced in high-welfare countries.
  • Wallgren, Thomas (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2013)
    COLLeGIUM: Studies across Disciplines in the Humanities and Social Sciences 14
    A Nordic proverb tells us that a prudent man does not make the goat his gardener. But that is exactly what we have done. In the garden of Europe we have handed over power to the goat of transnational companies and banks and to democratically weakly accountable bureaucrats. The harvest we have reaped is the euro-crisis. I will first present the basic features of what I consider to be the standard view of the political situation in Europe. In the discussion that follows I will try to show that the standard view has made us complicit in empowering the goat. When we see this clearly – what has happened and why it has happened – it will also be relatively easy to agree on responses to the crisis. But clarity of vision is, as we shall see, in this case somewhat hard to attain.
  • De Tiege, Xavier; Lundqvist, Daniel; Beniczky, Sandor; Seri, Stefano; Paetau, Ritva (2017)
    Purpose: This comprehensive survey aims at characterizing the current clinical use of magnetoencephalography (MEG) across European MEG centres. Methods: Forty-four MEG centres across Europe were contacted in May 2015 via personalized e-mail to contribute to survey. The web-based survey was available on-line for 1 month and the MEG centres that did not respond were further contacted to maximize participation. Results: Among the 57% of responders, 12 centres from 10 different countries reported to use MEG for clinical applications. A total of 524 MEG investigations were performed in 2014 for the pre-surgical evaluation of epilepsy, while in the same period 244 MEG investigations were performed for pre-surgical functional brain mapping. Seven MEG centres located in different European countries performed >50 MEG investigations for epilepsy mapping in 2014, both in children and adults. In those centres, time from patient preparation to MEG data reporting tends to be lower than those investigating a lower annual number of patients. Conclusion: This survey demonstrates that there is in Europe an increasing and widespread expertise in the field of clinical MEG. These findings should serve as a basis to harmonize clinical MEG procedures and promote the clinical added value of MEG across Europe. MEG should now be considered in Europe as a mature clinical neurophysiological technique that should be used routinely in two specific clinical indications, i.e, the pre-surgical evaluation of refractory focal epilepsy and functional brain mapping. (C) 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Hietala, Reija; Ijäs, Asko; Pikner, Tarmo; Kull, Anne; Printsmann, Anu; Kuusik, Maila; Fagerholm, Nora; Vihervaara, Petteri; Nordström, Paulina; Kostamo, Kirsi (Springer Nature, 2021)
    Journal of Coastal Conservation 25 (2021), 47
    The Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP) Directive was ratified (2014/89/EU) along the Strategy of the European Union (EU) on the Blue Economy to contribute to the effective management of maritime activities and resources and incorporate the principal elements of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) (2002/413/EC) into planning at the land-sea interface. There is a need to develop the ICZM approach throughout Europe to realise the potential for both socio-economic and environmental targets set by the EU and national legislations. In this study, we co-developed different approaches for land-sea interactions in four case areas in Estonia and Finland based on the defined characteristics and key interests derived from local or regional challenges by integrating spatial data on human activities and ecology. Furthermore, four ICZM drafts were co-evaluated by stakeholders and the public using online map-based assessment tools (public participatory GIS). The ICZM approaches of the Estonian cases ranged from the diversification of land use to the enhancement of community-based entrepreneurship. The Finnish cases aimed to define the trends for sustainable marine and coastal tourism and introduce the ecosystem service concept in land use planning. During the project activities, we found that increased communication and exchange of local and regional views and values on the prevailing land-sea interactions were important for the entire process. Thereafter, the ICZM plans were applied to the MSP processes nationally, and they support the sustainable development of coastal areas in Estonia and Finland.
  • Hu, Yannan; van Lenthe, Frank J.; Judge, Ken; Lahelma, Eero; Costa, Giuseppe; de Gelder, Rianne; Mackenbach, Johan P. (2016)
    Background: Between 1997 and 2010, the English government pursued an ambitious programme to reduce health inequalities, the explicit and sustained commitment of which was historically and internationally unique. Previous evaluations have produced mixed results. None of these evaluations have, however, compared the trends in health inequalities within England with those in other European countries. We carried out an innovative analysis to assess whether changes in trends in health inequalities observed in England after the implementation of its programme, have been more favourable than those in other countries without such a programme. Methods: Data were obtained from nationally representative surveys carried out in England, Finland, the Netherlands and Italy for years around 1990, 2000 and 2010. A modified difference-in-difference approach was used to assess whether trends in health inequalities in 2000-2010 were more favourable as compared to the period 1990-2000 in England, and the changes in trends in inequalities after 2000 in England were then compared to those in the three comparison countries. Health outcomes were self-assessed health, long-standing health problems, smoking status and obesity. Education was used as indicator of socioeconomic position. Results: After the implementation of the English strategy, more favourable trends in some health indicators were observed among low-educated people, but trends in health inequalities in 2000-2010 in England were not more favourable than those observed in the period 1990-2000. For most health indicators, changes in trends of health inequalities after 2000 in England were also not significantly different from those seen in the other countries. Conclusions: In this rigorous analysis comparing trends in health inequalities in England both over time and between countries, we could not detect a favourable effect of the English strategy. Our analysis illustrates the usefulness of a modified difference-in-difference approach for assessing the impact of policies on population-level health inequalities.
  • Cardiomyopathy Myocarditis; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Sammani, Arjan; Elliott, Perry; Heliö, Tiina; Charron, Philippe (2021)
    Aims Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a complex disease where genetics interplay with extrinsic factors. This study aims to compare the phenotype, management, and outcome of familial DCM (FDCM) and non-familial (sporadic) DCM (SDCM) across Europe. Methods and results Patients with DCM that were enrolled in the prospective ESC EORP Cardiomyopathy & Myocarditis Registry were included. Baseline characteristics, genetic testing, genetic yield, and outcome were analysed comparing FDCM and SDCM; 1260 adult patients were studied (238 FDCM, 707 SDCM, and 315 not disclosed). Patients with FDCM were younger (P <0.01), had less severe disease phenotype at presentation (P <0.02), more favourable baseline cardiovascular risk profiles (P Conclusions We observed that FDCM and SDCM have significant differences at baseline but similar short-term prognosis. Whether modification of associated cardiovascular risk factors provide opportunities for treatment remains to be investigated. Our results also show a prevalent role of genetics in FDCM and a non-marginal yield in SDCM although genetic testing is largely neglected in SDCM. Limited genetic testing and heterogeneity in panels provides a scaffold for improvement of guideline adherence.
  • Huemer, Peter; Karsholt, Ole; Aarvik, Leif; Berggren, Kai; Bidzilya, Olexey; Junnilainen, Jari Kalevi; Landry, Jean-Francois; Mutanen, Marko; Nupponen, Kari; Segerer, Andreas; Šumpich, Jan; Wieser, Christian; Wiesmair, Benjamin; Herbert, Paul D. N. D. N. (2020)
    For the first time, a nearly complete barcode library for European Gelechiidae is provided. DNA barcode sequences (COI gene – cytochrome c oxidase 1) from 751 out of 865 nominal species, belonging to 105 genera, were successfully recovered. A total of 741 species represented by specimens with sequences ≥ 500bp and an additional ten species represented by specimens with shorter sequences were used to produce 53 NJ trees. Intraspecific barcode divergence averaged only 0.54% whereas distance to the Nearest-Neighbour species averaged 5.58%. Of these, 710 species possessed unique DNA barcodes, but 31 species could not be reliably discriminated because of barcode sharing or partial barcode overlap. Species discrimination based on the Barcode Index System (BIN) was successful for 668 out of 723 species which clustered from minimum one to maximum 22 unique BINs. Fifty-five species shared a BIN with up to four species and identification from DNA barcode data is uncertain. Finally, 65 clusters with a unique BIN remained unidentified to species level. These putative taxa, as well as 114 nominal species with more than one BIN, suggest the presence of considerable cryptic diversity, cases which should be examined in future revisionary studies.
  • Wouters, Michel W.; Michielin, Olivier; Bastiaannet, Esther; Beishon, Marc; Catalano, Orlando; del Marmol, Veronique; Delgado-Bolton, Roberto; Dendale, Remi; Trill, Maria Die; Ferrari, Andrea; Forsea, Ana-Maria; Kreckel, Hannelore; Lövey, Jozsef; Luyten, Gre; Massi, Daniela; Mohr, Peter; Oberst, Simon; Pereira, Philippe; Paiva Prata, Joao Paulo; Rutkowski, Piotr; Saarto, Tiina; Sheth, Sapna; Spurrier-Bernard, Gilly; Vuoristo, Meri-Sisko; Costad, Alberto; Naredi, Peter (2018)
    Background ECCO essential requirements for quality cancer care (ERQCC) are explanations and descriptions of challenges, organisation and actions that are necessary to give high-quality care to patients who have a specific type of cancer. They are written by European experts representing all disciplines involved in cancer care. ERQCC papers give oncology teams, patients, policymakers and managers an overview of the elements needed in any healthcare system to provide high quality of care throughout the patient journey. References are made to clinical guidelines and other resources where appropriate, and the focus is on care in Europe. Melanoma: essential requirements for quality care: Melanoma, the most-deadly skin cancer, is rising in incidence among fair-skinned people in Europe. Increasing complexity of care for advanced disease in clinical areas such as staging and new therapies requires attention to a number of challenges and inequalities in a diverse patient group. Care for advanced melanoma must only be carried out in, or in collaboration with, specialist melanoma centres which have both a core multidisciplinary team and an extended team of allied professionals, and which are subject to quality and audit procedures. Access to such units is far from universal in all European countries. It is essential that, to meet European aspirations for high-quality comprehensive cancer control, healthcare organisations implement the requirements in this paper, paying particular attention to multidisciplinarity and patient-centred pathways from diagnosis to treatment and follow-up, to improve survival and quality of life for patients. Conclusion: Taken together, the information presented in this paper provides a comprehensive description of the essential requirements for establishing a high-quality service for melanoma. The ERQCC expert group is aware that it is not possible to propose a 'one size fits all' system for all countries, but urges that access to multidisciplinary teams and specialised treatments is guaranteed to all patients with melanoma.
  • Allum, William; Lordick, Florian; Alsina, Maria; Andritsch, Elisabeth; Ba-Ssalamah, Ahmed; Beishon, Marc; Braga, Marco; Caballero, Carmela; Carneiro, Fatima; Cassinello, Fernando; Dekker, Jan Willem; Delgado-Bolton, Roberto; Haustermans, Karin; Henning, Geoffrey; Hutter, Bettina; Lovey, Jozsef; Netikova, Irena Stenglova; Oberrnannova, Radka; Oberst, Simon; Rostoft, Siri; Saarto, Tiina; Seufferlein, Thomas; Sheth, Sapna; Wynter-Blyth, Venetia; Costa, Alberto; Naredi, Peter Z. (2018)
    Background: ECCO essential requirements for quality cancer care (ERQCC) are checklists and explanations of organisation and actions that are necessary to give high-quality care to patients who have a specific type of cancer. They are written by European experts representing all disciplines involved in cancer care. ERQCC papers give oncology teams, patients, policymakers and managers an overview of the elements needed in any healthcare system to provide high quality of care throughout the patient journey. References are made to clinical guidelines and other resources where appropriate, and the focus is on care in Europe. Oesophageal and gastric: essential requirements for quality care: Oesophageal and gastric (OG) cancers are a challenging tumour group with a poor prognosis and wide variation in outcomes among European countries. Increasing numbers of older people are contracting the diseases, and treatments and care pathways are becoming more complex in both curative and palliative settings. High-quality care can only be a carried out in specialised OG cancer units or centres which have both a core multidisciplinary team and an extended team of allied professionals, and which are subject to quality and audit procedures. Such units or centres are far from universal in all European countries. It is essential that, to meet European aspirations for comprehensive cancer control, healthcare organisations implement the essential requirements in this paper, paying particular attention to multidisciplinarity and patient-centred pathways from diagnosis, to treatment, to survivorship. Conclusion: Taken together, the information presented in this paper provides a comprehensive description of the essential requirements for establishing a high-quality OG cancer service. The ERQCC expert group is aware that it is not possible to propose a one size fits all' system for all countries, but urges that access to multidisciplinary units or centres must be guaranteed for all those with OG cancer.
  • Andritsch, Elisabeth; Beishon, Marc; Bielack, Stefan; Bonvalot, Sylvie; Casali, Paolo; Crul, Mirjam; Delgado-Bolton, Roberto; Donatih, Davide Maria; Douis, Hassan; Haas, Rick; Hogendoorn, Pancras; Kozhaeva, Olga; Lavender, Verna; Lovey, Jozsef; Negrouk, Anastassia; Pereira, Philippe; Roca, Pierre; de Lempdes, Godelieve Rochette; Saarto, Tiina; van Berck, Bert; Vassal, Gilles; Wartenberg, Markus; Yared, Wendy; Costa, Alberto; Naredi, Peter (2017)
    Background: ECCO essential requirements for quality cancer care (ERQCC) are checklists and explanations of organisation and actions that are necessary to give high-quality care to patients who have a specific tumour type. They are written by European experts representing all disciplines involved in cancer care. ERQCC papers give oncology teams, patients, policymakers and managers an overview of the elements needed in any healthcare system to provide high quality of care throughout the patient journey. References are made to clinical guidelines and other resources where appropriate, and the focus is on care in Europe. Sarcoma: essential requirements for quality care Sarcomas - which can be classified into soft tissue and bone sarcomas - are rare, but all rare cancers make up more than 20% of cancers in Europe, and there are substantial inequalities in access to high-quality care. Sarcomas, of which there are many subtypes, comprise a particularly complex and demanding challenge for healthcare systems and providers. This paper presents essential requirements for quality cancer care of soft tissue sarcomas in adults and bone sarcomas. High-quality care must only be carried out in specialised sarcoma centres (including paediatric cancer centres) which have both a core multidisciplinary team and an extended team of allied professionals, and which are subject to quality and audit procedures. Access to such units is far from universal in all European countries. It is essential that, to meet European aspirations for high-quality comprehensive cancer control, healthcare organisations implement the requirements in this paper, paying particular attention to multidisciplinarity and patient-centred pathways from diagnosis and follow-up, to treatment, to improve survival and quality of life for patients. Conclusion: Taken together, the information presented in this paper provides a comprehensive description of the essential requirements for establishing a high-quality service for soft tissue sarcomas in adults and bone sarcomas. The ECCO expert group is aware that it is not possible to propose a 'one size fits all' system for all countries, but urges that access to multidisciplinary teams is guaranteed to all patients with sarcoma. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
  • Nisen, Jessica; Klüsener, Sebastian; Dahlberg, Johan; Dommermuth, Lars; Jasilioniene, Aiva; Kreyenfeld, Michaela; Lappegard, Trude; Li, Peng; Martikainen, Pekka; Neels, Karel; Riederer, Bernhard; te Riele, Saskia; Szabó, Laura; Trimarchi, Alessandra; Viciana, Francisco; Wilson, Ben; Myrskylä, Mikko (2021)
    Educational differences in female cohort fertility vary strongly across high-income countries and over time, but knowledge about how educational fertility differentials play out at the sub-national regional level is limited. Examining these sub-national regional patterns might improve our understanding of national patterns, as regionally varying contextual conditions may affect fertility. This study provides for the first time for a large number of European countries a comprehensive account of educational differences in the cohort fertility rate (CFR) at the sub-national regional level. We harmonise data from population registers, censuses, and large-sample surveys for 15 countries to measure women's completed fertility by educational level and region of residence at the end of the reproductive lifespan. In order to explore associations between educational differences in CFRs and levels of economic development, we link our data to regional GDP per capita. Empirical Bayesian estimation is used to reduce uncertainty in the regional fertility estimates. We document an overall negative gradient between the CFR and level of education, and notable regional variation in the gradient. The steepness of the gradient is inversely related to the economic development level. It is steepest in the least developed regions and close to zero in the most developed regions. This tendency is observed within countries as well as across all regions of all countries. Our findings underline the variability of educational gradients in women's fertility, suggest that higher levels of development may be associated with less negative gradients, and call for more in-depth sub-national-level fertility analyses by education.