Browsing by Subject "European union"

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  • Koivistoinen, Sari (2006)
    This thesis concentrates on a concept of convergence, and thus it examines whether reduction of disparities between poor and rich countries is taking place and what are the most important factors contributing to such process. The main focus is on a group of more homogenous countries, namely the countries of the European Union due to its ongoing process of convergence and enlargement. Besides the theoretical analysis on convergence, some empirical evidence and analysis of whether trade liberalization has enhanced the convergence process is presented. The thesis discusses the enlargement of the EU and its effects on convergence, but also the history of convergence within the European countries. Sigma-convergence within the enlarged EU area has taken place during the examination period of 1993-2004, and therefore income disparities between countries appear to be declining. When analysing beta-convergence during the period, a negative relationship between the initial level of GDP per capita and its average growth rate can be found. As predicted by the neoclassical theory of convergence, the EU-10 countries are among the initially poorest and fastest growing countries, and the EU-15 countries have a slower growth rate. According to the estimation, the countries of the European Union converge in an absolute sense at a speed of 2.1 % per year. The results indicate that the expected duration of the convergence process must be measured in decades. When examining the relationship between sigma-convergence and economic integration, the liberalisation of trade was found to have an impact on convergence within the EEC. Also among the EU-15 is found evidence for that mutual trade is rather good indicator of sigma-convergence. As for the new member states of the EU, there is a positive relationship between the volume of trade and the degree of openness. Trade between the EU-25 countries has accelerated, which exhibits a propensity towards convergence. The most important references used are Barro, Robert J. and Sala-I-Martin, Xavier (1995), Sala-I-Martin, Xavier (1996) and Kaitila, Ville (2004) for the concept of convergence, Economic and Social Data Service dataset for empirical evidence, and Ben-David, Dan and Kimhi, Ayal (2004) for the relationship between trade and convergence.
  • Petzold, A.; Asmi, A.; Vermeulen, A.; Pappalardo, G.; Bailo, Daniele; Schaap, Dick; Glaves, Helen M.; Bundke, Ulrich; Zhao, Zhiming (IEEE, 2019)
    ENVRI-FAIR is a recently launched project of the European Union's Horizon 2020 program (EU H2020), connecting the cluster of European Environmental Research Infrastructures (ENVRI) to the European Open Science Cloud (EOSC). The overarching goal of ENVRI-FAIR is that all participating research infrastructures (RIs) will provide a set of interoperable FAIR data services that enhance the efficiency and productivity of researchers, support innovation, enable data-And knowledge-based decisions and connect the ENVRI cluster to the EOSC. This goal will be reached by: (1) defining community policies and standards across all stages of the data life cycle, aligned with the wider European policies and with international developments; (2) creating for all participating RIs sustainable, transparent and auditable data services for each stage of the data life cycle, following the FAIR principles; (3) implementing prototypes for testing pre-production services at each RI, leading to a catalogue of prepared services; (4) exposing the complete set of thematic data services and tools of the ENVRI cluster to the EOSC catalogue of services. © 2019 IEEE.
  • Palosaari, Teemu (2005)
    This study analyses the role of security in the European integration process. The focus of the study is the geographical widening of the integration process, i.e. the enlargements of the European Union (and its predecessor the European Community). The study looks at how the role of security has changed during the integration process by analysing the role that security issues have played in the context of the enlargements. It seeks to examine how arguments related to security politics have been used in promoting (or opposing) the geographical expansion of the European integration process and the accession of new member states. Additionally, the enlargement of 2004, is put under closer scrutiny in order to analyse the compatibility of the new member states' views on security with those of the European Union (EU). Before going into the analysis of security's role in the integration process there is a need to ponder what security actually is, i.e. what is meant by "security" and how it is to be conceptualised. In the study of International Relations (IR) the general development has been towards a wider security concept, extending the scope of security studies from military security to other forms of security as well. In this study the selected way of conceptualising "security" is such that it leads to an analysis of security argumentation - therefore turning attention on how different security arguments have played a central role in the European integration process. In doing this it highlights the linkages between security and integration. The enlargements of the European Union/European Community as special forms of integration have an aspect of territoriality that unavoidably connects it to traditional security considerations. Furthermore, as will be explained in this study, the whole European integration process started with clearly security-oriented aims - the Schuman Declaration of 1950 presented European integration as the answer to questions of war and peace. During the Cold War period the focus of integration moved on to issues other than traditional security (key words of integration were the single market program, market liberalisation, efficiency cohesion, environment, technological research and development, social policies relating to employment, and the like) (Ojanen et al. 2000, 38; Dinan 1994, 130: Pinder 2001, 25). But since the late 1990s the traditional military-oriented conception of security has clearly been (re)gaining its significance in 1 In 2004 ten new countries joined the EU: Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia. In the course of the history of European integration it was the fifth geographical enlargement. The previous enlargements were: United Kingdom, Ireland and Denmark (1973); Greece 1981; Spain and Portugal (1986); Austria, Finland and Sweden (1995).
  • Welsh, John William (2008)
    The focus of this thesis shall be the European Social Dialogue and the Lisbon Strategy, or rather that dimension of the Lisbon Strategy that is most pertinant to both the Social Dialogue and to the European Union’s policies on industrial relations and employment, the ‘Social Policy Agenda’. The thesis should therefore be understood as being centred upon the Social Policy Agenda of the Lisbon Strategy realised through the European Social Dialogue. The aim of the study is based around the pursuit of two related thematic questions. Firstly, is a certain understanding of the concept of ‘Society’ being rhetorically employed by EU institutions, in discussions of the Lisbon reform process, which is reliant upon distinctly ‘modern’ categories and epistemological-ontological assumptions. The crucial issue in relation to this question is whether or not those ontological and epistemological categories, upon which this ‘modern’ conceptual idiom depends, are still extant in our current historical context at the putative ‘modern-postmodern’ boundary. Secondly, assuming that there are certain conceptual confusions in the EU's presentation of the Social Dialogue, does its consequent inability to establish a coherent and historically appropriate conceptual vocabularly create a political vacuum through which unrecognised social and economic forces operate based upon the imperatives and tendencies of highly developed capitalist society to reproduce itself on its own instrumental terms. This thesis pursues its exploratory aims by means of a historical analysis of concepts. This means it will establish concepts as an epistemological method of comprehending social and historical phenomena, and will then apply this to an analysis of the usage of concepts in the Social Dialogue, but set in the context of historical time. The thesis should also be understood as a critique of the Social Dialogue. In particular, this thesis shall be an Immanent Critique aimed at the Social Dialogue. This is a mode of enquiry in social theory that analyzes cultural and social forms by identifying and exploring contradictions in the rules and systems necessary to the production of those forms. The main results obtained are not in the form of data or verified hypotheses, but rather consist of an elaboration of the main themes toward providing exploratory conclusions. The result is therefore an elaborated confirmation of the original impressions of the Social Dialogue and Lisbon Strategy implied in the thematic questions at the outset. In this thesis the main sources shall consist of European Commission Communications on the Social Dialogue, the Social Policy Agenda, and the Lisbon Strategy. The secondary sources are theoretical and shall be drawn upon to provide arguments, ideas, theories, and criticism in the conventional manner.
  • CompactLight (XLS); D’Auria, Gerardo; Aicheler, Markus (JACoW Publishing, 2019)
    CompactLight (XLS) is an International Collaboration of 24 partners and 5 third parties, funded by the European Union through the Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme. The main goal of the project, which started in January 2018 with a duration of 36 months, is the design of an hard X-ray FEL facility beyond today’s state of the art, using the latest concepts for bright electron photo-injectors, high-gradient accelerating structures, and innovative short-period undulators. The specifications of the facility and the parameters of the future FEL are driven by the demands of potential users and the associated science cases. In this paper we will give an overview on the ongoing activities and the major results achieved until now. Content from this work may be used under the terms of the CC BY 3.0 licence (© 2019). Any distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s).
  • Kull, Michael (2000)
    The thesis is discussing theory, perception and state of the concept of multi-level governance. It has is focus on sub-national actors and, more precisely on German Länder and Municipalities of the Länder Lower Saxony and its eastern neighbour Saxony-Anhalt. After a reflection on the development of the German federal order motivated to point out trends and theoratical keywords -e.g. Politikverflechtung in cooperative federalism, the joint-decision trap - which were later used by those conceptualising multi-level governace the author shifted to the European Level showing impacts of the process of European Integration on the Länder. He demonstrated that those were in their result comparable to those of the internal developments and that the integration process had - if dividing the Länder into governments and parliaments - some who gained and some who lost. A development that coincides with the assumptions of those writing on multi-level governance. The process of integration is seen as a dynamic one offering actors of different levels access to decision-making processes, depending on time,policy-field and the devlopment of a matter within that policy field, to be examplified in this thesis by Structural and Regional policy. The author was furthermore interested in the matter concerning the local-level of the European multi-level system and willing to complete the picture of sub-national actors. After discussing important theoratical background informations in that respect - such as principle of subsidiarity, local-self governance and structural policy - he presented the results of an inquiry based on questions about thoeretical problems of Politikverflechtung, multi-level governance and structural policy. To carry this inquiry through those questions were distributed to 11 municipalities in Lower Saxony and Saxony-Anhalt (7 answered). The result of self-assessment of the municipalities and the conclusions the author had to make in this area were rather negative - showing that reforms are urgently necessary and that a there is a need of preparing the local level better on European issues. Not only in their own interest but also in the interest of the people in order to avoid centralsiation and keep an the dynamic multi-level system intact and improve it. But according to multi-level governance, it might be hoped for that since the process is dynamic offering new actors possibilities for participatoin as was seen, e.g. by the inclusion of non-administrative actors in programme-planning or by an initiative of the Land Saxony-Anhalt to increasingly include municipalities in the development of programmes and to prepare the local-level better on the future tasks of the European Integration.
  • Riley, Anna (2006)
    The institution of diplomacy in its traditional form has found itself challenged in recent decades. The forces of both globalization and regionalisation have placed new demands upon diplomats, who are now required to balance their work against that of a plethora of new actors operating internationally, and at various levels. The European Union offers an operating environment considerably at odds with the international environment from which the institution of diplomacy developed. The Westphalian state order - a state-centric system where war was perceived as a constant threat - formed the backdrop to the evolution of diplomacy as an institution. Diplomacy became the means to mediate the security threat through inter-state dialogue, conducted by diplomats. The absence of a security threat within the EU today calls into question the role of diplomacy and the career diplomat. No longer required to conduct high-level bilateral negotiations, nor mediate a security threat, the diplomat must adapt to the new working environment and identify new roles and tasks to justify their existence. This thesis studies the changing role of bilateral diplomacy within the EU through the experience of Finland, with the aim of identifying the ways in which Finland's bilateral diplomatic practice vis-a-vis fellow member states has changed since entry to the Union in 1995. The research is conducted primarily in the form of interviews with civil servants and career diplomats, as well as consultation of official foreign ministry documents. The choice of the interview method is largely attributable to the fact that there has been very little study previously conducted on the topic at hand. The material collected is analysed using a theoretical framework rooted in the new institutionalist perspective, and elaborated by Jozef Batora. Two categories are selected that may define the direction that the institution of diplomacy is moving in - a change in diplomacy and a change of diplomacy (metamorphosis) - and the evidence collected through research is analysed according to its relevance to either of these two categories of change. This study covers the experiences of both the foreign ministry (with particular emphasis on the bilateral department and bilateral missions), and the sectoral ministries. The evidence collected indicates that a change in the role of Finland's foreign ministry within the EU context has taken place, in addition to changes in the roles attributed to the diplomats at Finland's bilateral missions. The London embassy is taken as a case study, and demonstrates a focal shift from high-level bilateral negotiations to public diplomacy and cultural work, in the name of lobbying for Finland's broader interests in EU decision-making. The sectoral ministries exhibit a variety of experiences since entry to the EU, but a trend appears to be emerging of a decreasing need for the foreign ministry and the services of its embassies, and a preference at the sectoral ministries for conducting their own bilateral dialogue. The evidence collected through this study suggests that the institution of diplomacy is capable of adaptation, and that adaptive measures are being undertaken, quite feasibly paving the way to an entirely new form of diplomacy within the EU.
  • Tapio, P. (Elsevier, 2005)
    Traditionally, the transport literature reflects the view that traffic volumes, road traffic volumes in particular, are coupled with Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Recently published literature also argues that the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from transport, passenger cars in particular, have not shown any decoupling from transport volumes for some years. This article presents a theoretical framework for decoupling, defining the difference between decoupling, coupling and negative decoupling. These are further broken down to weak, strong and expansive/recessive degrees of decoupling, laying emphasis on the absolute increase or decrease of the variables. The result section presents data of the development of the relationships between GDP, traffic volumes and CO2 emissions from transport in the EU15 countries between 1970 and 2001, including the special case of Finnish road traffic. The aggregate EU15 data show a change from expansive negative decoupling to expansive coupling regarding passenger transport, and from weak decoupling to expansive negative decoupling regarding freight transport. Weak decoupling of transport CO2 emissions from GDP could also be observed. Weak decoupling of all the three aspects (freight, passenger and CO2) could be seen in the UK, Sweden and Finland in the 1990s. In Finland, the statistics show weak decoupling of GDP from road traffic volume and strong decoupling of road traffic volume and CO2 emissions from road traffic between 1990 and 2001. Four hypothetical explanations of the Finnish phenomenon are put forward in this article: policy towards sustainable mobility, green urban lifestyle, increasing income differences, and statistical misinterpretation. Each explanation is backed up with some quantitative evidence in observable trends in Finland during the 1990s.