Browsing by Subject "Evaluation"

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  • Turku, M.; Lepistö, O.; Lunden, J. (2018)
    Official food control inspections (official inspections) of food establishments and third party audits of food safety management systems (FSMSs) based on international standards both focus on food safety, which has raised discussions on whether FSMSs and their audits could reduce official inspections in food establishments. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the findings of official inspections and third party audits in food establishments are in alignment and to survey the inspectors' and food business operators' (FBOs) perceptions of official inspections and audits. The results can be used in planning the use of audit results as part of official food control. The results show that both inspectors and auditors recognized non-compliances/non-conformities, but significant discrepancies between the findings of official inspections and audits existed, making the utilization of audit results challenging. However, most of the FBOs and inspectors agreed that official inspections and audits overlap, and the majority also agreed that audits of a certified FSMS could under certain circumstances reduce official inspections. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Saari, Veera (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Tämä tutkimus keskittyy vertailemaan arvioivaa kielenkäyttöä akateemisessa ja populaaritieteellisessä diskurssissa. Tutkittava materiaali edustaa kahta eri rekisteriä: akateeminen ja populaaritieteellinen artikkeliteksti. Akateeminen tekstikokoelma koostuu kymmenestä neuropsykologian alan tutkimusartikkelista, joissa tutkitaan naisten ja miesten aivojen erilaisuutta. Populaaritieteellinen artikkelikokoelma koostuu puolestaan kymmenestä artikkelista, jotka on julkaistu akateemisten tekstien pohjalta ScienceDaily-julkaisussa. Tutkimuksen pääviitekehys perustuu Hunstonin ja Thompsonin (2000) teoriaan arvioivasta kielenkäytöstä akateemisissa teksteissä. Tutkimuksessa keskitytään tarkastelemaan ja luokittelemaan artikkeleissa esiintyviä arvioivia että-lauseita. Analyysi nojaa Hylandin ja Tsen (2005) teoriaan tästä kielellisestä lauserakenteesta, jonka he ovat havainneet sisältävän aina arvioivaa kielenkäyttöä. Arvioiva että-rakenne koostuu päälauseesta, jossa arvotetaan sitä seuraavan että-lauseen esittämää väitettä, kuten esimerkiksi tässä lauseessa: ”On selvää, että eroja löytyy”. Tutkimuksen metodina käytetään pääasiallisesti diskurssianalyysia. Tarkasteltavien rakenteiden löytämisessä ja luokittelussa käytetään apuna myös korpuslingvistiikan metodia. Analyysin ulkopuolelle on jätetty rakenteet, joissa että esiintyy relatiivi- tai demonstratiivipronominina, tai kun rakennetta käytetään teksteissä neutraalisti, ei arvioivassa merkityksessä. Tutkimuskysymykset ovat seuraavat: 1. Miten arvioivaa että-lausetta käytetään kummassakin materiaalissa? 2. Kenelle tai mille annetaan vastuu esitetyistä väitteistä? 3. Mitä teksteissä arvioidaan? 4. Millä tavoin teksteissä arvioidaan? 5. Mitä voidaan todeta arvomaailmasta tekstien takana? Tutkimuksen pohjalta selviää, että arvioivilla että-lauseilla on molemmissa teksteissä monia erilaisia käyttötapoja. Ne esiintyvät yleisemmin populaariteksteissä, keskimäärin yhdeksän kertaa tuhatta sanaa kohti; akateemisessa materiaalissa keskimäärin viisi kertaa tuhatta sanaa kohti. Molemmissa teksteissä vastuu väitteistä on useimmiten annettu abstraktille tutkimukseen liittyvälle termille, kuten tulokset tai analyysi, häivyttäen näin tutkijan omaa aktiivista roolia tulosten tulkinnassa. Molemmat tekstit arvioivat että-lauseessa esitettyjä löydöksiä useimmiten varmaksi ja tärkeäksi. Päälauseen verbivalinnoista käy ilmi, että arvioinnin varmuus kasvaa akateemisesta tekstistä populaaritieteelliseen tekstiin siirryttäessä. Tulokset osoittavat, että vaikka arvioinnin keinot ovat osittain erilaiset tutkituissa akateemisissa ja populaaritieteellisissä teksteissä, molemmat osallistuvat aktiivisesti lukijan suostuttelemiseen uuden tiedon paikkansapitävyydestä.
  • Feel4Diabet Res Grp; Virtanen, Eeva; Kivelä, Jemina; Wikstrom, Katja; Lambrinou, Christina-Paulina; Lindström, Jaana (2020)
    Background The aim of this paper is to present the development of the Feel4Diabetes Healthy Diet Score and to evaluate its clinical validity. Methods Study population consisted of 3268 adults (63% women) from high diabetes risk families living in 6 European countries. Participants filled in questionnaires at baseline and after 1 year, reflecting the dietary goals of the Feel4Diabetes intervention. Based on these questions the Healthy Diet Score was constructed, consisting of the following components: breakfast, vegetables, fruit and berries, sugary drinks, whole-grain cereals, nuts and seeds, low-fat dairy products, oils and fats, red meat, sweet snacks, salty snacks, and family meals. Maximum score for each component was set based on its estimated relative importance regarding T2DM risk, higher score indicating better quality of diet. Clinical measurements included height, weight, waist circumference, heart rate, blood pressure, and fasting blood sampling, with analyses of glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides. Analysis of (co) variance was used to compare the Healthy Diet Score and its components between countries and sexes using baseline data, and to test differences in clinical characteristics between score categories, adjusted for age, sex and country. Pearson's correlations were used to study the association between changes from baseline to year 1 in the Healthy Diet Score and clinical markers. To estimate reproducibility, Pearson's correlations were studied between baseline and 1 year score, within the control group only. Results The mean total score was 52.8 +/- 12.8 among women and 46.6 +/- 12.8 among men (p <0.001). The total score and its components differed between countries. The change in the Healthy Diet Score was significantly correlated with changes in BMI, waist circumference, and total and LDL cholesterol. The Healthy Diet Score as well as its components at baseline were significantly correlated with the values at year 1, in the control group participants. Conclusion The Feel4Diabetes Healthy Diet Score is a reproducible method to capture the dietary information collected with the Feel4Diabetes questionnaire and measure the level of and changes in the adherence to the dietary goals of the intervention. It gives a simple parameter that associates with clinical risk factors in a meaningful manner.
  • Virtanen, Eeva; Kivelä, Jemina; Wikström, Katja; Lambrinou, Christina-Paulina; De Miguel-Etayo, Pilar; Huys, Nele; Vraukó-Tóth, Katalin; Moreno, Luis A; Usheva, Natalya; Chakarova, Nevena; Rado, Sándorné A; Iotova, Violeta; Makrilakis, Konstantinos; Cardon, Greet; Liatis, Stavros; Manios, Yannis; Lindström, Jaana (BioMed Central, 2020)
    Abstract Background The aim of this paper is to present the development of the Feel4Diabetes Healthy Diet Score and to evaluate its clinical validity. Methods Study population consisted of 3268 adults (63% women) from high diabetes risk families living in 6 European countries. Participants filled in questionnaires at baseline and after 1 year, reflecting the dietary goals of the Feel4Diabetes intervention. Based on these questions the Healthy Diet Score was constructed, consisting of the following components: breakfast, vegetables, fruit and berries, sugary drinks, whole-grain cereals, nuts and seeds, low-fat dairy products, oils and fats, red meat, sweet snacks, salty snacks, and family meals. Maximum score for each component was set based on its estimated relative importance regarding T2DM risk, higher score indicating better quality of diet. Clinical measurements included height, weight, waist circumference, heart rate, blood pressure, and fasting blood sampling, with analyses of glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides. Analysis of (co) variance was used to compare the Healthy Diet Score and its components between countries and sexes using baseline data, and to test differences in clinical characteristics between score categories, adjusted for age, sex and country. Pearson’s correlations were used to study the association between changes from baseline to year 1 in the Healthy Diet Score and clinical markers. To estimate reproducibility, Pearson’s correlations were studied between baseline and 1 year score, within the control group only. Results The mean total score was 52.8 ± 12.8 among women and 46.6 ± 12.8 among men (p <  0.001). The total score and its components differed between countries. The change in the Healthy Diet Score was significantly correlated with changes in BMI, waist circumference, and total and LDL cholesterol. The Healthy Diet Score as well as its components at baseline were significantly correlated with the values at year 1, in the control group participants. Conclusion The Feel4Diabetes Healthy Diet Score is a reproducible method to capture the dietary information collected with the Feel4Diabetes questionnaire and measure the level of and changes in the adherence to the dietary goals of the intervention. It gives a simple parameter that associates with clinical risk factors in a meaningful manner. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02393872. Registered March 20, 2015.
  • Halmesmäki, Esa; Pasternack, Iris; Roine, Risto Paavo Antero (2016)
    Background: This study examines, as a part of the European Union funded Adopting Hospital Based Health Technology Assessment (AdHopHTA) project, the results and barriers of collaboration between Finnish hospitals and the national health technology assessment (HTA) agency, Finohta. A joint collaborative HTA program has existed since 2006 between the Finnish hospitals and the national agency. Methods: A case study method was used. Information about the collaboration between Finnish hospitals and Finohta was retrieved from interviews and publications, and categorised per theme. Hypotheses and indicators of successful collaboration were determined beforehand and reflected on the observations from the interviews and literature. Results: Overall, 48 collaborative HTA reports have been performed during 7 years of collaboration. However, there were no clear indications that the use of HTA information or the transparency of decision-making regarding new technologies would have increased in hospitals. The managerial commitment to incorporate HTAs into the decision-making processes in hospitals was still low. The quality of the collaborative HTA reports was considered good, but their applicability in the hospital setting limited. There were differing expectations about the timing and relevance of the content. Signs of role conflict and mistrust were observed. Conclusions: Despite collaborative efforts to produce HTAs for hospitals, the impact of HTA information on hospital decision-making appears to remain low. The difficulties identified in this case study, such as lack of managerial commitment in hospitals, can hopefully be better addressed in the future with the guidance and tools having been developed in the AdHopHTA project. Collaboration between hospitals and national HTA agencies remains important for the efficient sharing of skills and resources.
  • Rantala, Jukka (2012)
    The success of discipline-based teaching requires an interplay between substantive and procedural knowledge. In Finland, disciplinary thinking was included in the National Core Curriculum and in the final assessment criteria a decade ago, which meant a change in history teaching. The outcome of this change is examined in the article with the help of a national-level history test that was conducted in 2011 among 16-year-old Finns. In the test, the adolescents fared moderately well in tasks involving substantive knowledge but more poorly in tasks which measured the mastering of procedural knowledge. In particular, the interplay between these proved to be difficult for the students. The students’ knowledge was found to correspond with the earlier curriculum rather than the objectives of the present one, revealing that not all of the teachers were teaching in accordance with the present demands.
  • Kantosalo, Anna Aurora; Toivanen, Jukka Mikael; Toivonen, Hannu Tauno Tapani (Brigham Young University, 2015)
    Interaction design has been suggested as a framework for evaluating computational creativity by Bown (2014). Yet few practical accounts on using an Interaction Design based evaluation strategy in Computational Creativity Contexts have been reported in the literature. This study paper describes the evaluation process and results of a human-computer co-creative poetry writing tool intended for children in a school context. We specifically focus on one formative evaluation case utilizing Interaction Design evaluation methods, offering a suggestion on how to conduct Interaction Design based evaluation in a computational creativity context, as well as, report the results of the evaluation itself. The evaluation process is considered from the perspective of a computational creativity researcher and we focus on challenges and benefits of the interaction design evaluation approach within a computational creativity project context.
  • Rask, Mikko; Ertiö, Titiana-Petra; Ahonen, Veronica Lucia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Kansalaisuuden kuilut ja kuplat -tutkimushanke BIBU
    Tässä raportissa arvioidaan Meidän Korso -hanketta, jolla toteutettiin vuosina 2018–2019 osallistuvaa budjetointia Vantaalla. Oikeusministeriön myöntämän avustuksen turvin hankkeen tavoitteena oli edistää turvallisuuden ja yhteisöllisyyden tunnetta ja vähentää syrjäytymisen kokemusta Korson suuralueella. Lisäksi tavoitteena oli parantaa asukkaiden osallistumis- ja vaikuttamismahdollisuuksia omalla asuinalueellaan sekä edistää paikallisten asukkaiden, yhteisöjen ja viranomaisten verkostoitumista. Arvioinnin perusteella tavoitteet toteutuivat osittain. Hanke lisäsi osaltaan korsolaisten ”me-henkeä” ja tuki paikallisyhteisöllisyyttä. Hanke onnistui erityisesti aktivoimaan sellaisia väestöryhmiä, jotka eivät tavallisesti osallistu esimerkiksi asukasraateihin tai yleiskaavan verkkokyselyiden kaltaiseen kaupungin toimintaan. Lisäksi hanke lisäsi yhteisöllisyyttä ja muutti ihmisten käsityksiä kaupungin toiminnasta. Esimerkiksi osallistuvan budjetoinnin kautta rahoitettu kirjaston avajaisjuhla pyrki muuttamaan vanhentunutta käsitystä kirjastoista ”pölyisinä lukupaikkoina” kansalaisten yhteisiksi olohuoneiksi. Yhteisöllisyyden ja turvallisuuden edistäminen on toiminut myös osallisuuden motivaattorina asukkaille. Ongelmallisimmaksi osoittautui hankkeen alhainen osallistujamäärä. Meidän Korso -alustalle rekisteröityi 148 käyttäjää, joista 16 jätti idean alustalla ja 76 äänesti. Myös hankkeen resurssit herättivät paljon keskustelua. Arvioinnin perusteella esitämme kuusi suositusta, jotka liittyvät osallistuvan budjetoinnin tunnettuuden edistämiseen, budjetoinnin temaattiseen toteuttamiseen, osallistumisen motivaation parantamiseen, resurssien allokointiin ja yhdistysten rooliin. Lisäksi suosittelemme, että jatkossa osallistuvan budjetoinnin toteutumista tukemaan perustetaan ohjausryhmä. Arvioinnissa hyödynnettiin BIBUssa kehitettyä Yhteisluomisen tutka -arviointimallia.
  • Godenhjelm, Sebastian (2013)
    An important growing trend is reliance on temporary organisations and mechanisms such as projects. Projects have been increasingly used in all kinds of organisations, including public sector organisations, and are widely considered as effective and precise management tools. The extent to which current evaluations are able to measure their perceived impact is, however, unclear. Are project evaluations conducted in such a way that the long-term effect of – in this case the EU fisheries policy – can be assessed, and to what extent are the contributions or added value of projects as a form of organizing assessed in the evaluations? The article draws on programme theory to analyse the evaluation criteria used for European Fisheries Fund projects in Finland. The article concludes that a potential mismatch between operational logic between the evaluation system and the project logic exists. It also shows that there is a connection between decisions made to fund projects and the actions that they produce, but that a clear causal relationship measurement of project impact is difficult to establish using current evaluation criteria.
  • Sharma, Roshan; Eklund, Johanna; Barnes, Megan; Geldmann, Jonas; Schleicher, Judith; Pressey, Robert L.; Gutierrez, Marco; Jones, Simon; Gordon, Ascelin (2020)
    Background Establishing protected areas is a key approach to protecting nature. However, protected areas are often biased towards remote and less productive lands. It is important to evaluate the impacts protected areas have had, or in other words, what changes in outcomes of interest are attributable to protected areas. Studies that evaluate the impact of protected areas on vegetation-the state and processes that support biodiversity-are scarce and published in a range of disciplines. This systematic review will scope, identify, and synthesize studies that quantitatively measure the impact of protected areas on vegetation extent and condition. The findings will be useful for researchers and policy makers and provide important knowledge for setting post 2020 targets of the Convention on Biological Diversity. This review will also identify research gaps in the current evidence base and provide direction for future research. Methods This review follows the Collaboration for Environmental Evidence guidelines for evidence synthesis and complies with the ROSES (RepOrting standards for Systematic Evidence Synthesis) reporting framework. We will use a comprehensive search strategy developed through several rounds of scoping review to cover databases; Web of Science, Scopus and CAB s, 16 organizational websites, google scholar and existing review documents. Our search terms and strategies aim to find impact evaluation studies (both peer-reviewed and grey literature) in English from protected areas globally. The search results will be screened at title, abstract, and then full text by two independent reviewers. A quality appraisal of evidence will be conducted using Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) risk of bias tool. Review results will be presented in the form of narrative synthesis, as well as in meta-analysis form, where data quality and amount allow.
  • Sharma, Roshan; Eklund, Johanna; Barnes, Megan; Geldmann, Jonas; Schleicher, Judith; Pressey, Robert L; Gutierrez, Marco; Jones, Simon; Gordon, Ascelin (BioMed Central, 2020)
    Abstract Background Establishing protected areas is a key approach to protecting nature. However, protected areas are often biased towards remote and less productive lands. It is important to evaluate the impacts protected areas have had, or in other words, what changes in outcomes of interest are attributable to protected areas. Studies that evaluate the impact of protected areas on vegetation—the state and processes that support biodiversity—are scarce and published in a range of disciplines. This systematic review will scope, identify, and synthesize studies that quantitatively measure the impact of protected areas on vegetation extent and condition. The findings will be useful for researchers and policy makers and provide important knowledge for setting post 2020 targets of the Convention on Biological Diversity. This review will also identify research gaps in the current evidence base and provide direction for future research. Methods This review follows the Collaboration for Environmental Evidence guidelines for evidence synthesis and complies with the ROSES (RepOrting standards for Systematic Evidence Synthesis) reporting framework. We will use a comprehensive search strategy developed through several rounds of scoping review to cover databases; Web of Science, Scopus and CAB Abstracts, 16 organizational websites, google scholar and existing review documents. Our search terms and strategies aim to find impact evaluation studies (both peer-reviewed and grey literature) in English from protected areas globally. The search results will be screened at title, abstract, and then full text by two independent reviewers. A quality appraisal of evidence will be conducted using Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) risk of bias tool. Review results will be presented in the form of narrative synthesis, as well as in meta-analysis form, where data quality and amount allow.
  • Lehto, Juho T.; Hakkarainen, Kati; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, Pirkko-Liisa; Saarto, Tiina (2017)
    Background: Education in palliative medicine (PM) at medical schools reveals wide variation despite the increasing importance of palliative care. Many universities present poor description of the benefits and detailed content of the total curriculum in PM. Using the recommendations of European Association for Palliative Care (EAPC) as a reference, we evaluated the content and outcomes of the curriculum in PM at the University of Tampere, Finland. Methods: We searched for a PM curriculum by examining the teaching offered by every specialty and compared it to EAPC recommendations. Students' knowledge was evaluated using a progress test over three consecutive years. Results: We found 53.5 teaching hours addressing PM issues, which exceeds the recommendation of the EAPC. Basics, symptom management, ethics, and communication skills were well established, while education in psychosocial/spiritual aspects, teamwork and self-reflection failed to reach the recommendations. Out of the maximum of 4.0, the progress test mean scores in PM among the third, fourth, fifth and sixth year students were 0.1 (SD 0.71), 0.69 (SD 1.28), 1.38 (SD 1.46) and 2.53 (SD 1.26), respectively (p <0.001). This growing knowledge was associated with the timely increase in teaching provided through the PM discipline. In addition, the students who completed the optional PM course achieved better mean scores (2.66; SD 1.27) than the others (1.33; SD 1.43) (p <0.001). Conclusions: The curriculum in PM at the University of Tampere is integrated into the teaching of many disciplines and complied well with the EAPC recommendations. This education led to increasing knowledge in PM among medical students.
  • Coccolini, Federico; Kluger, Yoram; Ansaloni, Luca; Moore, Ernest E.; Coimbra, Raul; Fraga, Gustavo P.; Kirkpatrick, Andrew; Peitzman, Andrew; Maier, Ron; Baiocchi, Gianluca; Agnoletti, Vanni; Gamberini, Emiliano; Leppaniemi, Ari; Ivatury, Rao; Sugrue, Michael; Sartelli, Massimo; Di Saverio, Salomone; Biffl, Walt; Catena, Fausto (2018)
    Optimal management of emergency surgical patients represents one of the major health challenges worldwide. Emergency general surgery (EGS) was identified as multidisciplinary surgery performed for traumatic and non-traumatic acute conditions during the same admission in the hospital. EGS represents the easiest viable way to provide affordable and high-quality level of care to emergency surgical and trauma patients. It may result from the association of different physicians with other specialties in a cooperative model. The World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) has been working on the EGS organization and implementation since its foundation believing in the need of common benchmarks for training and educational programs throughout the world. This is a plea in different languages to all World Prime Ministers and Presidents to support the creation in all nations of an organized hub-spoke system for emergency general surgery to improve standards of care and to save lives.
  • Mackay, Claire Louise (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The language of evaluation enables us to share opinions, cement values, and create interpersonal meaning. It is a fundamental aspect of both social media communication and political discourse. This study uses Martin and White’s (2005) Appraisal Framework to investigate how political actors use evaluation to express emotions and confer judgement in their attempts to increase support on social media. Drawing on a corpus of 1,212 tweets from Boris Johnson and Jeremy Corbyn during the 2019 British General Election campaign, this study focuses on how the individual politicians use ATTITUDE to build positive-self and negative-other evaluations. The analysis then considers the wider performance of populism in political discourse by examining positive appraisals of the people, presented against negative judgements of a corrupt elite. Finally, the thesis explores how specific Twitter features can be incorporated into the Appraisal Framework to better capture evaluation in tweets as complete objects. Contrary to expectations about the prevalence of negative messaging in electoral campaigns, the findings show that both candidates preferred to post positive evaluations on Twitter. Corbyn favoured judgements of his party that empathised their moral superiority (PROPRIETY), and Johnson praised his party for their ability to negotiate a departure from the EU (CAPACITY). Both candidates performed elements of populism, but the presentation and evaluation of the people was very different, with Johnson performing an exclusionary form of populism and Corbyn presenting a more inclusionary form. Whilst there are challenges in applying the Appraisal Framework to online campaigning, the results give a much more nuanced understanding of the evaluation inherent to this discourse than automated sentiment analysis is able to, particularly in identifying the interplay of positive-self and negative-other evaluation. However, Appraisal reaches beyond the text, and many features were present in the media attached to the tweets, and future studies would benefit from incorporating these aspects into the analysis. The evaluative force of other resources, such as emoji and hashtags, and Twitter practices, such as retweeting, should similarly not be underestimated, and this study concludes by suggesting how these aspects can be brought into the Appraisal Framework.