Browsing by Subject "Ex vivo"

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  • Lan, Qiang; Mikkola, Marja L. (2020)
    Branching morphogenesis of the murine mammary gland starts during late embryogenesis. It is regulated by the signals emanating both from the epithelium and the mesenchyme, yet the molecular mechanisms regulating this process remain poorly understood. We have previously developed a unique whole organ culture technique for embryonic mammary glands, which provides a powerful tool to monitor and manipulate branching morphogenesis ex vivo. Nowadays, RNA sequencing and other transcriptional profiling techniques provide robust methods to identify components of gene regulatory networks driving branching morphogenesis. However, validation of the candidate genes still mainly depends on the use of the transgenic mouse models, especially in mammary gland studies. By comparing different serotypes of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAVs), we found out that rAAVs provide sufficient efficiency for gene transfer with different tissue preferences depending on the serotypes of the virus. AAV-2 and AAV-8 preferentially target epithelial and mesenchymal compartments, respectively, while AAV-9 infects both tissues. Here, we describe a protocol for AAV-mediated gene transfer in ex vivo cultured murine embryonic mammary gland facilitating gene function studies on mammary gland branching morphogenesis.
  • Ramsay, Eva; Hagström, Marja; Vellonen, Kati-Sisko; Boman, Susanna; Toropainen, Elisa; del Amo, Eva M.; Kidron, Heidi; Urtti, Arto; Ruponen, Marika (2019)
    Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a major part of blood-retinal barrier that affects drug elimination from the vitreous to the blood and drug distribution from blood circulation into the eye. Even though drug clearance from the vitreous has been well studied, the role of RPE in the process has not been quantified. The aim of this work was to study the role of RPE clearance (CLRpE) as part of drug elimination from the vitreous and ocular drug distribution from the systemic blood circulation. We determined the bidirectional permeability of eight small molecular weight drugs and bevacizumab antibody across isolated bovine RPE-choroid. Permeability of small molecules was 10(-6) -10(-5)cm/s showing 13-15 fold range of outward and inward permeation, while permeability of bevacizumab was lower by 2-3 orders of magnitude. Most small molecular weight drugs showed comparable outward (vitreous-to-choroid) and inward (choroid-to-vitreous) permeability across the RPEchoroid, except ciprofloxacin and ketorolac that had an over 6 and 14-fold higher outward than inward permeability, respectively, possibly indicating active transport, Six of seven tested small molecular weight drugs had outward CLRPE values that were comparable with their intravitreal clearance (CLIvr) values (0.84-2.6 fold difference). On the contrary, bevacizumab had an outward CLRPE that was only 3.5% of the CLIvt, proving that its main route of elimination (after intravitreal injection) is not RPE permeation. Experimental values were used in pharmacokinetic simulations to assess the role of the RPE in drug transfer from the systemic blood circulation to the vitreous (CLBv). We conclude that for small molecular weight drugs the RPE is an important route in drug transfer between the vitreal cavity and blood, whereas it effectively hinders the movement of bevacizumab from the vitreous to the systemic circulation.