Browsing by Subject "F-ACTIN"

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  • Wioland, Hugo; Guichard, Berengere; Senju, Yosuke; Myram, Sarah; Lappalainen, Pekka; Jegou, Antoine; Romet-Lemonne, Guillaume (2017)
    Actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilins contribute to cytoskeletal dynamics by promoting rapid actin filament disassembly. In the classical view, ADF/cofilin sever filaments, and capping proteins block filament barbed ends whereas pointed ends depolymerize, at a rate that is still debated. Here, by monitoring the activity of the three mammalian ADF/cofilin isoforms on individual skeletal muscle and cytoplasmic actin filaments, we directly quantify the reactions underpinning filament severing and depolymerization from both ends. We find that, in the absence of monomeric actin, soluble ADF/cofilin can associate with bare filament barbed ends to accelerate their depolymerization. Compared to bare filaments, ADF/cofilin-saturated filaments depolymerize faster from their pointed ends and slower from their barbed ends, resulting in similar depolymerization rates at both ends. This effect is isoform specific because depolymerization is faster for ADF-than for cofilin-saturated filaments. We also show that, unexpectedly, ADF/cofilin-saturated filaments qualitatively differ from bare filaments: their barbed ends are very difficult to cap or elongate, and consequently undergo depolymerization even in the presence of capping protein and actin monomers. Such depolymerizing ADF/cofilin-decorated barbed ends are produced during 17% of severing events. They are also the dominant fate of filament barbed ends in the presence of capping protein, because capping allows growing ADF/cofilin domains to reach the barbed ends, thereby promoting their uncapping and subsequent depolymerization. Our experiments thus reveal how ADF/cofilin, together with capping protein, control the dynamics of actin filament barbed and pointed ends. Strikingly, our results propose that significant barbed-end depolymerization may take place in cells.
  • Percipallea, Piergiorgio; Vartiainen, Maria (2019)
    The emerging role of cytoskeletal proteins in the cell nucleus has become a new frontier in cell biology. Actin and actin-binding proteins regulate chromatin and gene expression, but importantly they are beginning to be essential players in genome organization. These actin-based functions contribute to genome stability and integrity while affecting DNA replication and global transcription patterns. This is likely to occur through interactions of actin with nuclear components including nuclear lamina and subnuclear organelles. An exciting future challenge is to understand how these actin-based genome-wide mechanisms may regulate development and differentiation by interfering with the mechanical properties of the cell nucleus and how regulated actin polymerization plays a role in maintaining nuclear architecture. With a special focus on actin, here we summarize how cytoskeletal proteins operate in the nucleus and how they may be important to consolidate nuclear architecture for sustained gene expression or silencing.
  • Stefani, Caroline; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, David; Senju, Yosuke; Doye, Anne; Efimova, Nadia; Janel, Sebastien; Lipuma, Justine; Tsai, Meng Chen; Hamaoui, Daniel; Maddugoda, Madhavi P.; Cochet-Escartin, Olivier; Prevost, Coline; Lafont, Frank; Svitkina, Tatyana; Lappalainen, Pekka; Bassereau, Patricia; Lemichez, Emmanuel (2017)
    Transendothelial cell macroaperture (TEM) tunnels control endothelium barrier function and are triggered by several toxins from pathogenic bacteria that provoke vascular leakage. Cellular dewetting theory predicted that a line tension of uncharacterized origin works at TEM boundaries to limit their widening. Here, by conducting high-resolution microscopy approaches we unveil the presence of an actomyosin cable encircling TEMs. We develop a theoretical cellular dewetting framework to interpret TEM physical parameters that are quantitatively determined by laser ablation experiments. This establishes the critical role of ezrin and non-muscle myosin II (NMII) in the progressive implementation of line tension. Mechanistically, fluorescence-recovery-after-photobleaching experiments point for the upstream role of ezrin in stabilizing actin filaments at the edges of TEMs, thereby favouring their crosslinking by NMIIa. Collectively, our findings ascribe to ezrin and NMIIa a critical function of enhancing line tension at the cell boundary surrounding the TEMs by promoting the formation of an actomyosin ring.
  • Tojkander, Sari; Gateva, Gergana; Husain, Amjad; Krishnan, Ramaswamy; Lappalainen, Pekka (2015)
    Adhesion and morphogenesis of many non-muscle cells are guided by contractile actomyosin bundles called ventral stress fibers. While it is well established that stress fibers are mechanosensitive structures, physical mechanisms by which they assemble, align, and mature have remained elusive. Here we show that arcs, which serve as precursors for ventral stress fibers, undergo lateral fusion during their centripetal flow to form thick actomyosin bundles that apply tension to focal adhesions at their ends. Importantly, this myosin II-derived force inhibits vectorial actin polymerization at focal adhesions through AMPK-mediated phosphorylation of VASP, and thereby halts stress fiber elongation and ensures their proper contractility. Stress fiber maturation additionally requires ADF/cofilin-mediated disassembly of non-contractile stress fibers, whereas contractile fibers are protected from severing. Taken together, these data reveal that myosin-derived tension precisely controls both actin filament assembly and disassembly to ensure generation and proper alignment of contractile stress fibers in migrating cells.
  • Viita, Tiina; Kyheroinen, Salla; Prajapati, Bina; Virtanen, Jori; Frilander, Mikko J.; Varjosalo, Markku; Vartiainen, Maria K. (2019)
    In addition to its essential functions within the cytoskeleton, actin also localizes to the cell nucleus, where it is linked to many important nuclear processes from gene expression to maintenance of genomic integrity. However, the molecular mechanisms by which actin operates in the nucleus remain poorly understood. Here, we have used two complementary mass spectrometry (MS) techniques, AP-MS and BioID, to identify binding partners for nuclear actin. Common high-confidence interactions highlight the role of actin in chromatin-remodeling complexes and identify the histone-modifying complex human Ada-Two-A-containing (hATAC) as a novel actin-containing nuclear complex. Actin binds directly to the hATAC subunit KAT14, and modulates its histone acetyl transferase activity in vitro and in cells. Transient interactions detected through BioID link actin to several steps of transcription as well as to RNA processing. Alterations in nuclear actin levels disturb alternative splicing in minigene assays, likely by affecting the transcription elongation rate. This interactome analysis thus identifies both novel direct binding partners and functional roles for nuclear actin, as well as forms a platform for further mechanistic studies on how actin operates during essential nuclear processes. This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper.
  • Hyrskyluoto, Alise; Vartiainen, Maria K. (2020)
    Actin has essential functions both in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus, where it has been linked to key nuclear processes, from transcription to DNA damage response. The multifunctional nature of actin suggests that the cell must contain mechanisms to accurately control the cellular actin balance. Indeed, recent results have demonstrated that nuclear actin levels fluctuate to regulate the transcriptional activity of the cell and that controlled nuclear actin polymerization is required for transcription activation, cell cycle progression, and DNA repair. Intriguingly, aberrant nuclear actin regulation has been observed, for example, in cancer, signifying the importance of this process for cellular homeostasis. This review discussed the latest research on how nuclear actin is regulated, and how this influences actin-dependent nuclear processes.
  • Gateva, Gergana; Kremneva, Elena; Reindl, Theresia; Kotila, Tommi; Kogan, Konstantin; Gressin, Laurene; Gunning, Peter W.; Manstein, Dietmar J.; Michelot, Alphee; Lappalainen, Pekka (2017)
    Actin filaments assemble into a variety of networks to provide force for diverse cellular processes [1]. Tropomyosins are coiled-coil dimers that form head-to-tail polymers along actin filaments and regulate interactions of other proteins, including actin-de polymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilins and myosins, with actin [2-5]. In mammals, >40 tropomyosin isoforms can be generated through alternative splicing from four tropomyosin genes. Different isoforms display non-redundant functions and partially non-overlapping localization patterns, for example within the stress fiber network [6, 7]. Based on cell biological studies, it was thus proposed that tropomyosin isoforms may specify the functional properties of different actin filament populations [2]. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the properties of actin filaments decorated by stress-fiber-associated tropomyosins (Tpm1.6, Tpm1.7, Tpm2.1, Tpm3.1, Tpm3.2, and Tpm4.2). These proteins bound F-actin with high affinity and competed with a-actinin for actin filament binding. Importantly, total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy of fluorescently tagged proteins revealed that most tropomyosin isoforms cannot co-polymerize with each other on actin filaments. These isoforms also bind actin with different dynamics, which correlate with their effects on actin-binding proteins. The long isoforms Tpm1.6 and Tpm1.7 displayed stable interactions with actin filaments and protected filaments from ADF/cofilin-mediated disassembly, but did not activate non-muscle myosin Ila (NMIIa). In contrast, the short isoforms Tpm3.1, Tpm3.2, and Tpm4.2 displayed rapid dynamics on actin filaments and stimulated the ATPase activity of NMIla, but did not efficiently protect filaments from ADF/cofilin. Together, these data provide experimental evidence that tropomyosin isoforms segregate to different actin filaments and specify functional properties of distinct actin filament populations.