Browsing by Subject "FACE"

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  • Rahko, Jukka S.; Vuontela, Virve A.; Carlson, Synnove; Nikkinen, Juha; Hurtig, Tuula M.; Kuusikko-Gauffin, Sanna; Mattila, Marja-Leena; Jussila, Katja K.; Remes, Jukka J.; Jansson-Verkasalo, Eira M.; Aronen, Eeva T.; Pauls, David L.; Ebeling, Hanna E.; Tervonen, Osmo; Moilanen, Irma K.; Kiviniemi, Vesa J. (2016)
    The present study examined attention and memory load-dependent differences in the brain activation and deactivation patterns between adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and typically developing (TD) controls using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Attentional (0-back) and working memory (WM; 2-back) processing and load differences (0 vs. 2-back) were analysed. WM-related areas activated and default mode network deactivated normally in ASDs as a function of task load. ASDs performed the attentional 0-back task similarly to TD controls but showed increased deactivation in cerebellum and right temporal cortical areas and weaker activation in other cerebellar areas. Increasing task load resulted in multiple responses in ASDs compared to TD and in inadequate modulation of brain activity in right insula, primary somatosensory, motor and auditory cortices. The changes during attentional task may reflect compensatory mechanisms enabling normal behavioral performance. The inadequate memory load-dependent modulation of activity suggests diminished compensatory potential in ASD.
  • Afdile, Mamdooh; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P.; Glerean, Enrico; Smirnov, Dmitry; Alho, Jussi; Äimälä, Anna; Sams, Mikko (2019)
    We are constantly categorizing other people as belonging to our in-group (one of us') or out-group (one of them'). Such grouping occurs fast and automatically and can be based on others' visible characteristics such as skin color or clothing style. Here we studied neural underpinnings of implicit social grouping not often visible on the face, male sexual orientation. A total of 14 homosexuals and 15 heterosexual males were scanned in functional magnetic resonance imaging while watching a movie about a homosexual man, whose face was also presented subliminally before (subjects did not know about the character's sexual orientation) and after the movie. We discovered significantly stronger activation to the man's face after seeing the movie in homosexual but not heterosexual subjects in medial prefrontal cortex, frontal pole, anterior cingulate cortex, right temporal parietal junction and bilateral superior frontal gyrus. In previous research, these brain areas have been connected to social perception, self-referential thinking, empathy, theory of mind and in-group perception. In line with previous studies showing biased perception of in-/out-group faces to be context dependent, our novel approach further demonstrates how complex contextual knowledge gained under naturalistic viewing can bias implicit social perception.
  • Stevanovic, Melisa; Perakyla, Anssi (2015)
    In this perspective article, we consider the relationship between experience sharing and turn-taking. There is much evidence suggesting that human social interaction is permeated by two temporal organizations: (1) the sequential framework of turn-taking and (2) the concurrent framework of emotional reciprocity. From this perspective, we introduce two alternative hypotheses about how the relationship between experience sharing and turn-taking could be viewed. According to the first hypothesis, the home environment of experience sharing is in the concurrent framework of emotional reciprocity, while the motivation to share experiences is in tension with the sequential framework of turn-taking. According to the second hypothesis, people's inclination to coordinate their actions in terms of turn-taking is motivated precisely by their propensity to share experiences. We consider theoretical and empirical ideas in favor of both of these hypotheses and discuss their implications for future research.
  • Ölander, K.; Muukkonen, I.; Saarela, T. P.; Salmela, V. R. (2019)
    Simple visual items and complex real-world objects are stored into visual working memory as a collection of independent features, not as whole or integrated objects. Storing faces into memory might differ, however, since previous studies have reported perceptual and memory advantage for whole faces compared to other objects. We investigated whether facial features can be integrated in a statistically optimal fashion and whether memory maintenance disrupts this integration. The observers adjusted a probe - either a whole face or isolated features (eyes or mouth region) - to match the identity of a target while viewing both stimuli simultaneously or after a 1.5 second retention period. Precision was better for the whole face compared to the isolated features. Perceptual precision was higher than memory precision, as expected, and memory precision further declined as the number of memorized items was increased from one to four. Interestingly, the whole-face precision was better predicted by models assuming injection of memory noise followed by integration of features than by models assuming integration of features followed by the memory noise. The results suggest equally weighted or optimal integration of facial features and indicate that feature information is preserved in visual working memory while remembering faces.
  • Törnqvist, Heini; Somppi, Sanni; Kujala, Miiamaaria; Vainio, Outi (2020)
    Background. This study examines how dogs observe images of natural scenes containing living creatures (wild animals, dogs and humans) recorded with eye gaze tracking. Because dogs have had limited exposure to wild animals in their lives, we also consider the natural novelty of the wild animal images for the dogs. Methods. The eye gaze of dogs was recorded while they viewed natural images containing dogs, humans, and wild animals. Three categories of images were used: naturalistic landscape images containing single humans or animals, full body images containing a single human or an animal, and full body images containing a pair of humans or animals. The gazing behavior of two dog populations, family and kennel dogs, were compared. Results. As a main effect, dogs gazed at living creatures (object areas) longer than the background areas of the images; heads longer than bodies; heads longer than background areas; and bodies longer than background areas. Dogs gazed less at the object areas vs. the background in landscape images than in the other image categories. Both dog groups also gazed wild animal heads longer than human or dog heads in the images. When viewing single animal and human images, family dogs focused their gaze very prominently on the head areas, but in images containing a pair of animals or humans, they gazed more at the body than the head areas. In kennel dogs, the difference in gazing times of the head and body areas within single or paired images failed to reach significance. Discussion. Dogs focused their gaze on living creatures in all image categories, also detecting them in the natural landscape images. Generally, they also gazed at the biologically informative areas of the images, such as the head, which supports the importance of the head/face area for dogs in obtaining social information. The natural novelty of the species represented in the images as well as the image category affected the gazing behavior of dogs. Furthermore, differences in the gazing strategy between family and kennel dogs was obtained, suggesting an influence of different social living environments and life experiences.
  • Karppinen, Toni; Ala-Houhala, Meri; Ylianttila, Lasse; Kautiainen, Hannu; Lakkala, Kaisa; Hannula, Henna-Reetta; Turunen, Esa; Viljakainen, Heli; Reunala, Timo; Snellman, Erna (2017)
    Humans obtain vitamin D from conversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin by ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation or from dietary sources. As the radiation level is insufficient in winter, vitamin D deficiency is common at higher latitudes. We assessed whether vernal solar UVB radiation at latitudes 61 degrees N and 67 degrees N in Finland has an impact on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [S-25(OH) D] concentrations. Twenty-seven healthy volunteers participated in outdoor activities in snow-covered terrain for 4-10 days in March or April, with their face and hands sun-exposed. The personal UVB doses and S-25(OH) D levels were monitored. A mean UVB dose of 11.8 standard erythema doses (SED) was received during an average of 12.3 outdoor hours. The mean S-25(OH) D concentration in subjects with a baseline concentration below 90.0 nmol/L (n=13) increased significantly, by 6.0 nmol/L from an initial mean of 62.4 nmol/L (p