Browsing by Subject "FAMILY"

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  • Nemaline Working Grp; Neuhaus, Sarah B.; Wallgren-Pettersson, Carina; Bönnemann, Carsten G.; Schara, Ulrike; Servais, Laurent (2020)
  • Kyostila, Kaisa; Syrja, Pernilla; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Chandrasekar, Gayathri; Jokinen, Tarja S; Seppala, Eija H.; Becker, Doreen; Drogemuller, Michaela; Dietschi, Elisabeth; Drogemuller, Cord; Lang, Johann; Steffen, Frank; Rohdin, Cecilia; Jaderlund, Karin H.; Lappalainen, Anu K.; Hahn, Kerstin; Wohlsein, Peter; Baumgartner, Wolfgang; Henke, Diana; Oevermann, Anna; Kere, Juha; Lohi, Hannes; Leeb, Tosso (2015)
    Inherited neurodegenerative disorders are debilitating diseases that occur across different species. We have performed clinical, pathological and genetic studies to characterize a novel canine neurodegenerative disease present in the Lagotto Romagnolo dog breed. Affected dogs suffer from progressive cerebellar ataxia, sometimes accompanied by episodic nystagmus and behavioral changes. Histological examination revealed unique pathological changes, including profound neuronal cytoplasmic vacuolization in the nervous system, as well as spheroid formation and cytoplasmic aggregation of vacuoles in secretory epithelial tissues and mesenchymal cells. Genetic analyses uncovered a missense change, c.1288G>A; p.A430T, in the autophagy-related ATG4D gene on canine chromosome 20 with a highly significant disease association (p = 3.8 x 10(-136)) in a cohort of more than 2300 Lagotto Romagnolo dogs. ATG4D encodes a poorly characterized cysteine protease belonging to themacroautophagy pathway. Accordingly, our histological analyses indicated altered autophagic flux in affected tissues. The knockdown of the zebrafish homologue atg4da resulted in a widespread developmental disturbance and neurodegeneration in the central nervous system. Our study describes a previously unknown canine neurological disease with particular pathological features and implicates the ATG4D protein as an important autophagy mediator in neuronal homeostasis. The canine phenotype serves as a model to delineate the disease-causing pathological mechanism(s) and ATG4D function, and can also be used to explore treatment options. Furthermore, our results reveal a novel candidate gene for human neurodegeneration and enable the development of a genetic test for veterinary diagnostic and breeding purposes.
  • Razeq, Fakhria M.; Jurak, Edita; Stogios, Peter J.; Yan, Ruoyu; Tenkanen, Maija; Kabel, Mirjam A.; Wang, Weijun; Master, Emma R. (2018)
    Background: Acetylated 4-O-(methyl) glucuronoxylan (GX) is the main hemicellulose in deciduous hardwood, and comprises a beta-(1 -> 4)-linked xylopyranosyl (Xylp) backbone substituted by both acetyl groups and alpha-(1 -> 2)-linked 4-O-methylglucopyranosyluronic acid (MeGlcpA). Whereas enzymes that target singly acetylated Xylp or doubly 2,3-O-acetyl-Xylp have been well characterized, those targeting (2-O-MeGlcpA) 3-O-acetyl-Xylp structures in glucuronoxylan have remained elusive. Results: An unclassified carbohydrate esterase (FjoAcXE) was identified as a protein of unknown function from a polysaccharide utilization locus (PUL) otherwise comprising carbohydrate-active enzyme families known to target xylan. FjoAcXE was shown to efficiently release acetyl groups from internal (2-O-MeGlcpA) 3-O-acetyl-Xylp structures, an activity that has been sought after but lacking in known carbohydrate esterases. FjoAcXE action boosted the activity of alpha-glucuronidases from families GH67 and GH115 by five and nine times, respectively. Moreover, FjoAcXE activity was not only restricted to GX, but also deacetylated (3-O-Araf)2-O-acetyl-Xylp of feruloylated xylooligomers, confirming the broad substrate range of this new carbohydrate esterase. Conclusion: This study reports the discovery and characterization of the novel carbohydrate esterase, FjoAcXE. In addition to cleaving singly acetylated Xylp, and doubly 2,3-O-acetyl-Xylp, FjoAcXE efficiently cleaves internal 3-O-acetyl-Xylp linkages in (2-O-MeGlcpA)3-O-acetyl-Xylp residues along with densely substituted and branched xylooligomers; activities that until now were missing from the arsenal of enzymes required for xylan conversion.
  • Cecchetti, Cristina; Strauss, Jannik; Stohrer, Claudia; Naylor, Claire; Pryor, Edward; Hobbs, Jeanette; Tanley, Simon; Goldman, Adrian; Byrne, Bernadette (2021)
    Membrane proteins have a range of crucial biological functions and are the target of about 60% of all prescribed drugs. For most studies, they need to be extracted out of the lipid-bilayer, e.g. by detergent solubilisation, leading to the loss of native lipids, which may disturb important protein-lipid/bilayer interactions and thus functional and structural integrity. Relipidation of membrane proteins has proven extremely successful for studying challenging targets, but the identification of suitable lipids can be expensive and laborious. Therefore, we developed a screen to aid the high-throughput identification of beneficial lipids. The screen covers a large lipid space and was designed to be suitable for a range of stability assessment methods. Here, we demonstrate its use as a tool for identifying stabilising lipids for three membrane proteins: a bacterial pyrophosphatase (Tm-PPase), a fungal purine transporter (UapA) and a human GPCR (A(2A)R). A(2A)R is stabilised by cholesteryl hemisuccinate, a lipid well known to stabilise GPCRs, validating the approach. Additionally, our screen also identified a range of new lipids which stabilised our test proteins, providing a starting point for further investigation and demonstrating its value as a novel tool for membrane protein research. The pre-dispensed screen will be made commercially available to the scientific community in future and has a number of potential applications in the field.
  • Zhang, Yuezhou; Jumppanen, Antti Mikael; Maksimainen, Mirko M.; Auno, Atte Samuli; Awol , Zulfa; Ghemtio, Leo; Venkannagari, Harikanth; Lehtiö, Lari; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari; Xhaard, Henri; Boije af Gennäs, Gustav (2018)
    The human O-acetyl-ADP-ribose deacetylase MDO1 is a mono-ADP-ribosylhydrolase involved in the reversal of post-translational modifications. Until now MDO1 has been poorly characterized, partly since no ligand is known besides adenosine nucleotides. Here, we synthesized thirteen compounds retaining the adenosine moiety and bearing bioisosteric replacements of the phosphate at the ribose 50-oxygen. These compounds are composed of either a squaryldiamide or an amide group as the bioisosteric replacement and/or as a linker. To these groups a variety of substituents were attached such as phenyl, benzyl, pyridyl, carboxyl, hydroxy and tetrazolyl. Biochemical evaluation showed that two compounds, one from both series, inhibited ADP-ribosyl hydrolysis mediated by MDO1 in high concentrations. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Malanchini, Margherita; Smith-Woolley, Emily; Ayorech, Ziada; Rimfeld, Kaili; Krapohl, Eva; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Korhonen, Tellervo; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos C. E. M.; Rose, Richard J.; Lundstrom, Sebastian; Anckarsater, Henrik; Kaprio, Jaakko; Lichtenstein, Paul; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Plomin, Robert (2019)
    Background Maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) has been linked to offspring's externalizing problems. It has been argued that socio-demographic factors (e.g. maternal age and education), co-occurring environmental risk factors, or pleiotropic genetic effects may account for the association between MSDP and later outcomes. This study provides a comprehensive investigation of the association between MSDP and a single harmonized component of externalizing: aggressive behaviour, measured throughout childhood and adolescence. Methods Data came from four prospective twin cohorts - Twins Early Development Study, Netherlands Twin Register, Childhood and Adolescent Twin Study of Sweden, and FinnTwin12 study - who collaborate in the EU-ACTION consortium. Data from 30 708 unrelated individuals were analysed. Based on item level data, a harmonized measure of aggression was created at ages 9-10; 12; 14-15 and 16-18. Results MSDP predicted aggression in childhood and adolescence. A meta-analysis across the four samples found the independent effect of MSDP to be 0.4% (r = 0.066), this remained consistent when analyses were performed separately by sex. All other perinatal factors combined explained 1.1% of the variance in aggression across all ages and samples (r = 0.112). Paternal smoking and aggressive parenting strategies did not account for the MSDP-aggression association, consistent with the hypothesis of a small direct link between MSDP and aggression. Conclusions Perinatal factors, including MSDP, account for a small portion of the variance in aggression in childhood and adolescence. Later experiences may play a greater role in shaping adolescents' aggressive behaviour.
  • Ye, Yuntian; Liu, Yongqiang; Li, Xiaolong; Wang, Guangyi; Zhou, Quan; Chen, Qing; Li, Jiale; Wang, Xiaorong; Tang, Haoru (2021)
    Flowering connects vegetative and generative developmental phases and plays a significant role in strawberry production. The mechanisms that regulate strawberry flowering time are unclear. B-box transcription factors (BBXs) play important roles in the flowering time regulation of plants. Nevertheless, BBXs in octoploid cultivated strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) and their functions in flowering time regulation have not been identified. Here, we identified 51 FaBBXs from cultivated strawberry and 16 FvBBXs from diploid wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca), which were classified into five groups according to phylogenetic analysis. Further evolutionary analysis showed that whole-genome duplication or segmental duplication is a crucial factor that leads to the expansion of the BBX gene family in two strawberry species. Moreover, some loss and acquisition events of FaBBX genes were identified in the genome of cultivated strawberry that could have affected traits of agronomic interest, such as fruit quality. The promoters of FaBBX genes showed an enrichment in light-responsive, cis-regulatory elements, with 16 of these genes showing changes in their transcriptional activity in response to blue light treatment. On the other hand, FaBBX28c1, whose transcriptional activity is reduced in response to blue light, showed a delay in flowering time in Arabidopsis transgenic lines, suggesting its role in the regulation of flowering time in cultivated strawberry. Our results provide new evolutionary insight into the BBX gene family in cultivated strawberry and clues regarding their function in flowering time regulation in plants.
  • Fabregas, Norma; Formosa-Jordan, Pau; Confraria, Ana; Siligato, Riccardo; Alonso, Jose M.; Swarup, Ranjan; Bennett, Malcolm J.; Mähönen, Ari Pekka; Cano-Delgado, Ana I.; Ibanes, Marta (2015)
    Auxin is an essential hormone for plant growth and development. Auxin influx carriers AUX1/LAX transport auxin into the cell, while auxin efflux carriers PIN pump it out of the cell. It is well established that efflux carriers play an important role in the shoot vascular patterning, yet the contribution of influx carriers to the shoot vasculature remains unknown. Here, we combined theoretical and experimental approaches to decipher the role of auxin influx carriers in the patterning and differentiation of vascular tissues in the Arabidopsis inflorescence stem. Our theoretical analysis predicts that influx carriers facilitate periodic patterning and modulate the periodicity of auxin maxima. In agreement, we observed fewer and more spaced vascular bundles in quadruple mutants plants of the auxin influx carriers aux1lax1lax2lax3. Furthermore, we show AUX1/LAX carriers promote xylem differentiation in both the shoot and the root tissues. Influx carriers increase cytoplasmic auxin signaling, and thereby differentiation. In addition to this cytoplasmic role of auxin, our computational simulations propose a role for extracellular auxin as an inhibitor of xylem differentiation. Altogether, our study shows that auxin influx carriers AUX1/LAX regulate vascular patterning and differentiation in plants.
  • Mattila, Antti; Andsten, Rose-Marie; Jumppanen, Mikael; Assante, Michele; Jokela, Jouni; Wahlsten, Matti; Mikula, Kornelia M; Sigindere, Cihad; Kwak, Daniel H.; Gugger, Muriel; Koskela, Harri; Sivonen, Kaarina; Liu, Xinyu; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari; Iwaï, Hideo; Fewer, David (2019)
    Prenylation is a common step in the biosynthesis of many natural products and plays an important role in increasing their structural diversity and enhancing biological activity. Muscoride A is a linear peptide alkaloid that contain two contiguous oxazoles and unusual prenyl groups that protect the amino- and carboxy-termini. Here we identified the 12.7 kb muscoride (mus) biosynthetic gene clusters from Nostoc spp. PCC 7906 and UHCC 0398. The mus biosynthetic gene clusters encode enzymes for the heterocyclization, oxidation, and prenylation of the MusE precursor protein. The mus biosynthetic gene clusters encode two copies of the cyanobactin prenyltransferase, MusF1 and MusF2. The predicted tetrapeptide substrate of MusF1 and MusF2 was synthesized through a novel tandem cyclization route in only eight steps. Biochemical assays demonstrated that MusF1 acts on the carboxy-terminus while MusF2 acts on the amino-terminus of the tetrapeptide substrate. We show that the MusF2 enzyme catalyzes the reverse or forward prenylation of amino-termini from Nostoc spp. PCC 7906 and UHCC 0398, respectively. This finding expands the regiospecific chemical functionality of cyanobactin prenyltransferases and the chemical diversity of the cyanobactin family of natural products to include bis-prenylated polyoxazole linear peptides.
  • Arnal-Levron, Maud; Chen, Yinan; Greimel, Peter; Calevro, Federica; Gaget, Karen; Riols, Fabien; Batut, Aurélie; Bertrand-Michel, Justine; Hullin-Matsuda, Françoise; Olkkonen, Vesa M.; Delton, Isabelle; Luquain-Costaz, Céline (2019)
    Bis(Monoacylglycero) Phosphate (BMP) is a unique phospholipid localized in late endosomes, a critical cellular compartment in low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol metabolism. In previous work, we demonstrated the important role of BMP in the regulation of macrophage cholesterol homeostasis. BMP exerts a protective role against the pro-apoptotic effect of oxidized LDL (oxLDL) by reducing the production of deleterious oxysterols. As the intracellular sterol traffic in macrophages is in part regulated by oxysterol binding protein (OSBP) and OSBP-related proteins (ORPs), we investigated the role of ORP11, localized at the Golgi-late endosomes interface, in the BMP-mediated protection from oxLDL/oxysterol cytotoxicity. Stably silencing of ORP11 in mouse RAW264.7 macrophages via a shRNA lentiviruses system had no effect on BMP production. However, ORP11 knockdown abrogated the protective action of BMP against oxLDL induced apoptosis. In oxLDL treated control cells, BMP enrichment was associated with reduced generation of 7-oxysterols, while these oxysterol species were abundant in the ORP11 knock-down cells. Of note, BMP enrichment in ORP11 knock-down cells was associated with a drastic increase in free cholesterol and linked to a decrease of cholesterol efflux. The expression of ATP-binding cassette-transporter G1 (ABCG1) was also reduced in the ORP11 knock-down cells. These observations demonstrate a cooperative function of OPR11 and BMP, in intracellular cholesterol trafficking in cultured macrophages. We suggest that BMP favors the egress of cholesterol from late endosomes via an ORP11-dependent mechanism, resulting in a reduced production of cytotoxic 7-oxysterols.
  • Pirhonen, Jari; Tiilikainen, Elisa; Pekkarinen, Satu; Lemivaara, Marjut; Melkas, Helina (2020)
    This future-oriented study examines the opportunities and challenges offered by social robots and communication technology when aiming to decrease emotional and social loneliness in older people residing in assisted living (AL). The paper draws on prior literature on loneliness, elder care and social robots. The aim is to scan the futures regarding technology support for the frail older people in future AL. The analytical frame was built on Robert Weiss’ division of relational functions: attachment, social integration, opportunity for nurturance, reassurance of worth, sense of reliable alliance, and guidance in stressful situations, and on a distinction between direct and indirect social robots. Our examinations show that social robots could tackle both emotional and social loneliness in assisted living by empowering people to engage in different forms of social interaction inside and outside the facility. However, ethical concerns of objectification, lack of human contact, and deception need to be thoroughly considered when implementing social robots in care for frail older people.
  • Guerrini-Rousseau, Lea; Masliah-Planchon, Julien; Waszak, Sebastian M.; Alhopuro, Pia; Benusiglio, Patrick R.; Bourdeaut, Franck; Brecht, Ines B.; Del Baldo, Giada; Dhanda, Sandeep Kumar; Garre, Maria Luisa; Gidding, Corrie E. M.; Hirsch, Steffen; Hoarau, Pauline; Jorgensen, Mette; Kratz, Christian; Lafay-Cousin, Lucie; Mastronuzzi, Angela; Pastorino, Lorenza; Pfister, Stefan M.; Schroeder, Christopher; Smith, Miriam Jane; Vahteristo, Pia; Vibert, Roseline; Vilain, Catheline; Waespe, Nicolas; Winship, Ingrid M.; Evans, D. Gareth; Brugieres, Laurence (2022)
    Background Little is known about risks associated with germline SUFU pathogenic variants (PVs) known as a cancer predisposition syndrome. Methods To study tumour risks, we have analysed data of a large cohort of 45 unpublished patients with a germline SUFU PV completed with 127 previously published patients. To reduce the ascertainment bias due to index patient selection, the risk of tumours was evaluated in relatives with SUFU PV (89 patients) using the Nelson-Aalen estimator. Results Overall, 117/172 (68%) SUFU PV carriers developed at least one tumour: medulloblastoma (MB) (86 patients), basal cell carcinoma (BCC) (25 patients), meningioma (20 patients) and gonadal tumours (11 patients). Thirty-three of them (28%) had multiple tumours. Median age at diagnosis of MB, gonadal tumour, first BCC and first meningioma were 1.5, 14, 40 and 44 years, respectively. Follow-up data were available for 160 patients (137 remained alive and 23 died). The cumulative incidence of tumours in relatives was 14.4% (95% CI 6.8 to 21.4), 18.2% (95% CI 9.7 to 25.9) and 44.1% (95% CI 29.7 to 55.5) at the age of 5, 20 and 50 years, respectively. The cumulative risk of an MB, gonadal tumour, BCC and meningioma at age 50 years was: 13.3% (95% CI 6 to 20.1), 4.6% (95% CI 0 to 9.7), 28.5% (95% CI 13.4 to 40.9) and 5.2% (95% CI 0 to 12), respectively. Sixty-four different PVs were reported across the entire SUFU gene and inherited in 73% of cases in which inheritance could be evaluated. Conclusion Germline SUFU PV carriers have a life-long increased risk of tumours with a spectrum dominated by MB before the age of 5, gonadal tumours during adolescence and BCC and meningioma in adulthood, justifying fine-tuned surveillance programmes.
  • Komp-Leukkunen, Kathrin Susanne (2019)
    Life-courses describe people’s activities from the cradle to the grave. Because life-courses are typically complex, models are used to simplify their description. The most commonly used model is tripartite, representing lives in subsequent periods of education, work, and retirement. However, researchers criticize this model as limited in the activities considered, overly simplistic in the activity sequence, and blind to variation between life-courses. This article explores working age life-courses, which typically show high diversity. Multichannel sequence and cluster analyses are conducted on people’s activities from age 15 to 65. Data stem from the life-history interviews of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, capturing cohorts born before 1945. Findings show that three out of four working age life-courses are in line with the tripartite model. This share is particularly high among men, the cohort born 1935 to 1944, and in Northern and Eastern Europe. In contrast, a considerable share of women spent their working age on homemaking, especially women born before 1935, and those living in Southern Europe. Finally, a smaller number of men spent their working age on paid work, followed by a period of illness or of non-employment. The working age life-course patterns identified are used to develop alternative life-course models. However, for a parsimonious solution, the use of two models suffices. A combination of the tripartite model and the model equating middle age to homemaking captures the lives of more than nine out of ten older Europeans. The prevalence of working age life-course patterns in a population is country-specific, and the country differences align with the welfare regimes. This perspective makes working age life-courses characteristics of a society that can be used to map social inequalities at the macro-level and capture social change over time.
  • Rinne, Maiju; Tanoli, Zia-Ur-Rehman; Khan, Asifullah; Xhaard, Henri (2019)
    We conduct a cartography of rhodopsin-like non-olfactory G protein-coupled receptors in the Ensembl database. The most recent genomic data (releases 90-92, 90 vertebrate genomes) are analyzed through the online interface and receptors mapped on phylogenetic guide trees that were constructed based on a set of similar to 14.000 amino acid sequences. This snapshot of genomic data suggest vertebrate genomes to harbour 142 clades of GPCRs without human orthologues. Among those, 69 have not to our knowledge been mentioned or studied previously in the literature, of which 28 are distant from existing receptors and likely new orphans. These newly identified receptors are candidates for more focused evolutionary studies such as chromosomal mapping as well for in-depth pharmacological characterization. Interestingly, we also show that 37 of the 72 human orphan (or recently deorphanized) receptors included in this study cluster into nineteen closely related groups, which implies that there are less ligands to be identified than previously anticipated. Altogether, this work has significant implications when discussing nomenclature issues for GPCRs.
  • Albert, Katrina; Renko, Juho-Matti; Mätlik, Kert; Airavaara, Mikko; Voutilainen, Merja H. (2019)
    Cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) has shown therapeutic potential in rodent and non-human primate models of Parkinson's disease by protecting the dopamine neurons from degeneration and even restoring their phenotype and function. Previously, neurorestorative efficacy of CDNF in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) model of Parkinson's disease as well as diffusion of the protein in the striatum (STR) has been demonstrated and studied. Here, experiments were performed to characterize the diffusion and transport of supra-nigral CDNF in non-lesioned rats. We injected recombinant human CDNF to the substantia nigra (SN) of naive male Wistar rats and analyzed the brains 2, 6, and 24 h after injections. We performed immunohistochemical stainings using an antibody specific to human CDNF and radioactivity measurements after injecting iodinated CDNF. Unlike the previously reported striatonigral retrograde transport seen after striatal injection, active anterograde transport of CDNF to the STR could not be detected after nigral injection. There was, however, clear diffusion of CDNF to the brain areas surrounding the SN, and CDNF colocalized with tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons. Overall, our results provide insight on how CDNF injected to the SN may act in this region of the brain.
  • Knaappila, Noora; Marttunen, Mauri; Fröjd, Sari; Lindberg, Nina; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu (2019)
    Background: Scientific literature suggests that the prevalence of delinquency amongst adolescents has decreased internationally in past decades. However, whether this change is consistent across all socioeconomic groups has not yet been studied. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine changes in delinquency amongst Finnish adolescents according to socioeconomic status between 2000 and 2015. Method: A population-based school survey was conducted biennially amongst 14-16-year-old Finns between 2000 and 2015 (n = 761,278). Distributions for delinquency and socioeconomic adversities (low parental education, not living with both parents and parental unemployment in the past year) were calculated using crosstabs. Associations between delinquency, time, and socioeconomic adversities were studied using binomial logistic regression results shown by odds ratios with 95 % confidence intervals. Results: Delinquency was positively associated with all three socioeconomic adversities studied and cumulative socioeconomic adversity. Although the prevalence of delinquency varied only slightly between 2000 and 2015 in the overall population, it increased significantly amongst adolescents with most socioeconomic adversities. Conclusions: The findings indicate that socioeconomic differences in delinquency have increased amongst Finnish adolescents in past decades. Delinquency prevention and intervention programs should take socioeconomic adversities into account.
  • Nivala, Outi; Faccio, Greta; Arvas, Mikko; Permi, Perttu; Buchert, Johanna; Kruus, Kristiina; Mattinen, Maija-Liisa (2017)
    Background: Despite of the presence of sulfhydryl oxidases (SOXs) in the secretomes of industrially relevant organisms and their many potential applications, only few of these enzymes have been biochemically characterized. In addition, basic functions of most of the SOX enzymes reported so far are not fully understood. In particular, the physiological role of secreted fungal SOXs is unclear. Results: The recently identified SOX from Aspergillus tubingensis (AtSOX) was produced, purified and characterized in the present work. AtSOX had a pH optimum of 6.5, and showed a good pH stability retaining more than 80% of the initial activity in a pH range 4-8.5 within 20 h. More than 70% of the initial activity was retained after incubation at 50 degrees C for 20 h. AtSOX contains a non-covalently bound flavin cofactor. The enzyme oxidised a sulfhydryl group of glutathione to form a disulfide bond, as verified by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. AtSOX preferred glutathione as a substrate over cysteine and dithiothreitol. The activity of the enzyme was totally inhibited by 10 mM zinc sulphate. Peptide-and protein-bound sulfhydryl groups in bikunin, gliotoxin, holomycin, insulin B chain, and ribonuclease A, were not oxidised by the enzyme. Based on the analysis of 33 fungal genomes, SOX enzyme encoding genes were found close to nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) but not with polyketide synthases (PKS). In the phylogenetic tree, constructed from 25 SOX and thioredoxin reductase sequences from IPR000103 InterPro family, AtSOX was evolutionary closely related to other Aspergillus SOXs. Oxidoreductases involved in the maturation of nonribosomal peptides of fungal and bacterial origin, namely GliT, HlmI and DepH, were also evolutionary closely related to AtSOX whereas fungal thioreductases were more distant. Conclusions: AtSOX (55 kDa) is a fungal secreted flavin-dependent enzyme with good stability to both pH and temperature. A Michaelis-Menten behaviour was observed with reduced glutathione as a substrate. Based on the location of SOX enzyme encoding genes close to NRPSs, SOXs could be involved in the secondary metabolism and act as an accessory enzyme in the production of nonribosomal peptides.
  • Galizia, Elizabeth C.; Myers, Candace T.; Leu, Costin; de Kovel, Carolien G. F.; Afrikanova, Tatiana; Cordero-Maldonado, Maria Lorena; Martins, Teresa G.; Jacmin, Maxime; Drury, Suzanne; Chinthapalli, V. Krishna; Muhle, Hiltrud; Pendziwiat, Manuela; Sander, Thomas; Ruppert, Ann-Kathrin; Moller, Rikke S.; Thiele, Holger; Krause, Roland; Schubert, Julian; Lehesjoki, Anna-Elina; Nuernberg, Peter; Lerche, Holger; Palotie, Aarno; Coppola, Antonietta; Striano, Salvatore; Del Gaudio, Luigi; Boustred, Christopher; Schneider, Amy L.; Lench, Nicholas; Jocic-Jakubi, Bosanka; Covanis, Athanasios; Capovilla, Giuseppe; Veggiotti, Pierangelo; Piccioli, Marta; Parisi, Pasquale; Cantonetti, Laura; Sadleir, Lynette G.; Mullen, Saul A.; Berkovic, Samuel F.; Stephani, Ulrich; Helbig, Ingo; Crawford, Alexander D.; Esguerra, Camila V.; Trenite, Dorothee G. A. Kasteleijn-Nolst; Koeleman, Bobby P. C.; Mefford, Heather C.; Scheffer, Ingrid E.; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.; EuroEPINOMICS-CoGIE Consortium (2015)
    Photosensitivity is a heritable abnormal cortical response to flickering light, manifesting as particular electroencephalographic changes, with or without seizures. Photosensitivity is prominent in a very rare epileptic encephalopathy due to de novo CHD2 mutations, but is also seen in epileptic encephalopathies due to other gene mutations. We determined whether CHD2 variation underlies photosensitivity in common epilepsies, specific photosensitive epilepsies and individuals with photosensitivity without seizures. We studied 580 individuals with epilepsy and either photosensitive seizures or abnormal photoparoxysmal response on electroencephalography, or both, and 55 individuals with photoparoxysmal response but no seizures. We compared CHD2 sequence data to publicly available data from 34 427 individuals, not enriched for epilepsy. We investigated the role of unique variants seen only once in the entire data set. We sought CHD2 variants in 238 exomes from familial genetic generalized epilepsies, and in other public exome data sets. We identified 11 unique variants in the 580 individuals with photosensitive epilepsies and 128 unique variants in the 34 427 controls: unique CHD2 variation is over-represented in cases overall (P = 2.17 x 10(-5)). Among epilepsy syndromes, there was over-representation of unique CHD2 variants (3/36 cases) in the archetypal photosensitive epilepsy syndrome, eyelid myoclonia with absences (P = 3.50 x 10(-4)). CHD2 variation was not over-represented in photoparoxysmal response without seizures. Zebrafish larvae with chd2 knockdown were tested for photosensitivity. Chd2 knockdown markedly enhanced mild innate zebrafish larval photosensitivity. CHD2 mutation is the first identified cause of the archetypal generalized photosensitive epilepsy syndrome, eyelid myoclonia with absences. Unique CHD2 variants are also associated with photosensitivity in common epilepsies. CHD2 does not encode an ion channel, opening new avenues for research into human cortical excitability.
  • Yang, Lei; Hu, Yaoyue; Silventoinen, Karri; Martikainen, Pekka (2020)
    Objectives: A number of studies have established the link between childhood adversity (CA) and depression across the life span. This association can be culturally specific, and it remains unclear whether and how different aspects of CA affect depressive symptoms in later life in non-Western societies. Method: Data were from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study in 2011, 2013, 2014 (Life Event History survey) and 2015 (N = 13,710). Depressive symptoms were measured repeatedly in 2011, 2013, and 2015 using the ten-item Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D-10). CA was assessed in 2014 by parental physical abuse, maternal emotional neglect, early parental death, parental mental health problems, poor quality of parental relationship, and childhood socioeconomic disadvantage. Multilevel linear models were used to analyse the data. Results: Parental physical abuse was associated with 0.51 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.28, 0.74) and 0.59 (95% CI: 0.31, 0.88) higher CES-D-10 scores compared to those without such abuse experience for men and women, respectively. Emotional neglect predicted 0.30 (95% CI: 0.07, 0.51) and 0.33 (95% CI: 0.08, 0.58) higher CES-D-10 scores for men and women. Elevated CES-D-10 scores were also found among men and women whose parents had poor mental health and poor relationship, and those who experienced food inadequacy (men: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.54, 1.01; women: 1.15, 95% CI: 0.90, 1.41). Early parental death nevertheless was not associated with CES-D-10 scores. Conclusion: CA exerts long-term detrimental effects on mental health in mid- and late-life among Chinese adults. The findings are consistent with those from Western societies, except for early parental death.
  • Lubbers, Ronnie J. M.; Dilokpimol, Adiphol; Navarro, Jorge; Peng, Mao; Wang, Mei; Lipzen, Anna; Ng, Vivian; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Visser, Jaap; Hildén, Kristiina S.; de Vries, Ronald P. (2019)
    Cinnamic acid is an aromatic compound commonly found in plants and functions as a central intermediate in lignin synthesis. Filamentous fungi are able to degrade cinnamic acid through multiple metabolic pathways. One of the best studied pathways is the non-oxidative decarboxylation of cinnamic acid to styrene. In Aspergillus niger, the enzymes cinnamic acid decarboxylase (CdcA, formally ferulic acid decarboxylase) and the flavin prenyltransferase (PadA) catalyze together the non-oxidative decarboxylation of cinnamic acid and sorbic acid. The corresponding genes, cdcA and padA, are clustered in the genome together with a putative transcription factor previously named sorbic acid decarboxylase regulator (SdrA). While SdrA was predicted to be involved in the regulation of the non-oxidative decarboxylation of cinnamic acid and sorbic acid, this was never functionally analyzed. In this study, A. niger deletion mutants of sdrA, cdcA, and padA were made to further investigate the role of SdrA in cinnamic acid metabolism. Phenotypic analysis revealed that cdcA, sdrA and padA are exclusively involved in the degradation of cinnamic acid and sorbic acid and not required for other related aromatic compounds. Whole genome transcriptome analysis of ΔsdrA grown on different cinnamic acid related compounds, revealed additional target genes, which were also clustered with cdcA, sdrA, and padA in the A. niger genome. Synteny analysis using 30 Aspergillus genomes demonstrated a conserved cinnamic acid decarboxylation gene cluster in most Aspergilli of the Nigri clade. Aspergilli lacking certain genes in the cluster were unable to grow on cinnamic acid, but could still grow on related aromatic compounds, confirming the specific role of these three genes for cinnamic acid metabolism of A. niger.