Browsing by Subject "FAMILY-HISTORY"

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  • Oinio, Ville; Sundström, Mikko; Bäckström, Pia; Uhari-Väänänen, Johanna; Kiianmaa, Kalervo; Raasmaja, Atso; Piepponen, Petteri (2018)
    Comorbidity with gambling disorder (GD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) is well documented. The purpose of our study was to examine the influence of genetic alcohol drinking tendency on reward-guided decision making behavior of rats and the impact of dopamine releaser D-amphetamine on this behavior. In this study, Alko alcohol (AA) and Wistar rats went through long periods of operant lever pressing training where the task was to choose the profitable of two options. The lever choices were guided by different-sized sucrose rewards (one or three pellets), and the probability of gaining the larger reward was slowly changed to a level where choosing the smaller reward would be the most profitable in the long run. After training, rats were injected (s.c.) with dopamine releaser D-amphetamine (0.3, 1.0 mg/kg) to study the impact of rapid dopamine release on this learned decision making behavior. Administration of D-amphetamine promoted unprofitable decision making of AA rats more robustly when compared to Wistar rats. At the same time, D-amphetamine reduced lever pressing responses. Interestingly, we found that this reduction in lever pressing was significantly greater in Wistar rats than in AA rats and it was not linked to motivation to consume sucrose. Our results indicate that conditioning to the lever pressing in uncertain environments is more pronounced in AA than in Wistar rats and indicate that the reinforcing effects of a gambling-like environment act as a stronger conditioning factor for rats that exhibit a genetic tendency for high alcohol drinking.
  • Mantere, Tuomo; Tervasmäki, Anna; Nurmi, Anna; Rapakko, Katrin; Kauppila, Saila; Tang, Jiangbo; Schleutker, Johanna; Kallioniemi, Anne; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Mannermaa, Arto; Nieminen, Pentti; Hanhisalo, Riitta; Lehto, Sini; Suvanto, Maija; Grip, Mervi; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Tengström, Maria; Auvinen, Päivi; Kvist, Anders; Borg, Åke; Blomqvist, Carl; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Greenberg, Roger A.; Winqvist, Robert; Nevanlinna, Heli; Pylkäs, Katri (2017)
    Several known breast cancer susceptibility genes encode proteins involved in DNA damage response (DDR) and are characterized by rare loss-of-function mutations. However, these explain less than half of the familial cases. To identify novel susceptibility factors, 39 rare truncating mutations, identified in 189 Northern Finnish hereditary breast cancer patients in parallel sequencing of 796 DDR genes, were studied for disease association. Mutation screening was performed for Northern Finnish breast cancer cases (n = 578-1565) and controls (n = 337-1228). Mutations showing potential cancer association were analyzed in additional Finnish cohorts.c.7253dupT in TEX15, encoding a DDR factor important in meiosis, associated with hereditary breast cancer (p = 0.018) and likely represents a Northern Finnish founder mutation. A deleterious c.2715 + 1G > A mutation in the Fanconi anemia gene, FANCD2, was over two times more common in the combined Finnish hereditary cohort compared to controls. A deletion (c.640_644del5) in RNF168, causative for recessive RIDDLE syndrome, had high prevalence in majority of the analyzed cohorts, but did not associate with breast cancer. In conclusion, truncating variants in TEX15 and FANCD2 are potential breast cancer risk factors, warranting further investigations in other populations. Furthermore, high frequency of RNF168 c.640_644del5 indicates the need for its testing in Finnish patients with RIDDLE syndrome symptoms.
  • Vornanen, Marleena; Konttinen, Hanna; Peltonen, Markku; Haukkala, Ari (2021)
    Background Perceived disease risk may reflect actual risk indicators and/or motivation to change lifestyle. Yet, few longitudinal studies have assessed how perceived risk relates to risk indicators among different disease risk groups. We examined in a 5-year follow-up, whether perceived risks of diabetes and cardiovascular disease predicted physical activity, body mass index (BMI kg/m(2)), and blood glucose level, or the reverse. We examined further whether perceived risk, self-efficacy, and outcome beliefs together predicted changes in these risk indicators. Method Participants were high diabetes risk participants (N = 432) and low/moderate-risk participants (N = 477) from the national FINRISK 2002 study who were followed up in 2007. Both study phases included questionnaires and health examinations with individual feedback letters. Data were analyzed using gender- and age-adjusted structural equation models. Results In cross-lagged autoregressive models, perceived risks were not found to predict 5-year changes in physical activity, BMI, or 2-h glucose. In contrast, higher BMI and 2-h glucose predicted 5-year increases in perceived risks (beta-values 0.07-0.15,P-values <0.001-0.138). These associations were similar among high- and low/moderate-risk samples. In further structural equation models, higher self-efficacy predicted increased physical activity among both samples (beta-values 0.10-0.16,P-values 0.005-0.034). Higher outcome beliefs predicted lower BMI among the low/moderate-risk sample (beta-values - 0.04 to - 0.05,P-values 0.008-0.011). Conclusion Perceived risk of chronic disease rather follows risk indicators than predicts long-term lifestyle changes. To promote sustained lifestyle changes, future intervention studies need to examine the best ways to combine risk feedback with efficient behavior change techniques.
  • Muranen, Taru A.; Greco, Dario; Blomqvist, Carl; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Khan, Sofia; Hogervorst, Frans; Verhoef, Senno; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Dunning, Alison M.; Shah, Mitul; Luben, Robert; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Borge G.; Schoemaker, Minouk; Swerdlow, Anthony; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine; Doerk, Thilo; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Hall, Per; Li, Jingmei; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Bermisheva, Marina; Kristensen, Vessela; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Peto, Julian; Silva, Isabel dos Santos; Couch, Fergus J.; Olson, Janet E.; Hillemans, Peter; Park-Simon, Tjoung-Won; Brauch, Hiltrud; Hamann, Ute; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marme, Frederik; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Tomlinson, Ian; Lambrechts, Diether; Moisse, Matthieu; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Martens, John W. M.; Fasching, Peter A.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Nevanlinna, Heli; NBCS Investigators; kConFab-AOCS Investigators; Breast Canc Assoc Consortium (2017)
    Purpose: CHEK2*1100delC is a founder variant in European populations that confers a two-to threefold increased risk of breast cancer (BC). Epidemiologic and family studies have suggested that the risk associated with CHEK2*1100delC is modified by other genetic factors in a multiplicative fashion. We have investigated this empirically using data from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Methods: Using genotype data from 39,139 (624 1100delC carriers) BC patients and 40,063 (224) healthy controls from 32 BCAC studies, we analyzed the combined risk effects of CHEK2*1100delC and 77 common variants in terms of a polygenic risk score (PRS) and pairwise interaction. Results: The PRS conferred odds ratios (OR) of 1.59 (95% CI: 1.212.09) per standard deviation for BC for CHEK2*1100delC carriers and 1.58 (1.55-1.62) for noncarriers. No evidence of deviation from the multiplicative model was found. The OR for the highest quintile of the PRS was 2.03 (0.86-4.78) for CHEK2*1100delC carriers, placing them in the high risk category according to UK NICE guidelines. The OR for the lowest quintile was 0.52 (0.16-1.74), indicating a lifetime risk close to the population average. Conclusion: Our results confirm the multiplicative nature of risk effects conferred by CHEK2*1100delC and the common susceptibility variants. Furthermore, the PRS could identify carriers at a high lifetime risk for clinical actions.
  • Seppälä, Laura K.; Madanat-Harjuoja, Laura-Maria; Leinonen, Maarit K.; Lääperi, Mitja; Vettenranta, Kim (2021)
    Simple Summary:& nbsp;Maternal thyroid disease, especially hypothyroidism, is known to affect pregnancy and its outcome. We evaluated the risk of childhood cancer in the offspring following exposure to maternal thyroid disease in a case-control setting using registry data. In our study, maternal hypothyroidism was associated with an increased risk of lymphoma in the offspring. The association remained stable when possible familial cancers were excluded.Maternal thyroid disease, especially hypothyroidism, affects pregnancy and its outcome. In-utero exposure to autoimmune thyroid disease has been reported to associate with childhood ALL in the offspring. We evaluated the risk of childhood cancer in the offspring following exposure to maternal thyroid disease in a case-control setting using registry data. All patients with their first cancer diagnosis below the age of 20 years were identified from the Finnish Cancer Registry (n = 2037) and matched for sex and birth year at a 1:5 ratio to population controls identified from the Medical Birth Registry (n = 10,185). We collected national information on maternal thyroid disease from the Medical Birth Registry, Care Register for Health Care, Register for Reimbursed Drug Purchases and Register of Special Reimbursements. We used conditional logistic regression to analyze childhood cancer risk in the offspring. The adjusted OR for any childhood cancer was 1.41 (95%, CI 1.00-2.00) comparing the offspring of mothers with hypothyroidism and those with normal thyroid function. The risk of lymphomas was increased (adjusted OR for maternal hypothyroidism 3.66, 95%, CI 1.29-10.38). The results remained stable when mothers with cancer history were excluded from the analyses. Maternal hypothyroidism appears to be associated with an increased risk for childhood lymphoma in the offspring. The association exists even after excluding possible familial cancers.
  • Int Cannabis Consortium; Marees, Andries T.; Gamazon, Eric R.; Gerring, Zachary; Loukola, Anu; Korhonen, Tellervo; Qaiser, Beenish; Kaprio, Jaakko (2020)
    Background: Little is known about the functional mechanisms through which genetic loci associated with substance use traits ascertain their effect. This study aims to identify and functionally annotate loci associated with substance use traits based on their role in genetic regulation of gene expression. Methods: We evaluated expression Quantitative Trait Loci (eQTLs) from 13 brain regions and whole blood of the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) database, and from whole blood of the Depression Genes and Networks (DGN) database. The role of single eQTLs was examined for six substance use traits: alcohol consumption (N = 537,349), cigarettes per day (CPD; N = 263,954), former vs. current smoker (N = 312,821), age of smoking initiation (N = 262,990), ever smoker (N = 632,802), and cocaine dependence (N = 4,769). Subsequently, we conducted a gene level analysis of gene expression on these substance use traits using S-PrediXcan. Results: Using an FDR-adjusted p-value <0.05 we found 2,976 novel candidate genetic loci for substance use traits, and identified genes and tissues through which these loci potentially exert their effects. Using S-PrediXcan, we identified significantly associated genes for all substance traits. Discussion: Annotating genes based on transcriptomic regulation improves the identification and functional characterization of candidate loci and genes for substance use traits.
  • Tikkinen, Kari A. O.; Dahm, Philipp; Lytvyn, Lyubov; Heen, Anja F.; Vernooij, Robin W. M.; Siemieniuk, Reed A. C.; Wheeler, Russell; Vaughan, Bill; Fobuzi, Awah Cletus; Blanker, Marco H.; Junod, Noelle; Sommer, Johanna; Stirnemann, Jerome; Yoshimura, Manabu; Auer, Reto; MacDonald, Helen; Guyatt, Gordon; Vandvik, Per Olav; Agoritsas, Thomas (2018)
  • Chattopadhyay, Subhayan; Zheng, Guoqiao; Hemminki, Otto; Försti, Asta; Sundquist, Kristina; Hemminki, Kari (2018)
    To assess etiological and clinical consequences of second primary cancers (SPCs) in prostate cancer (PC) patients, we followed newly diagnosed patients to identify men who were diagnosed with a SPC and recorded their causes of death. We used the Swedish Family-Cancer Database to assess relative risks (RRs) and causes of death in SPCs until the year 2015 in patients with a PC diagnosis between 2001 and 2010. Among a total of 4.26 million men, 76 614 were diagnosed with PC at the median age of 71 years. Among them, 8659 (11.3%) received a subsequent diagnosis of SPC after a median follow-up of 4 years. The most common SPCs were colorectal, skin, bladder, and lung cancers, melanoma, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The ranking was almost identical with first cancers among elderly men in Sweden. The RR for SPCs in prostate-specific antigen-detected PC was approximately equal to RR in other PC. Mortality patterns of PC patients were distinct depending on the presence or absence of SPC. Among patients with SPC, 47.8% died as a result of the corresponding SPC, followed by other causes (22.2%) and PC (18.1%). For patients without SPC, PC and non-neoplastic causes almost matched each other as the main causes of death (48.5% and 47.8%). The results suggest that SPCs appear autonomous from primary PC and reflect incidence and mortality of first cancers in general. SPC was the most common cause of death in patients with SPC; close to half of the patients died due to SPC. For improved survival in PC patients, prevention and early detection of SPCs would be important, and the present results suggest that risk factors for SPC in PC are the same as those for first cancer in general.
  • Nurmi, Anna; Muranen, Taru A.; Pelttari, Liisa M.; Kiiski, Johanna I.; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Lehto, Sini; Kallioniemi, Anne; Schleutker, Johanna; Bützow, Ralf; Blomqvist, Carl; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Nevanlinna, Heli (2019)
    Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes predispose to breast and ovarian cancer (BC/OC) with a high lifetime risk, whereas mutations in PALB2, CHEK2, ATM, FANCM, RAD51C and RAD51D genes cause a moderately elevated risk. In the Finnish population, recurrent mutations have been identified in all of these genes, the latest being CHEK2 c.319+2T>A and c.444+1G>A. By genotyping 3,156 cases and 2,089 controls, we estimated the frequencies of CHEK2 c.319+2T>A and c.444+1G>A in Finnish BC patients. CHEK2 c.319+2T>A was detected in 0.7% of the patients, and it was associated with a high risk of BC in the unselected patient group (OR = 5.40 [95% CI 1.58-18.45], p = 0.007) and similarly in the familial patient group. CHEK2 c.444+1G>A was identified in 0.1% of all patients. Additionally, we evaluated the combined prevalence of recurrent moderate-risk gene mutations in 2,487 BC patients, 556 OC patients and 261 BRCA1/2 carriers from 109 families. The overall frequency of the mutations was 13.3% in 1,141 BRCA1/2-negative familial BC patients, 7.5% in 1,727 unselected BC patients and 7.2% in 556 unselected OC patients. At least one moderate-risk gene mutation was found in 12.5% of BRCA1 families and 7.1% of BRCA1 index patients, as well as in 17.0% of BRCA2 families and 11.3% of BRCA2 index patients, and the mutations were associated with an additional risk in the BRCA1/2 index patients (OR = 2.63 [1.15-5.48], p = 0.011). These results support gene panel testing of even multiple members of BC families where several mutations may segregate in different individuals.