Browsing by Subject "FASD"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-3 of 3
  • Lilja, Johanna (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Alcohol use during pregnancy might have serious consequences. Alcohol causes variable amount of damages to the growing fetus. The ones that are most damaged can be deeply handicapped, milder exposure might cause different kinds of cognitive problems. The whole spectrum caused by alcohol use during pregnancy is called FASD (fetal alcohol spectrum disorder). The purpose of this study is to describe the process of diagnosing individuals who are exposed to alcohol in uterus, their rehabilitation and upcoming challenges. The aim was also to determine what happens if the diagnosis is not right or if the individual doesn't get diagnosed at all. The research was made as a literature review. Data was collected manually by using several different databases. After screening and processing the material 9 articles and 11 books were included to the research. The method of analysis in use was inductive content analysis. The endeavour was to describe all the changes, conditions, functions and evolution that involve to this phenomenon. The research indicated that making a diagnosis under the FASD-umbrella was challenging. Various methods of diagnosing, certification of alcohol use during pregnancy and individualised symptoms complicated the process. Often a more socially acceptable diagnose ADHD was given instead of FAS. It increased the possibility of secondary symptoms to appear. When diagnosis FAS was given, the course of life often became challenging. Actions by child welfare, rehabilitation and support measures dominated persons life even in adulthood. Early diagnosis and custody appeared to be most relevant factors in improving the quality of life for individuals exposed to alcohol in uterus.
  • Koponen, Anne M.; Nissinen, Niina-Maria; Gissler, Mika; Autti-Rämö, Ilona; Sarkola, Taisto; Kahila, Hanna (2020)
    Both prenatal substance exposure (PSE, alcohol/drugs) and experiences during the first years of life have powerful effects on brain development. However, only a few studies have investigated the combined effect of PSE and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) on mental and behavioral disorders among exposed adolescents and adults. This longitudinal register-based cohort study 1) compared the nature and extent of diagnosed mental and behavioral disorders among youth with PSE and matched unexposed controls, and 2) investigated the influence of PSE, health in infancy and ACEs (maternal risk factors and out-of-home care, OHC) on diagnoses of mental and behavioral disorders. The data consisted of 615 exposed youth aged 15-24 years and 1787 matched unexposed controls. Data from hospital medical records and nine registers were merged for the analysis. Descriptive analysis methods and Cox regression were used. The results showed that the prevalence of mental and behavioral disorders was twice as high among exposed compared with controls. The highest levels of mental and behavioral disorders and ACEs were found among exposed with at least one OHC episode. The difference in the risk of mental and behavioral disorders between exposed and controls diminished after controlling for the effect of ACEs. Low birth weight, maternal risk factors, and OHC were the strongest predictors of mental and behavioral disorders. The results suggest that PSE alone does not explain poorer mental health among exposed youth. Risk factors accumulate, and low birth weight and ACEs are strongly associated with increased risk of mental and behavioral disorders.
  • Ahola, Laura (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Environment is known to be a strong mediator of embryonal development and the future health of an individual. According to earlier studies, early pregnancy is especially vulnerable to environmental influence. Early embryogenesis is a critical period when epigenetic reprogramming occurs and epigenetic modifications are established. Alcohol is an environmental factor and a teratogen that affects normal epigenetic reprogramming and embryonal development. Prenatal alcohol exposure may contribute to the development of abnormal phenotype or diseases such as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, FASD. This master’s thesis is part of the epiFASD study at the Environmental Epigenetic Laboratory, University of Helsinki. The study focuses on the environmental impact on the epigenetic mechanisms of FASD and finding possible future biomarkers of early disease. The research group has collected biological samples from a cohort of control and alcohol exposed newborns and their parents. The main aim of the study is to reveal the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure to the epigenetic reprogramming of the newborn. If there are epigenetic fingerprints to be seen in the first developing cells of the embryo, these fingerprints may spread to other cells and tissues by cell proliferation. The main aim of this master’s thesis was to optimize a DNA extraction protocol for the collected buccal cell samples. The optimization was expected to enhance the concentration and purity of the DNA samples for future studies. The group had found earlier prenatal alcohol exposure associated changes on the DNA methylation of alcohol-exposed placentas by genome-wide microarrays. The second aim of the thesis was to observe if similar DNA methylation patterns are found in both buccal epithelial cells and placental tissue. The optimization of the DNA extraction protocol enhanced the concentration but not significantly the purity of the buccal cell DNA samples. The earlier microarray studies with placental tissue revealed an interesting candidate gene and the locus-specific EpiTYPER-analysis confirmed the results: the regulatory regions of the studied gene were less methylated in alcohol-exposed placentas compared to controls. EpiTYPER also showed that methylation levels of the placenta and buccal epithelial cells did not correlate with each other although the changes were similar. Further research needs to be done to confirm if the methylation changes could be used as biomarkers in the diagnosis of alcohol-related disorders.