Browsing by Subject "FATTY-ACID"

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  • Itokazu, Yutaka; Tajima, Nobuyoshi; Kerosuo, Laura; Somerharju, Pentti; Sariola, Hannu; Yu, Robert K.; Kakela, Reijo (2016)
    The central nervous system (CNS) harbors multiple glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expressing cell types. In addition to the most abundant cell type of the CNS, the astrocytes, various stem cells and progenitor cells also contain GFAP+ populations. Here, in order to distinguish between two types of GFAP expressing cells with or without the expression of the A2B5 antigens, we performed lipidomic analyses on A2B5+/GFAP+ and A2B5-/GFAP+ cells from rat spinal cord. First, A2B5+/GFAP- progenitors were exposed to the leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) or bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) to induce their differentiation to A2B5+/GFAP+ cells or A2B5-/GFAP+ astrocytes, respectively. The cells were then analyzed for changes in their phospholipid, sphingolipid or acyl chain profiles by mass spectrometry and gas chromatography. Compared to A2B5+/GFAP- progenitors, A2B5-/GFAP+ astrocytes contained higher amounts of ether phospholipids (especially the species containing arachidonic acid) and sphingomyelin, which may indicate characteristics of cellular differentiation and inability for multipotency. In comparison, principal component analyses revealed that the lipid composition of A2B5+/GFAP+ cells retained many of the characteristics of A2B5+/GFAP- progenitors, but their lipid profile was different from that of A2B5-/GFAP+ astrocytes. Thus, our study demonstrated that two GFAP+ cell populations have distinct lipid profiles with the A2B5+/GFAP+ cells sharing a phospholipid profile with progenitors rather than astrocytes. The progenitor cells may require regulated low levels of lipids known to mediate signaling functions in differentiated cells, and the precursor lipid profiles may serve as one measure of the differentiation capacity of a cell population.
  • Avela, Henri F.; Siren, Heli (2020)
    The review concentrates on the properties of analytical and statistical ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatographic (UHPLC) - mass spectrometric (MS) methods suitable for glycero-, glycerophospho- and sphingolipids in lipidomics published between the years 2017 2019. Trends and fluctuations of conventional and nano-UHPLC methods with MS and tandem MS detection were observed in context of analysis conditions and tools used for data-analysis. Whereas general workflow characteristics are agreed upon, more details related to the chromatographic methodology (i.e. stationary and mobile phase conditions) need evidently agreements. Lipid quantitation relies upon isotope-labelled standards in targeted analyses and fully standardless algorithm-based untargeted analyses. Furthermore, a wide spectrum of setups have shown potential for the elucidation of complex and large datasets by minimizing the risks of systematic misinterpretation like false positives. This kind of evaluation was shown to have increased importance and usage for cross-validation and data-analysis. (C) 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Kilpinen, Lotta; Tigistu-Sahle, Feven; Oja, Sofia; Greco, Dario; Parmar, Amarjit; Saavalainen, Päivi Marjaana; Nikkilä, Janne Tapio; Korhonen, Matti; Lehenkari, Petri; Käkelä, Reijo; Laitinen, Saara (2013)
  • Ahola, Aila J; Forsblom, Carol; Groop, Per-Henrik (2018)
    Aims: Depressive mood negatively affects self-care practices, and thereby increases the risk of long-term complications. Not much is known about the association between depressive symptoms and dietary intake in patients with type 1 diabetes, a population with high risk of cardiovascular disease. Methods: Subjects (n = 976, 41% men, age 48 +/- 14 years) were participants in the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy Study. Depressive symptomatology was assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Dietary patterns were derived from food frequency questionnaire-entries by exploratory factor analysis. Energy and macronutrient intakes were calculated from food records. In the same record, participants also reported the results of their daily blood glucose monitoring. Associations between BDI score and selfcare variables were analysed using generalized linear regression. For macronutrients, a substitution model was applied. Results: TWo dietary patterns ("Fish and vegetables", and "Traditional") negatively associated with the BDI score. Instead, an increase in the "Sweet" pattern score was positively associated with depressive symptomatology. Of the macronutrients, favouring protein over carbohydrates or fats associated with lower depression scores. Higher blood glucose selfmonitoring frequency and higher variability of the measurements were positively associated with the BDI score. However, no association was observed between depressive symptoms and the mean of the blood glucose measurements. Conclusions: Depressive symptoms are reflected in the dietary intake and the selfmonitoring of blood glucose, in type 1 diabetes. Whether depression, via compromised self-care practices, negatively affect long-term outcomes in this patient group has to be the subject of future studies. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Ruskamo, Salla; Nieminen, Tuomo; Kristiansen, Cecilie K.; Vatne, Guro H.; Baumann, Anne; Hallin, Erik I.; Raasakka, Arne; Joensuu, Paivi; Bergmann, Ulrich; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Kursula, Petri (2017)
    Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is one of the most common inherited neuropathies. Recently, three CMT1-associated point mutations (I43N, T51P, and I52T) were discovered in the abundant peripheral myelin protein P2. These mutations trigger abnormal myelin structure, leading to reduced nerve conduction velocity, muscle weakness, and distal limb atrophy. P2 is a myelin-specific protein expressed by Schwann cells that binds to fatty acids and membranes, contributing to peripheral myelin lipid homeostasis. We studied the molecular basis of the P2 patient mutations. None of the CMT1-associated mutations alter the overall folding of P2 in the crystal state. P2 disease variants show increased aggregation tendency and remarkably reduced stability, T51P being most severe. In addition, P2 disease mutations affect protein dynamics. Both fatty acid binding by P2 and the kinetics of its membrane interactions are affected by the mutations. Experiments and simulations suggest opening of the beta barrel in T51P, possibly representing a general mechanism in fatty acid-binding proteins. Our findings demonstrate that altered biophysical properties and functional dynamics of P2 may cause myelin defects in CMT1 patients. At the molecular level, a few malformed hydrogen bonds lead to structural instability and misregulation of conformational changes related to ligand exchange and membrane binding.
  • Peltomaa, Elina T.; Taipale, Sami (2020)
    The uptake of dissolved organic compounds, that is, osmotrophy, has been shown to be an efficient nutritional strategy for algae. However, this mode of nutrition may affect the biochemical composition, for example, the fatty acid (FA) contents, of algal cells. This study focused on the osmotrophic assimilation of glucose and leucine by selected seven algal strains belonging to chlorophytes, chrysophytes, cryptophytes, dinoflagellates and euglenoids. Our laboratory experiments with stable isotope labeling showed that osmotrophy occurred in four of the selected seven strains. However, only three of these produced long chain omega-3 FAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 omega 3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 omega 3). High glucose content (5 mg L-1) affected negatively on the total FAs of Mallomonas kalinae and the total omega-3 FAs of Cryptomonas sp. Further, glucose assimilation explained 35% (negative effect) and leucine assimilation 48% (positive effect) of the variation of EPA, DHA and the FAs related to their synthesis in Cryptomonas sp. Moderate glucose concentration (2 mg L-1) was found to enhance the growth of Cryptomonas ozolinii, whereas low leucine (20 mu g L-1) enhanced the growth of M. kalinae. However, no systematic effect of osmotrophy on growth rates was detected. Our study shows that osmotrophic assimilation of algae is species and compound specific, and that the effects of the assimilated compounds on algal metabolism also varies depending on the species.