Browsing by Subject "FAUNA"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-11 of 11
  • Strona, Giovanni; Fattorini, Simone; Fiasca, Barbara; Di Lorenzo, Tiziana; Di Cicco, Mattia; Lorenzetti, Walter; Boccacci, Francesco; Galassi, Diana M. P. (2019)
    We introduce a suite of software tools aimed at investigating multiple bio-ecological facets of aquatic Groundwater Dependent Ecosystems (GDEs). The suite focuses on: (1) threats posed by pollutants to GDE invertebrates (Ecological Risk, ER); (2) threats posed by hydrological and hydromorphological alterations on the subsurface zone of lotic systems and groundwater-fed springs (Hydrological-Hydromorphological Risk, HHR); and (3) the conservation priority of GDE communities (Groundwater Biodiversity Concern index, GBC). The ER is assessed by comparing tolerance limits of invertebrate species to specific pollutants with the maximum observed concentration of the same pollutants at the target site(s). Comparison is based on an original, comprehensive dataset including the most updated information on tolerance to 116 pollutants for 474 freshwater invertebrate species. The HHR is assessed by accounting for the main direct and indirect effects on both the hyporheic zone of lotic systems and groundwater-fed springs, and by scoring each impact according to the potential effect on subsurface invertebrates. Finally, the GBC index is computed on the basis of the taxonomical composition of a target community, and allows the evaluation of its conservation priority in comparison to others.
  • Rodil, Iván F.; Lohrer, Andrew M.; Attard, Karl M.; Hewitt, Judi E.; Thrush, Simon F.; Norkko, Alf (2021)
    Similar to other coastal biogenic habitats (e.g. tidal marshes, kelp forests, mangroves and coral reefs), a key function of seagrass meadows is the enhancement of biodiversity. Variability at multiple spatial scales is a driver of biodiversity, but our understanding of the response of macrofauna communities to variability of seagrass meadows is limited. We examined the macrofauna community structure (abundance and biomass) and diversity patterns (alpha- and beta-diversity) across a seascape gradient of eleven seagrass meadows differing in the number, composition and density of plant species. The variability of the macrobenthic communities was regulated by a combination of sedimentary (mainly for the infauna) and macrophyte (mainly for the epifauna) predictors. We demonstrate that the natural occurrence of drifting algae trapped in the aboveground complexity of the meadows benefits seagrass macrofauna. Seagrass-associated macrofauna showed a clear increase in abundance and alpha-diversity metrics with increasing habitat complexity attributes (i.e. shoot density, plant biomass and canopy height). Furthermore, partitioning of beta-diversity (i.e. the variation of species composition between sites) implied the replacement of some species by others between sites (i.e. spatial turnover) instead of a process of species loss (or gain) from site to site (i.e. nestedness). Therefore, the enhancement of macrofauna diversity across an increasing gradient of seagrass complexity, and the dominance of the turnover component suggest that devoting conservation efforts on many different types of meadows, including the less diverse, should be a priority for coastal habitat-management.
  • Vilkamaa, Pekka; Menzel, Frank (2019)
    On the basis of re-evaluation of morphological characters of the Lycoriella group of genera and subgenera, generic rank is given to the two species groups belonging to Lycoriella (Hemineurina) Frey, 1942 and to Lycoriella (Coelostylina) Tuomikoski, 1960. The Lycoriella (Hemineurina) inflata group, including the type species of the subgenus, Sciara conspicua Winnertz, 1867, is treated as the genus Hemineurina stat. n. and the Lycoriella (Hemineurina) vitticollis group as the genus Trichocoelina gen. n. (type species Sciara vitticollis Holmgren, 1883). Coelostylina Tuomikoski, 1960 (type species Lycoriella (Coelostylina)freyi Tuomikoski, 1960) is a junior homonym of Coelostylina Kittl, 1894, and is renamed Stenacanthella nom. et stat. n. The genera are diagnosed and their phylogeny is discussed. Eight species are excluded from the Lycoriella group. They are transferred to the genera Bradysiopsis Tuomikoski, 1960, Camptochaeta Hippa & Vilkamaa, 1994, Merizomma Sasakawa, 2003 stat. n. and Scatopsciara Edwards, 1927 (five species) or are for the time being regarded as incertae sedis (two species) and as nomen nudum (one name). Numerous nomenclatural corrections are made also in the genera Hemineurina Frey, Stenacanthella Vilkamaa & Menzel and Trichocoelina Vilkamaa & Menzel. Altogether 42 new combinations, three changes in status and one new synonym are presented. A lectotype is designated for Hemineurina algida (Frey, 1948) and two Hemineurina species names are removed from synonymy and given full species status. The following species of Trichocoelina are newly described: Trichocoelina absidata sp. n. (Russia: Krasnodarsk region), T aemula sp. n. (Finland, Russia: Krasnodarsk region), T biplex sp. n. (Canada: Newfoundland and Labrador, Yukon), T dicksoni sp. n. (Russia: Arkhangelsk oblast, Kemerovsk oblast, Krasnodarsk region), T dispansa sp. n. (Russia: Krasnodarsk region), T dividua sp. n. (Canada: Northwest Territories), T hians sp. n. (Canada: Yukon), T imitator sp. n. (Canada: Yukon), T incrassata sp. n. (USA: Alaska), T ithyspina sp. n. (Norway), T jukkai sp. n. (Finland), T magnifica sp. n. (Canada . Yukon), T nefrens sp. n. (Russia: Krasnodarsk region), T obesula sp. n. (Norway), T oricillifera sp. n. (Finland, Norway), T planilobata sp. n. (Finland), T quintula sp. n. (Finland), T semisphaera sp. n. (Finland, Norway), T semusta sp. n. (Italy, USA: Alaska), and T tecta sp. n. (Canada: Nunavut, Yukon, Russia: Krasnodarsk region, Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, USA: Alaska). The Trichocoelina species are keyed, the 20 new species are described and illustrated, and the 9 previously known ones, transferred to the new genus, are briefly diagnosed and the taxonomically relevant literature regarding them is listed. Trichocoelina janetscheki (Lengersdorf, 1953) comb. n. and Trichocoelina brevicubitalis (Lengersdorf, 1926) comb. n. are redescribed. The genus Trichocoelina currently includes 29 species: 17 in the Palaearctic, 6 in the Nearctic and 6 in the Holarctic. All known species are northern or montane.
  • Seppälä, Sini; Henriques, Sergio; Draney, Michael L.; Foord, Stefan; Gibbons, Alastair T.; Gomez, Luz A.; Kariko, Sarah; Malumbres-Olarte, Jagoba; Milne, Marc; Vink, Cor J.; Cardoso, Pedro (2018)
    Background The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species is the most widely used information source on the extinction risk of species. One of the uses of the Red List is to evaluate and monitor the state of biodiversity and a possible approach for this purpose is the Red List Index (RLI). For many taxa, mainly hyperdiverse groups, it is not possible within available resources to assess all known species. In such cases, a random sample of species might be selected for assessment and the results derived from it extrapolated for the entire group - the Sampled Red List Index (SRLI). With the current contribution and the three following papers, we intend to create the first point in time of a future spider SRLI encompassing 200 species distributed across the world. New information A sample of 200 species of spiders were randomly selected from the World Spider Catalogue, an updated global database containing all recognised species names for the group. The 200 selected species where divided taxonomically at the family level and the familes were ordered alphabetically. In this publication, we present the conservation profiles of 46 species belonging to the famillies alphabetically arranged between Agelenidae and Filistatidae, which encompassed Agelenidae, Amaurobiidae, Anyphaenidae, Araneidae, Archaeidae, Barychelidae, Clubionidae, Corinnidae, Ctenidae, Ctenizidae, Cyatholipidae, Dictynidae, Dysderidae, Eresidae and Filistatidae.
  • Seppälä, Sini; Henriques, Sergio; Draney, Michael L.; Foord, Stefan; Gibbons, Alastair T.; Gomez, Luz A.; Kariko, Sarah; Malumbres-Olarte, Jagoba; Milne, Marc; Vink, Cor J.; Cardoso, Pedro (2018)
    Background The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species is the most widely used information source on the extinction risk of species. One of the uses of the Red List is to evaluate and monitor the state of biodiversity and a possible approach for this purpose is the Red List Index (RLI). For many taxa, mainly hyperdiverse groups, it is not possible within available resources to assess all known species. In such cases, a random sample of species might be selected for assessment and the results derived from it extrapolated for the entire group - the Sampled Red List Index (SRLI). The current contribution is the second in four papers that will constitute the baseline of a future spider SRLI encompassing 200 species distributed across the world. New information A sample of 200 species of spiders were randomly selected from the World Spider Catalogue, an updated global database containing all recognised species names for the group. The 200 selected species where divided taxonomically at the family level and the familes were ordered alphabetically. In this publication, we present the conservation profiles of 45 species belonging to the families alphabetically arranged between Gnaphosidae and Nemesiidae, which encompassed Gnaphosidae, ldiopidae, Linyphiidae, Liocranidae, Lycosidae, Micropholcommatidae, Mysmenidae and Nemesiidae.
  • Branco, Vasco Veiga; Henriques, Sergio; Rego, Carla; Cardoso, Pedro (2019)
    Background The Iberian Peninsula is a diverse region that contains several different bioclimatic areas within one confined space, leading to high biodiversity. Portugal distinguishes itself in this regard by having a high count of spider species (829) and a remarkable number of endemic spider species (42) for its size (approximately 88,890 km2). However, only one non-endemic species (Macrothele calpeiana) is currently protected by the Natura 2000 network and no endemic spider species (aside from Anapistula ataecina) has been assessed according to the IUCN Red List criteria. The objective of this paper is to assess all non-assessed endemic species (41) as well as M. calpeiana. New information The 43 assessed species belong to 15 families, the richest being Zodariidae, Dysderidae, Linyphiidae and Gnaphosidae. In general and despite the lack of information on more than half the species, general patterns and trends could be found. Only 18 species (including M. calpeiana and A. ataecina) had enough data to allow their EOO (extent of occurrence) and AOO (area of occurrence) to be quantified. Of these, we modelled the distribution of 14 epigean species, eight of which were found to be widespread. The remaining six fulfilled at least one of the criteria for threatened species. Four species are troglobiont, all of which meet the EOO and AOO thresholds for threatened species. The remaining 25 Portuguese endemics had no reliable information on their range. Only nine species out of the 43 are estimated to be in decline and 11 are stable, with the majority of species having no information on trends (23 species). Forest areas, sand dunes, shrublands and caves host the majority of species. As such, the threats to Portuguese endemics reflect the diversity of habitats they occupy. Urbanisation and climate change seem to be the most important threats to these species, although other factors are also important and represented across the data. A considerable proportion of the currently known Portuguese endemic species can be found in national protected areas, with higher prominence to the Serras de Aire e Candeeiros, Douro Internacional, Vale do Guadiana, Sudoeste Alentejano e Costa Vicentina and Arrabida Natural Parks. These correspond mostly to areas that have been particularly well sampled during the last two decades.
  • Soukainen, Arttu; Pajunen, Timo; Korhonen, Tuuli; Saarinen, Joni; Chichorro, Filipe; Jalonen, Sonja; Kiljunen, Niina; Koskivirta, Nelli; Kuurne, Jaakko; Leinonen, Saija; Salonen, Tero; Yrjölä, Veikko; Fukushima, Caroline; Cardoso, Pedro (2020)
    Background In June 2019, an ecology field course of the University of Helsinki was held at Lammi Biological Station, Southern Finland. Within this course, the students familiarised themselves with field work and identification of spiders and explored the diversity of species in the area. Three sampling plots were chosen, one in grassland and two in boreal forest, to demonstrate the sampling techniques and, by applying a standardised protocol (COBRA), contribute to a global spider biodiversity project. New information The collected samples contained a total of 3445 spiders, of which 1956 (57%) were adult. Only adult spiders were accounted for in the inventory due to the impossibility of identification of juveniles. A total of 115 species belonging to 17 families were identified, of which the majority (58 species, 50%) were Linyphiidae. Lycosidae and Theridiidae both had 11 species (10%) and all the other families had seven or fewer species. Linyphiidae were also dominant in terms of adult individuals captured, with 756 (39%), followed by 705 (36%) Lycosidae. Other families with more than 100 individuals were Thomisidae (196, 10%) and Tetragnathidae (102, 5%). The most abundant species were the lycosids Pardosa fulvipes (362, 19%) and Pardosa riparia (290, 15%) and the linyphiid Neriene peltata (123, 6%).
  • Cardoso, Pedro; Heikkinen, Lea; Jalkanen, Joel; Kohonen, Minna; Leponiemi, Matti; Mattila, Laura; Ollonen, Joni; Ranki, Jukka-Pekka; Virolainen, Anni; Zhou, Xuan; Pajunen, Timo (2017)
    Background During a field course on spider taxonomy and ecology at the University of Helsinki, the authors had the opportunity to sample four plots with a dual objective of both teaching on field methods, spider identification and behaviour and uncovering the spider diversity patterns found in the southern coastal forests of Hankoniemi, Finland. As an ultimate goal, this field course intended to contribute to a global project that intends to uncover spider diversity patterns worldwide. With that purpose, a set of standardised methods and procedures was followed that allow the comparability of obtained data with numerous other projects being conducted across all continents. New information A total of 104 species and 1997 adults was collected. Of these, 41 species (39%) were Linyphiidae and 13 (12%) Theridiidae. All other families had 6 or less species represented. Linyphiidae were also dominant in terms of adult individuals captured, with 1015 (51%), followed by 428 (21%) Lycosidae, 158 (8%) Tetragnathidae and 145 (7%) Theridiidae. All other families had less than 100 individuals. The most abundant species were Neriene peltata, Alopecosa taeniata, Piratula hygrophila and Dismodicus elevatus, all with more than 100 individuals. All sites had between 56 and 62 species and between 445 and 569 individuals.
  • Paukkunen, Juho; Kozlov, Mikhail V. (2020)
    Among Aculeata, only bumblebees (Bombus spp.) have long been popular targets of entomological research in the Russian Arctic, whereas the information on wasps, ants and solitary bees from this region is scarce. Sampling in the surroundings of Naryan-Mar in the years 2013, 2015 and 2019 yielded 39 species of Aculeata, among which 27 species are for the first time reported from the Nenets Autonomous Okrug (NAO). Noteworthy findings include Gorytes neglectus, Lasioglossum boreale, 3limumesa littoralis, Odynerus alpinus and Osmia maritima. Combined with published information, our data increased the fauna of aculeate Hymenoptera of NAO to 61 species. We also list and discuss erroneous or doubtful records of additional 11 species. Collection localities are provided for each species. Based on comparisons with northern Finland and the Murmansk Oblast in Russia we estimate that about 60 additional aculeate species could still be found in NAO.
  • Fortelius, Mikael; Bibi, Faysal; Tang, Hui; Zliobaite, Indre; Eronen, Jussi; Kaya, Ferhat (2019)