Browsing by Subject "FCC METALS"

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  • Hinks, J. A.; Hibberd, F.; Hattar, K.; Ilinov, A.; Bufford, D. C.; Djurabekova, F.; Greaves, G.; Kuronen, A.; Donnelly, S. E.; Nordlund, K. (2018)
    Nanostructures may be exposed to irradiation during their manufacture, their engineering and whilst in-service. The consequences of such bombardment can be vastly different from those seen in the bulk. In this paper, we combine transmission electron microscopy with in situ ion irradiation with complementary computer modelling techniques to explore the physics governing the effects of 1.7 MeV Au ions on gold nanorods. Phenomena surrounding the sputtering and associated morphological changes caused by the ion irradiation have been explored. In both the experiments and the simulations, large variations in the sputter yields from individual nanorods were observed. These sputter yields have been shown to correlate with the strength of channelling directions close to the direction in which the ion beam was incident. Craters decorated by ejecta blankets were found to form due to cluster emission thus explaining the high sputter yields.
  • Byggmästar, J.; Granberg, F.; Nordlund, K. (2018)
    Recent work has shown that the repulsive part of the interatomic potential at intermediate atomic separations strongly affects the extent and morphology of the damage produced by collision cascades in molecular dynamics simulations. Here, we modify an existing embedded atom method interatomic potential for iron to more accurately reproduce the threshold displacement energy surface as well as the many-body repulsion at intermediate and short interatomic distances. Using the modified potential, we explore the effects of an improved repulsive potential on the primary damage production and the cumulative damage accumulation in iron. We find that the extent of the damage produced by single cascades, in terms of surviving Frenkel pairs, directly correlates with the change in threshold displacement energies. On the other hand, the damage evolution at higher doses is more dependent on the formation and stability of different defect clusters, defined by the near-equilibrium part of the interatomic potential.
  • Nordlund, Kai; Zinkle, Steven J.; Sand, Andrea E.; Granberg, Fredric; Averback, Robert S.; Stoller, Roger; Suzudo, Tomoaki; Malerba, Lorenzo; Banhart, Florian; Weber, William J.; Willaime, Francois; Dudarev, Sergei L.; Simeone, David (2018)
    Atomic collision processes are fundamental to numerous advanced materials technologies such as electron microscopy, semiconductor processing and nuclear power generation. Extensive experimental and computer simulation studies over the past several decades provide the physical basis for understanding the atomic-scale processes occurring during primary displacement events. The current international standard for quantifying this energetic particle damage, the Norgett-Robinson-Torrens displacements per atom (NRT-dpa) model, has nowadays several well-known limitations. In particular, the number of radiation defects produced in energetic cascades in metals is only similar to 1/3 the NRT-dpa prediction, while the number of atoms involved in atomic mixing is about a factor of 30 larger than the dpa value. Here we propose two new complementary displacement production estimators (athermal recombination corrected dpa, arc-dpa) and atomic mixing (replacements per atom, rpa) functions that extend the NRT-dpa by providing more physically realistic descriptions of primary defect creation in materials and may become additional standard measures for radiation damage quantification.
  • Levo, E.; Granberg, F.; Fridlund, C.; Nordlund, K.; Djurabekova, F. (2017)
    Single-phase multicomponent alloys of equal atomic concentrations ("equiatomic") have proven to exhibit promising mechanical and corrosion resistance properties, that are sought after in materials intended for use in hazardous environments like next-generation nuclear reactors. In this article, we investigate the damage production and dislocation mobility by simulating irradiation of elemental Ni and the alloys NiCo, NiCoCr, NiCoFe and NiFe, to assess the effect of elemental composition. We compare the defect production and the evolution of dislocation networks in the simulation cells of two different sizes, for all five studied materials. We find that the trends in defect evolution are in good agreement between the different cell sizes. The damage is generally reduced with increased alloy complexity, and the dislocation evolution is specific to each material, depending on its complexity. We show that increasing complexity of the alloys does not always lead to decreased susceptibility to damage accumulation under irradiation. We show that, for instance, the NiCo alloy behaves very similarly to Ni, while presence of Fe or Cr in the alloy even as a third component reduces the saturated level of damage substantially. Moreover, we linked the defect evolution with the dislocation transformations in the alloys. Sudden drops in defect number and large defect fluctuations from the continuous irradiation can be explained from the dislocation activity. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Bukonte, Laura; Ahlgren, Tommy; Heinola, Kalle (2017)
    Hydrogen induced vacancy formation in metals and metal alloys has been of great interest during the past couple of decades. The main reason for this phenomenon, often referred to as the superabundant vacancy formation, is the lowering of vacancy formation energy due to the trapping of hydrogen. By means of thermodynamics, we study the equilibrium vacancy formation in fcc metals (Pd, Ni, Co, and Fe) in correlation with the H amounts. The results of this study are compared and found to be in good agreement with experiments. For the accurate description of the total energy of the metal-hydrogen system, we take into account the binding energies of each trapped impurity, the vibrational entropy of defects, and the thermodynamics of divacancy formation. We demonstrate the effect of vacancy formation energy, the hydrogen binding, and the divacancy binding energy on the total equilibrium vacancy concentration. We show that the divacancy fraction gives the major contribution to the total vacancy fraction at high H fractions and cannot be neglected when studying superabundant vacancies. Our results lead to a novel conclusion that at high hydrogen fractions, superabundant vacancy formation takes place regardless of the binding energy between vacancies and hydrogen. We also propose the reason of superabundant vacancy formation mainly in the fcc phase. The equations obtained within this work can be used for any metal-impurity system, if the impurity occupies an interstitial site in the lattice. Published by AIP Publishing.
  • Amekura, Hiro; Kluth, Patrick; Mota-Santiago, Pablo; Sahlberg, Isac; Jantunen, Ville; Leino, Aleksi A.; Vázquez, Henrique; Nordlund, Kai; Djurabekova, Flyura; Okubo, N.; Ishikawa, Norito (2018)
    When a swift heavy ion (SHI) penetrates amorphous SiO2, a core/shell (C/S) ion track is formed, which consists of a lower-density core and a higher-density shell. According to the conventional inelastic thermal spike (iTS) model represented by a pair of coupled heat equations, the C/S tracks are believed to form via "vaporization" and melting of the SiO2 induced by SHI (V-M model). However, the model does not describe what the vaporization in confined ion-track geometry with a condensed matter density is. Here we reexamine this hypothesis. While the total and core radii of the C/S tracks determined by small angle x-ray scattering are in good agreement with the vaporization and melting radii calculated from the conventional iTS model under high electronic stopping power (S-e) irradiations (>10 keV/nm), the deviations between them are evident at low-S, irradiation (3-5 keV/nm). Even though the iTS calculations exclude the vaporization of SiO2 at the low S-e, both the formation of the C/S tracks and the ion shaping of nanoparticles (NPs) are experimentally confirmed, indicating the inconsistency with the V-M model. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations based on the two-temperature model, which is an atomic-level modeling extension of the conventional iTS, clarified that the "vaporlike" phase exists at S-e similar to 5 keV/nm or higher as a nonequilibrium phase where atoms have higher kinetic energies than the vaporization energy, but are confined at a nearly condensed matter density. Simultaneously, the simulations indicate that the vaporization is not induced under 50-MeV Si irradiation (S-e similar to 3 keV/nm), but the C/S tracks and the ion shaping of nanoparticles are nevertheless induced. Even though the final density variations in the C/S tracks are very small at the low stopping power values (both in the simulations and experiments), the MD simulations show that the ion shaping can be explained by flow of liquid metal from the NP into the transient low-density phase of the track core during the first similar to 10 ps after the ion impact. The ion shaping correlates with the recovery process of the silica matrix after emitting a pressure wave. Thus, the vaporization is not a prerequisite for the C/S tracks and the ion shaping.