Browsing by Subject "FEEDBACK MECHANISM"

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  • Dal Maso, M.; Liao, L.; Wildt, J.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Kleist, E.; Tillmann, R.; Sipilä, M.; Hakala, J.; Lehtipalo, K.; Ehn, M.; Kerminen, V. -M.; Kulmala, M.; Worsnop, D.; Mentel, T. (2016)
    Aerosol formation from biogenic and anthropogenic precursor trace gases in continental background areas affects climate via altering the amount of available cloud condensation nuclei. Significant uncertainty still exists regarding the agents controlling the formation of aerosol nanoparticles. We have performed experiments in the Julich plant-atmosphere simulation chamber with instrumentation for the detection of sulfuric acid and nanoparticles, and present the first simultaneous chamber observations of nanoparticles, sulfuric acid, and realistic levels and mixtures of biogenic volatile compounds (BVOCs). We present direct laboratory observations of nanoparticle formation from sulfuric acid and realistic BVOC precursor vapour mixtures performed at atmospherically relevant concentration levels. We directly measured particle formation rates separately from particle growth rates. From this, we established that in our experiments, the formation rate was proportional to the product of sulfuric acid and biogenic VOC emission strength. The formation rates were consistent with a mechanism in which nucleating BVOC oxidation products are rapidly formed and activate with sulfuric acid. The growth rate of nanoparticles immediately after birth was best correlated with estimated products resulting from BVOC ozonolysis.
  • Hari, Pertti Kaarlo Juhani; Petäjä, Tuukka Taneli; Bäck, Jaana Kaarina; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Lappalainen, Hanna K; Vihma, Timo; Laurila, Tuomas; Viisanen, Yrjö; Vesala, Timo Veikko; Kulmala, Markku Tapio (2016)
    The global environment is changing rapidly due to anthropogenic emissions and actions. Such activities modify aerosol and greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere, leading to regional and global climate change and affecting, e.g., food and fresh-water security, sustainable use of natural resources and even demography. Here we present a conceptual design of a global, hierarchical observation network that can provide tools and increased understanding to tackle the inter-connected environmental and societal challenges that we will face in the coming decades. The philosophy behind the conceptual design relies on physical conservation laws of mass, energy and momentum, as well as on concentration gradients that act as driving forces for the atmosphere-biosphere exchange. The network is composed of standard, flux and/or advanced and flagship stations, each of which having specific and identified tasks. Each ecosystem type on the globe has its own characteristic features that have to be taken into consideration. The hierarchical network as a whole is able to tackle problems related to large spatial scales, heterogeneity of ecosystems and their complexity. The most comprehensive observations are envisioned to occur in flagship stations, with which the process-level understanding can be expanded to continental and global scales together with advanced data analysis, Earth system modelling and satellite remote sensing. The denser network of the flux and standard stations allows application and up-scaling of the results obtained from flagship stations to the global level.
  • Aalto, J.; Porcar-Castell, A.; Atherton, J.; Kolari, P.; Pohja, T.; Hari, P.; Nikinmaa, E.; Petäjä, T.; Bäck, J. (2015)
    Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) by boreal evergreen trees have strong seasonality, with low emission rates during photosynthetically inactive winter and increasing rates towards summer. Yet, the regulation of this seasonality remains unclear. We measured in situ monoterpene emissions from Scots pine shoots during several spring periods and analysed their dynamics in connection with the spring recovery of photosynthesis. We found high emission peaks caused by enhanced monoterpene synthesis consistently during every spring period (monoterpene emission bursts, MEB). The timing of the MEBs varied relatively little between the spring periods. The timing of the MEBs showed good agreement with the photosynthetic spring recovery, which was studied with simultaneous measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence, CO2 exchange and a simple, temperature history-based proxy for state of photosynthetic acclimation, S. We conclude that the MEBs were related to the early stages of photosynthetic recovery, when the efficiency of photosynthetic carbon reactions is still low whereas the light harvesting machinery actively absorbs light energy. This suggests that the MEBs may serve a protective functional role for the foliage during this critical transitory state and that these high emission peaks may contribute to atmospheric chemistry in the boreal forest in springtime. Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) by boreal evergreen trees have strong seasonality. We measured high emission peaks from Scots pine shoots caused by enhanced monoterpene synthesis taking place simultaneously with the photosynthetic spring recovery. We conclude that the increased emissions were related to the photosynthetic recovery, when the efficiency of photosynthetic carbon reactions is low whereas the light harvesting machinery actively absorbs light energy. Increased emissions may serve a protective functional role for the foliage during the transitory state, and these high emission peaks may contribute to atmospheric chemistry in the boreal forest in springtime.
  • Zhang, Zhaoying; Zhang, Yongguang; Porcar-Castell, Albert; Joiner, Joanna; Guanter, Luis; Yang, Xi; Migliavacca, Mirco; Ju, Weimin; Sun, Zhigang; Chen, Shiping; Martini, David; Zhang, Qian; Li, Zhaohui; Cleverly, James; Wang, Hezhou; Goulas, Yves (2020)
    Quantifying global photosynthesis remains a challenge due to a lack of accurate remote sensing proxies. Solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) has been shown to be a good indicator of photosynthetic activity across various spatial scales. However, a global and spatially challenging estimate of terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) based on satellite SIF remains unresolved due to the confounding effects of species-specific physical and physiological traits and external factors, such as canopy structure or photosynthetic pathway (C-3 or C-4). Here we analyze an ensemble of far-red SIF data from OCO-2 satellite and ground observations at multiple sites, using the spectral invariant theory to reduce the effects of canopy structure and to retrieve a structure-corrected total canopy SIF emission (SIFtotal). We find that the relationships between observed canopy-leaving SIF and ecosystem GPP vary significantly among biomes. In contrast, the relationships between SIFtotal and GPP converge around two unique models, one for C-3 and one for C-4 plants. We show that the two single empirical models can be used to globally scale satellite SIF observations to terrestrial GPP. We obtain an independent estimate of global terrestrial GPP of 129.56 +/- 6.54 PgC/year for the 2015-2017 period, which is consistent with the state-of-the-art data- and process-oriented models. The new GPP product shows improved sensitivity to previously undetected 'hotspots' of productivity, being able to resolve the double-peak in GPP due to rotational cropping systems. We suggest that the direct scheme to estimate GPP presented here, which is based on satellite SIF, may open up new possibilities to resolve the dynamics of global terrestrial GPP across space and time.