Browsing by Subject "FIBERS"

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  • Liu, Jiao; Puolanne, Eero; Schwartzkopf, Matthias; Arner, Anders (2020)
    The "Woody" or "Wooden" breast disease is a severe myopathy of pectoralis major muscle recently identified within rapidly growing broiler lines all around the world with a prevalence rate around 20%, or even higher. Although of significant ethical and economic impact, little is known regarding the structural and functional aspects of the contractile apparatus in the woody breast muscle. The aim of the present study was to determine physiological properties of the contractile system in the morphologically intact muscle fibers of focally damaged woody breast in comparison with normal muscle fibers to gain insight into the muscle function of the animal and possibly mechanisms involved in the disease development. Muscle samples were taken from woody breast (non-lesioned areas) and normal breast muscles from broilers. Length-tension curves, maximal active stress, maximal shortening velocity, calcium sensitivity, rate of tension development, lattice spacing and muscle biochemical composition were investigated on single skinned fibers. Sarcomeres of woody breast fibers were more compliant, which is very likely related to the wider spacing (18% wider compared to controls) between thick and thin filament. No differences were found in optimal sarcomere length (2.68 +/- 0.04 vs. 2.65 +/- 0.05 mu m) nor in maximal active stress (116 +/- 17 vs. 125 +/- 19 mN mm(-2)). However, woody breast fibers had less steep descending arm as shown in length-tension curve. Woody breast muscle fibers had 40% bigger sarcomeric volume compared to controls. Content of contractile proteins (myosin and actin), and maximal shortening velocity were unchanged indicating that the growth in woody breast muscle fiber was associated with synthesis of new contractile units with unaltered kinetics. Calcium sensitivity was decreased in woody breast muscle fibers significantly. In conclusion, the results show that the rapid growth of muscle in woody breast disease is associated with significant structural and functional changes in the pectoralis major musculature, associated with alterations in the mechanical anchoring of contractile filaments.
  • Aaen, Ragnhild; Lehtonen, Mari; Mikkonen, Kirsi S.; Syverud, Kristin (2021)
    The use of wood-derived cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) or galactoglucomannans (GGM) for emulsion stabilization may be a way to obtain new environmentally friendly emulsifiers. Both have previously been shown to act as emulsifiers, offering physical, and in the case of GGM, oxidative stability to the emulsions. Oil-in-water emulsions were prepared using highly charged (1352 ± 5 µmol/g) CNFs prepared by TEMPO-mediated oxidation, or a coarser commercial CNF, less charged (≈ 70 µmol/g) quality (Exilva forte), and the physical emulsion stability was evaluated by use of droplet size distributions, micrographs and visual appearance. The highly charged, finely fibrillated CNFs stabilized the emulsions more effectively than the coarser, lower charged CNFs, probably due to higher electrostatic repulsions between the fibrils, and a higher surface coverage of the oil droplets due to thinner fibrils. At a constant CNF/oil ratio, the lowest CNF and oil concentration of 0.01 wt % CNFs and 5 wt % oil gave the most stable emulsion, with good stability toward coalescence, but not towards creaming. GGM (0.5 or 1.0 wt %) stabilized emulsions (5 wt % oil) showed no creaming behavior, but a clear bimodal distribution with some destabilization over the storage time of 1 month. Combinations of CNFs and GGM for stabilization of emulsions with 5 wt % oil, provided good stability towards creaming and a slower emulsion destabilization than for GGM alone. GGM could also improve the stability towards oxidation by delaying the initiation of lipid oxidation. Use of CNFs and combinations of GGM and CNFs can thus be away to obtain stable emulsions, such as mayonnaise and beverage emulsions.
  • Tanaka, Atsushi; Khakalo, Alexey; Hauru, Lauri; Korpela, Antti; Orelma, Hannes (2018)
    In this study, we investigate the “chemical welding” of paper with the ionic liquid (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMIM]OAc) using a two-step process. First, the IL is transported into the structure of the paper as a water solution. Then, partial dissolution is achieved by activation with heat (80–95 °C), where the water evaporates and the surfaces of the fibres partially dissolve. The activated paper is washed with water to remove IL, and dried to fuse fibre surfaces into each other. The “chemically welded” paper structure has both elevated dry and wet strength. The treatment conditions can be adjusted to produce both paper-like materials and films. The most severe treatment conditions produce films that are fully transparent and their oxygen and grease barrier properties are excellent. As an all-cellulose material, the “chemically welded” paper is fully biodegradable and is a potential alternative to fossil fuel-based plastics.
  • Rico del Cerro, Daniel; Koso, Tetyana V.; Kakko, Tia; King, Alistair W. T.; Kilpeläinen, Ilkka (2020)
    Herein, we demonstrate the activation of commercial chemical cellulose pulps towards chemical modification by a pre-treatment step with tetrabutylphosphonium acetate ([P-4444][OAc]). A heterogeneous (non-dissolving) pre-treatment was applied allowing for a significant reduction in crystallinity, without concomitant formation of the thermodynamically stable cellulose II. An increase in chemical reactivity was demonstrated using two model reactions; (1) acetylation (organic swelling conditions), where high degrees of substitution (DS) were obtained without the need for a catalyst, and (2) 4-acetamido-TEMPO oxidation (aqueous swelling conditions), where significant degrees of oxidation (DO) were obtained, beyond those for the untreated pulps. In both tests a notable improvement in cellulose reactivity was observed. Regioselectivity of acetylation was assessed using 2D NMR for one low and one high DS sample. The low DS showed a small degree of acetylation of the 6-OH, whereas, the high DS from the pre-treated sample showed mainly mixtures of triacetate and diacetates. Important mechanistic information is attained for future development of aqueous and organic-based reactions involving this ionic liquid pre-treatment.
  • Tommola, Paivi; Unkila-Kallio, Leila; Paetau, Anders; Meri, Seppo; Kalso, Eija; Paavonen, Jorma (2016)
    BACKGROUND: Provoked vestibulodynia manifests as allodynia of the vulvar vestibular mucosa. The exact mechanisms that result in altered pain sensation are unknown. Recently, we demonstrated the presence of secondary lymphoid tissue, which is the vestibule-associated lymphoid tissue in the vestibular mucosa, and showed that this tissue becomes activated in provoked vestibulodynia. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine whether expression of intraepithelial nerve fibers and nerve growth factor are related to immune activation in provoked vestibulodynia. STUDY DESIGN: Vestibular mucosal specimens were obtained from 27 patients with severe provoked vestibulodynia that was treated by vestibulectomy and from 15 control subjects. We used antibodies against the protein gene product 9.5, the neuron specific neurofilament, and nerve growth factor for immunohistochemistry to detect intraepithelial nerve fibers and nerve growth factor expressing immune cells in the vestibular mucosa. For intraepithelial nerve fibers, we determined their linear density (fiber counts per millimeter of the outer epithelial surface, protein gene product 9.5) or presence (neuron specific neurofilament). Nerve growth factor was analyzed by counting the staining-positive immune cells. Antibodies against CD20 (B lymphocytes) and CD3 (T lymphocytes) were used to identify and locate mucosal areas with increased density of lymphocytes and the presence of germinal centers (ie, signs of immune activation). B-cell activation index was used to describe the overall intensity of B-cell infiltration. RESULTS: We found more protein gene product 9.5-positive intraepithelial fibers in vestibulodynia than in the control samples (6.3/mm [range, 0.0-15.8] vs 2.0/mm [range, 0.0-12.0]; P = .006). Neuron specific neurofilament -positive intraepithelial fibers were found in 17 of 27 vestibulodynia cases (63.0%) and in none of the control cases. Protein gene product 9.5-positive intraepithelial fibers were more common in samples with more pronounced immune activation. The density of these fibers was higher in samples with than without germinal centers (6.1/mm [range, 4.3-15.8] vs 3.0/mm [range, 0.0-13.4]; P = .020). A positive correlation between the fiber density and B-cell activation index score of the sample was found (Spearman's Rho, 0.400; P = .004; R-2 = 0.128). No significant difference, however, was found in the density or presence of nerve fibers between samples with high and low T-cell densities. We identified areas of minor and major vestibular glands in 16 of the patient samples and in 1 control sample. Protein gene product 9.5-positive nerve fibers were found more often in glandular epithelium surrounded by B-cell infiltration than in glands without B cells (P = .013). Also, the presence of neuron specific neurofilament-positive fibers in glandular epithelium was associated with B-cell infiltrates (P = .053). Nerve growth factor-positive immune cells were more common in mucosal areas with than without B-cell infiltration and intraepithelial nerve fibers. CONCLUSION: Excessive epithelial nerve growth in provoked vestibulodynia is associated with increased B-cell infiltration and the presence of germinal centers. This supports the fundamental role of immune activation in provoked vestibulodynia.
  • King, Alistair William Thomas; Mäkelä, Arto Valtteri; Kedzior, Stephanie; Laaksonen, Tiina Marjukka; Partl, Gabriel Julian; Heikkinen, Sami Mikael; Koskela, Harri Tapani; Heikkinen, Harri August; Holding, Ashley; Cranston, Emily; Kilpeläinen, Ilkka Antero (2018)
    Recent developments in ionic liquid electrolytes for cellulose or biomass dissolution has also allowed for high-resolution 1H and 13C NMR on very high molecular weight cellulose. This permits the development of advanced liquid-state quantitative NMR methods for characterization of unsubstituted and low degree of substitution celluloses, for example, surface-modified nanocelluloses, which are insoluble in all molecular solvents. As such, we present the use of the tetrabutylphosphonium acetate ([P4444][OAc]):DMSO-d6 electrolyte in the 1D and 2D NMR characterization of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-grafted cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs). PMMA-g-CNCs was chosen as a difficult model to study, to illustrate the potential of the technique. The chemical shift range of [P4444][OAc] is completely upfield of the cellulose backbone signals, avoiding signal overlap. In addition, application of diffusion-editing for 1H and HSQC was shown to be effective in the discrimination between PMMA polymer graft resonances and those from low molecular weight components arising from the solvent system. The bulk ratio of methyl methacrylate monomer to anhydroglucose unit was determined using a combination of HSQC and quantitative 13C NMR. After detachment and recovery of the PMMA grafts, through methanolysis, DOSY NMR was used to determine the average self-diffusion coefficient and, hence, molecular weight of the grafts compared to self-diffusion coefficients for PMMA GPC standards. This finally led to a calculation of both graft length and graft density using liquid-state NMR techniques. In addition, it was possible to discriminate between triads and tetrads, associated with PMMA tacticity, of the PMMA still attached to the CNCs (before methanolysis). CNC reducing end and sulfate half ester resonances, from sulfuric acid hydrolysis, were also assignable. Furthermore, other biopolymers, such as hemicelluloses and proteins (silk and wool), were found to be soluble in the electrolyte media, allowing for wider application of this method beyond just cellulose analytics.
  • Wang, Ling; Zanjanizadeh Ezazi, Nazanin; Liu, Jin-Liang; Ajdary, Rubina; Xiang, Wenchao; Borghei, Maryam; Santos, Hélder A.; Rojas, Orlando J. (2020)
    Partially deacetylated chitin nanofibers (ChNF) were isolated from shell residues derived from crab biomass and used to prepare hydrogels, which were easily transformed into continuous microfibers by wet-spinning. We investigated the effect of ChNF solid content, extrusion rate and coagulant type, which included organic (acetone) and alkaline (NaOH and ammonia) solutions, on wet spinning. The properties of the microfibers and associated phenomena were assessed by tensile strength, quartz crystal microgravimetry, dynamic vapor sorption (DVS), thermogravimetric analysis and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). The as-spun microfibers (14 GPa stiffness) comprised hierarchical structures with fibrils aligned in the lateral direction. The microfibers exhibited a remarkable water sorption capacity (up to 22 g g−1), while being stable in the wet state (50% of dry strength), which warrants consideration as biobased absorbent systems. In addition, according to cell proliferation and viability of rat cardiac myoblast H9c2 and mouse bone osteoblast K7M2, the wet-spun ChNF microfibers showed excellent results and can be considered as fully safe for biomedical uses, such as in sutures, wound healing patches and cell culturing.
  • Forsman, Nina; Johansson, Leena-Sisko; Koivula, Hanna; Tuure, Matilda; Kääriäinen, Pirjo; Österberg, Monika (2020)
    Environmental benign cellulosic textiles are hampered by their tendency to absorb water, which restricts their use in functional clothing. Herein we describe a method to functionalize textile surfaces using thin, open coatings based on natural wax particles and natural polymers rendering cellulosic fabrics water-repellent while retaining their feel and breathability. The impact of curing temperature, cationic polymer and fabric properties on wetting and long-term water-repellency were studied using contact angle measurements and scanning electron microscopy. The wetting properties were correlated to roughness of the textiles using white light interferometer. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed the surface chemical composition, leading to fundamental understanding of the effect of annealing on the wax layer. Breathability was evaluated by water vapor permeability. The optimal curing temperature was 70 °C. The developed coating performed well on different natural textiles, and better than commercial alternatives. A set of garment prototypes were produced using the coating.
  • Sihvo, H. -K.; Airas, N.; Linden, J.; Puolanne, E. (2018)
    In wooden breast myopathy (WBM) of broiler chickens, the pectoralis major muscles show abnormally hard consistency and microscopical myodegeneration of unknown aetiology. To date, previous studies have focused primarily on chronic WBM and ultrastructural descriptions of early WBM are lacking. The aim of this study was to elucidate the pathogenesis of WBM by light microscopical morphometry of vessel density and the ultra structural description of early WBM changes with transmission electron microscopy. The pectoral vessel density was compared between unaffected chickens (n = 14) and two areas of focal WBM in affected chickens (n = 14). The transverse myofibre area per vessel was highest in the unaffected area of muscle from cases of focal WBM, significantly higher (P = 0.01) than in macroscopically unaffected tissue, indicating that relatively decreased blood supply may trigger the development of WBM. The ultrastructural study included unaffected chickens (n = 3), two areas offocal WBM from affected chickens (n = 3) and areas of diffuse WBM from affected chickens (n = 3). The morphologically least affected myofibres within the WBM lesion areas in light microscopy exhibited ultrastructural changes of increased sarcoplasmic reticulum diameter and mitochondrial hyperplasia. Such changes originate typically from osmotic imbalance, for which the most likely aetiologies in WBM include tissue hypoxia or myodegencration of the surrounding myofibres. The findings suggest that a relative reduction of blood supply in the major pectoral muscle occurs in the early phase of WBM, which may be linked to the ultrastructural changes of osmotic imbalance. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Beaumont, Marco; Otoni, Caio G.; Mattos, Bruno D.; Koso, Tetyana V.; Abidnejad, Roozbeh; Zhao, Bin; Kondor, Anett; King, Alistair W. T.; Rojas, Orlando J. (2021)
    A new regioselective route is introduced for surface modification of biological colloids in the presence of water. Taking the case of cellulose nanofibers (CNFs), we demonstrate a site-specific (93% selective) reaction between the primary surface hydroxyl groups (C6-OH) of cellulose and acyl imidazoles. CNFs bearing C6-acetyl and C6-isobutyryl groups, with a degree of substitution of up to 1 mmol g(-1) are obtained upon surface esterification, affording CNFs of adjustable surface energy. The morphological and structural features of the nanofibers remain largely unaffected, but the regioselective surface reactions enable tailoring of their interfacial interactions, as demonstrated in oil/water Pickering emulsions. Our method precludes the need for drying or exchange with organic solvents for surface esterification, otherwise needed in the synthesis of esterified colloids and polysaccharides. Moreover, the method is well suited for application at high-solid content, opening the possibility for implementation in reactive extrusion and compounding. The proposed acylation is introduced as a sustainable approach that benefits from the presence of water and affords a high chemical substitution selectivity.
  • Haslinger, Simone; Hietala, Sami; Hummel, Michael; Maunu, Sirkka Liisa; Sixta, Herbert (2019)
    The valorization of cellulose rich textile waste is promoted by the development of a novel solid-state NMR method for the quantification of cellulose and polyester in textile blends. We applied C-13 CP-MAS NMR as a tool for the quantification and structural characterization of cellulose in cotton polyester blends. Gaussian functions were used to integrate the spectra obtained from a set of calibration standards in order to calculate a sigmoidal calibration curve. Acid hydrolysis was chosen as a reference method. The results demonstrated that solid-state NMR enables a reliable determination of cellulose and polyester in both preconsumer and postconsumer waste textiles and suggests a possible extension of the concept to blends of man-made cellulose fibers (MMCFs) and polyester.
  • Sihvo, H. -K.; Linden, J.; Airas, N.; Immonen, K.; Valaja, J.; Puolanne, E. (2017)
    Wooden breast (WB) myopathy of broiler chickens is a myodegenerative disease of an unknown etiology and is macroscopically characterized by a hardened consistency of the pectoralis major muscle. Our aim was to describe the development and morphology of WB over the growth period in broilers. Additionally, the effect of restricted dietary selenium on the occurrence of WB was examined by allocating the birds in 2 dietary groups: restricted and conventional level of selenium. The experiment included 240 male broilers that were euthanized at ages of 10, 18, 24, 35, 38, or 42 days and evaluated for WB based on abnormal hardness of the pectoralis major muscle. The severity and the distribution of the lesion and presence of white striping were recorded. The first WB cases were seen at 18 days; 13/47 birds (28%) were affected and the majority exhibited a mild focal lesion. In subsequent age groups the WB prevalence varied between 48% and 73% and the lesion was usually diffuse and markedly firm. White striping often coexisted with WB. Histological evaluation performed on 111 cases revealed a significant association of myodegeneration and lymphocytic vasculitis with WB. Vasculitis and perivascular cell infiltration were restricted to the veins. Restricted dietary selenium did not affect the occurrence of WB (P = .44). Our results indicate that WB starts focally and spreads to form a diffuse and more severe lesion.