Browsing by Subject "FIBROBLASTS"

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  • Stock, Kristin; Estrada, Marta F.; Vidic, Suzana; Gjerde, Kjersti; Rudisch, Albin; Santo, Vitor E.; Barbier, Michael; Blom, Sami; Arundkar, Sharath C.; Selvam, Irwin; Osswald, Annika; Stein, Yan; Gruenewald, Sylvia; Brito, Catarina; van Weerden, Wytske; Rotter, Varda; Boghaert, Erwin; Oren, Moshe; Sommergruber, Wolfgang; Chong, Yolanda; de Hoogt, Ronald; Graeser, Ralph (2016)
    Two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures growing on plastic do not recapitulate the three dimensional (3D) architecture and complexity of human tumors. More representative models are required for drug discovery and validation. Here, 2D culture and 3D mono-and stromal co-culture models of increasing complexity have been established and cross-comparisons made using three standard cell carcinoma lines: MCF7, LNCaP, NCI-H1437. Fluorescence-based growth curves, 3D image analysis, immunohistochemistry and treatment responses showed that end points differed according to cell type, stromal co-culture and culture format. The adaptable methodologies described here should guide the choice of appropriate simple and complex in vitro models.
  • Vered, Marilena; Lehtonen, Meri; Hotakainen, Lari; Pirila, Emma; Teppo, Susanna; Nyberg, Pia; Sormunen, Raija; Zlotogorski-Hurvitz, Ayelet; Salo, Tuula; Dayan, Dan (2015)
  • Bauleth-Ramos, Tomás; Feijão, Tália; Gonçalves, André; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Liu, Zehua; Barrias, Cristina; Oliveira, Maria Jose; L. Granja, Pedro; Santos, Hélder A.; Sarmento, Bruno (2020)
    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common and the second deadliest type of cancer worldwide, urging the development of more comprehensive models and of more efficient treatments. Although the combination of nanotechnology with chemo- and immuno-therapy has represented a promising treatment approach, its translation to the clinic has been hampered by the absence of cellular models that can provide reliable and predictive knowledge about the in vivo efficiency of the formulation. Herein, a 3D model based on CRC multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS) model was developed by combining epithelial colon cancer cells (HCT116), human intestinal fibroblasts and monocytes. The developed MCTS 3D model mimicked several tumor features with cells undergoing spatial organization and producing extracellular matrix, forming a mass of tissue with a necrotic core. Furthermore, monocytes were differentiated into macrophages with an anti-inflammatory, pro-tumor M2-like phenotype. For a combined chemoimmunotherapy effect, spermine-modified acetalated dextran nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with the chemotherapeutic Nutlin-3a (Nut3a) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were produced and tested in 2D cultures and in the MCTS 3D model. NPs were successfully taken-up by the cells in 2D, but in a significant less extent in the 3D model. However, these NPs were able to induce an anti-proliferative effect both in the 2D and in the 3D models. Moreover, Nut3a was able to partially shift the polarization of the macrophages present in the MCTS 3D model towards an anti-tumor M1-like phenotype. Overall, the developed MCTS 3D model showed to recapitulate key features of tumors, while representing a valuable model to assess the effect of combinatorial nano-therapeutic strategies in CRC. In addition, the developed NPs could represent a promising approach for CRC treatment.
  • Olkkonen, Juri; Kouri, Vesa-Petteri; Hynninen, Joel; Konttinen, Yrjo T.; Mandelin, Jami (2015)
    Objective Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have altered circadian rhythm of circulating serum cortisol, melatonin and IL-6, as well as disturbance in the expression of clock genes ARNTL2 and NPAS2. In humans, TNF alpha increases the expression ARNTL2 and NPAS2 but paradoxically suppresses clock output genes DPB and PER3. Our objective was to investigate the expression of direct clock suppressors DEC1 and DEC2 (BHLHE 40 and 41 proteins) in response to TNF alpha and investigate their role during inflammation. Methods Cultured primary fibroblasts were stimulated with TNF alpha. Effects on DEC2 were studied using RT-qPCR and immunofluorescence staining. The role of NF-kappa B in DEC2 increase was analyzed using IKK-2 specific inhibitor IMD-0354. Cloned DEC2 was transfected into HEK293 cells to study its effects on gene expression. Transfections into primary human fibroblasts were used to confirm the results. The presence of DEC2 was analyzed in (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) synovial membranes by immunohistochemistry. Results TNF alpha increased DEC2 mRNA and DEC2 was mainly detected at nuclei after the stimulus. The effects of TNF alpha on DEC2 expression were mediated via NF-kappa B. Overexpression, siRNA and promoter activity studies disclosed that DEC2 directly regulates IL-1 beta, in both HEK293 cells and primary human fibroblasts. DEC2 was increased in synovial membrane in RA compared to OA. Conclusion Not only ARNTL2 and NPAS2 but also DEC2 is regulated by TNF alpha in human fibroblasts. NF-kappa B mediates the effect on DEC2, which upregulates IL-1 beta. Circadian clock has a direct effect on inflammation in human fibroblasts.
  • Rodrigues, Priscila Campioni; Sawazaki-Calone, Iris; de Oliveira, Carine Ervolino; Soares Macedo, Carolina Carneiro; Dourado, Mauricio Rocha; Cervigne, Nilva K.; Miguel, Marcia Costa; do Carmo, Andreia Ferreira; Lambert, Daniel W.; Graner, Edgard; da Silva, Sabrina Daniela; Alaoui-Jamali, Moulay A.; Paes Leme, Adriana Franco; Salo, Tuula A.; Coletta, Ricardo D. (2017)
    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) prognosis is related to clinical stage and histological grade. However, this stratification needs to be refined. We conducted a comparative proteome study in microdissected samples from normal oral mucosa and OSCC to identify biomarkers for malignancy. Fascin and plectin were identified as differently expressed and both are implicated in several malignancies, but the clinical impacts of aberrant fascin and plectin expression in OSCCs remains largely unknown. Immunohistochemistry and real-time quantitative PCR were carried out in ex vivo OSCC samples and cell lines. A loss-of-function strategy using shRNA targeting fascin was employed to investigate in vitro and in vivo the fascin role on oral tumorigenesis. Transfections of microRNA mimics were performed to determine whether the fascin overexpression is regulated by miR-138 and miR-145. We found that fascin and plectin are frequently upregulated in OSCC samples and cell lines, but only fascin overexpression is an independent unfavorable prognostic indicator of disease-specific survival. In combination with advanced T stage, high fascin level is also an independent factor of disease-free survival. Knockdown of fascin in OSCC cells promoted cell adhesion and inhibited migration, invasion and EMT, and forced expression of miR-138 in OSCC cells significantly decreased the expression of fascin. In addition, fascin downregulation leads to reduced filopodia formation and decrease on paxillin expression. The subcutaneous xenograft model showed that tumors formed in the presence of low levels of fascin were significantly smaller compared to those formed with high fascin levels. Collectively, our findings suggest that fascin expression correlates with disease progression and may serve as a prognostic marker and therapeutic target for patients with OSCC.
  • Hasselmann, Sebastian; Hahn, Lukas; Lorson, Thomas; Schaetzlein, Eva; Sebastien, Isabelle; Beudert, Matthias; Luehmann, Tessa; Neubauer, Julia C.; Sextl, Gerhard; Luxenhofer, Robert; Heinrich, Doris (2021)
    In this study, a novel approach to create arbitrarily shaped 3D hydrogel objects is presented, wherein freeform two-photon polymerization (2PP) is enabled by the combination of a photosensitive hydrogel and an intrinsic support matrix. This way, topologies without physical contact such as a highly porous 3D network of concatenated rings were realized, which are impossible to manufacture with most current 3D printing technologies. Micro-Raman and nanoindentation measurements show the possibility to control water uptake and hence tailor the Young's modulus of the structures via the light dosage, proving the versatility of the concept regarding many scaffold characteristics that makes it well suited for cell specific cell culture as demonstrated by cultivation of human induced pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes.
  • Ollila, Hely; Paajanen, Juuso; Wolff, Henrik; Ilonen, Ilkka; Sutinen, Eva; Välimäki, Katja; Östman, Arne; Anttila, Sisko; Kettunen, Eeva; Räsänen, Jari; Kallioniemi, Olli; Myllärniemi, Marjukka; Mäyränpää, Mikko I.; Pellinen, Teijo (2021)
    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) has a rich stromal component containing mesenchymal fibroblasts. However, the properties and interplay of MPM tumor cells and their surrounding stromal fibroblasts are poorly characterized. Our objective was to spatially profile known mesenchymal markers in both tumor cells and associated fibroblasts and correlate their expression with patient survival. The primary study cohort consisted of 74 MPM patients, including 16 patients who survived at least 60 months. We analyzed location-specific tissue expression of seven fibroblast markers in clinical samples using multiplexed fluorescence immunohistochemistry (mfIHC) and digital image analysis. Effect on survival was assessed using Cox regression analyses. The outcome measurement was all-cause mortality. Univariate analysis revealed that high expression of secreted protein acidic and cysteine rich (SPARC) and fibroblast activation protein in stromal cells was associated with shorter survival. Importantly, high expression of platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRB) in tumor cells, but not in stromal cells, was associated with shorter survival (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.02, p <0.001). A multivariable survival analysis adjusted for clinical parameters and stromal mfIHC markers revealed that tumor cell PDGFRB and stromal SPARC remained independently associated with survival (HR = 1.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.00-1.03 and HR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.00-1.11, respectively). The prognostic effect of PDGFRB was validated with an artificial intelligence-based analysis method and further externally validated in another cohort of 117 MPM patients. In external validation, high tumor cell PDGFRB expression associated with shorter survival, especially in the epithelioid subtype. Our findings suggest PDGFRB and SPARC as potential markers for risk stratification and as targets for therapy.
  • Musrati, Ahmed Ali; Tervahartiala, Taina; Gursoy, Mervi; Kononen, Eija; Fteita, Dareen; Sorsa, Timo; Uitto, Veli-Jukka; Gursoy, Ulvi Kahraman (2016)
    Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate the effect of HNP-1 on the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, -8 and -9 secretions of two oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines (UT-SCC-43A and UT-SCC-43B). Design: In all experiments, the two OSCC cell lines were incubated with graded concentrations (0,1, 5, and 10 mu g/ml) of HNP-1 for 24 and 48 h. Cell viability was measured using a colorimetric proliferation test and cell death was analyzed with a colorimetric cytotoxicity detection kit. Enzyme activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 was detected by using gelatin zymography, and molecular weight forms of MMP-8 were determined by Western-blot and a densitometric quantitation method. Results: Both cell lines showed a significant increase in LDH toxicity at 24 h (UT-SCC-43A: p = 0.005 & UT-SCC-43B: p = 0.014). Reduced gelatinolytic activities of proMMP-2 were detected in UT-SCC-43B cell line after 24 and 48 h of incubation with HNP-1 (1 mu g/ml: p <0.001, 5 mu g/ml: p <0.001, and 1011g/ml: p = 0.0225). MMP-8 levels of both cell lines decreased at 200-250 kDa after 24 h of incubation, while after 48 h only UT-SCC-43B decreased at 45-50 kDa. Conclusions: Our results indicate that HNP-1 suppresses the secretion of MMP-2,-8, and -9 in OSCC cell lines. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Weltner, Jere; Balboa, Diego; Katayama, Shintaro; Bespalov, Maxim; Krjutskov, Kaarel; Jouhilahti, Eeva-Mari; Trokovic, Ras; Kere, Juha; Otonkoski, Timo (2018)
    CRISPR-Cas9-based gene activation (CRISPRa) is an attractive tool for cellular reprogramming applications due to its high multiplexing capacity and direct targeting of endogenous loci. Here we present the reprogramming of primary human skin fibroblasts into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) using CRISPRa, targeting endogenous OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, MYC, and LIN28A promoters. The low basal reprogramming efficiency can be improved by an order of magnitude by additionally targeting a conserved Alu-motif enriched near genes involved in embryo genome activation (EEA-motif). This effect is mediated in part by more efficient activation of NANOG and REX1. These data demonstrate that human somatic cells can be reprogrammed into iPSCs using only CRISPRa. Furthermore, the results unravel the involvement of EEA-motif-associated mechanisms in cellular reprogramming.
  • Mikkonen, Elisa; Haglund, Caj; Holmberg, Carina I. (2017)
    The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) plays a crucial part in normal cell function by mediating intracellular protein clearance. We have previously shown that UPS-mediated protein degradation varies in a cell type-specific manner in C. elegans. Here, we use formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded C. elegans sections to enable studies on endogenous proteasome tissue expression. We show that the proteasome immunoreactivity pattern differs between cell types and within subcellular compartments in adult wild-type (N2) C. elegans. Interestingly, widespread knockdown of proteasome subunits by RNAi results in tissue-specific changes in proteasome expression instead of a uniform response. In addition, long-lived daf-2 (e1370) mutants with impaired insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) display similar proteasome tissue expression as aged-matched wild-type animals. Our study emphasizes the importance of alternate approaches to the commonly used whole animal lysate-based methods to detect changes in proteasome expression occurring at the sub-cellular, cell or tissue resolution level in a multicellular organism.
  • Xia, Guanggai; Zhang, Hongbo; Cheng, Ruoyu; Wang, Hongcheng; Song, Ziliang; Deng, Lianfu; Huang, Xinyu; Santos, Helder A.; Cui, Wenguo (2018)
    The low radical surgery rate of pancreatic cancer leads to increased local recurrence and poor prognosis. Gemcitabine (GEM) is the preferred chemotherapeutic for pancreatic cancer. However, systemic chemotherapy with GEM has reached a bottleneck due to its serious side effects after frequent injections. In this study, GEM is successfully enwrapped into electrospun fibers via microsol electrospinning technology to form a stable core-shell fibrous structure. The GEM release rate can be adjusted by altering the thickness of the hyaluronan-sol inner fiber and the quantity of loaded GEM, and the release can be sustained for as long as three weeks. In vitro assays show that these electrospun fibers effectively inhibit pancreatic cancer cells and promote apoptosis. In vivo studies show that the fibrous membranes are better for inhibiting the growth of residual tumors than that of integrated tumors. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry results show that GEM-loaded fibers promote a higher cell apoptosis rate than does systemically injected GEM in residual tumors. In addition, the local delivery of GEM with fibers significantly reduces liver toxicity. In summary, a core-shell electrospun fiber for the controlled and localized delivery of GEM, which greatly improves the treatment of residual tumors and prevents pancreatic tumor recurrence, is developed.
  • Tomasovic, Ana; Kurrle, Nina; Wempe, Frank; De-Zolt, Siike; Scheibe, Susan; Koli, Katri; Serchinger, Martin; Schnuetgen, Frank; Sueruen, Duran; Sterner-Kock, Anja; Weissmann, Norbert; von Meichner, Harald (2017)
    Latent transforming growth factor beta binding protein 4 (LTBP4) belongs to the fibrillin/LTBP family of proteins and plays an important role as a structural component of extracellular matrix (ECM) and local regulator of TGF beta signaling. We have previously reported that Ltbp4S knock out mice (Ltbp4S-/-) develop centrilobular emphysema reminiscent of late stage COPD, which could be partially rescued by inactivating the antioxidant protein Sestrin 2 (Sesn2). More recent studies showed that Sesn2 knock out mice upregulate Pdgfr beta-controlled alveolar maintenance programs that protect against cigarette smoke induced pulmonary emphysema. Based on this, we hypothesized that the emphysema of Ltbp4S-/- mice is primarily caused by defective Pdgfr beta signaling. Here we show that LTBP4 induces Pdgfr beta signaling by inhibiting the antioxidant Nr12/Keap1 pathway in a TGF beta-dependent manner. Overall, our data identified Ltbp4 as a major player in lung remodeling and injury repair. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Barreto, Goncalo; Senturk, B.; Colombo, L.; Brück, O.; Neidenbach, P.; Salzmann, G.; Zenobi-Wong, M.; Rottmar, M. (2020)
    Objective: Lumican (LUM) is a major extracellular matrix glycoprotein in adult articular cartilage and its expression is known to be upregulated upon cartilage degeneration. LUM is associated with the pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) activation of the TLR4 signalling cascade, with TLR4 being highly associated with inflammation in rheumatic diseases. However, the main role of the LUM structural molecule in osteoarthritis (OA) remains elusive. The aim of this study was, therefore, to understand the role of LUM during TLR4-mediated activation in OA. Methods: After measuring LUM levels in synovial fluid (SF) of OA patients and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced TLR4 activation, the role of LUM in the expression of pro-inflammatory molecules and cartilage degradation was assessed in vitro and ex vivo in a cartilage explant model. Primary macrophage activation and polarization were studied upon LUM co-stimulation with LPS. Results: We demonstrate that LUM is not only significantly upregulated in SF from OA patients compared to healthy controls, but also that LUM increases lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced TLR4 activation. Furthermore, we show that a pathophysiological level of LUM augments the LPS-induced TLR4 activation and expression of downstream pro-inflammatory molecules, resulting in extensive cartilage degradation. LUM co-stimulation with LPS also provided a pro-inflammatory stimulus, upregulating primary macrophage activation and polarization towards the M1-like phenotype. Conclusions: These findings strongly support the role of LUM as a mediator of PAMP-induced TLR4 activation of inflammation, cartilage degradation, and macrophage polarization in the OA joint and potentially other rheumatic diseases. (C) 2019 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Mall, Moritz; Kareta, Michael S.; Chanda, Soham; Ahlenius, Henrik; Perotti, Nicholas; Zhou, Bo; Grieder, Sarah D.; Ge, Xuecai; Drake, Sienna; Ang, Cheen Euong; Walker, Brandon M.; Vierbuchen, Thomas; Fuentes, Daniel R.; Brennecke, Philip; Nitta, Kazuhiro R.; Jolma, Arttu; Steinmetz, Lars M.; Taipale, Jussi; Sudhof, Thomas C.; Wernig, Marius (2017)
    Normal differentiation and induced reprogramming require the activation of target cell programs and silencing of donor cell programs(1,2). In reprogramming, the same factors are often used to reprogram many different donor cell types3. As most developmental repressors, such as RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST) and Groucho (also known as TLE), are considered lineage-specific repressors(4,5), it remains unclear how identical combinations of transcription factors can silence so many different donor programs. Distinct lineage repressors would have to be induced in different donor cell types. Here, by studying the reprogramming of mouse fibroblasts to neurons, we found that the pan neuron-specific transcription factor Myt1-like (Myt1l)(6) exerts its pro-neuronal function by direct repression of many different somatic lineage programs except the neuronal program. The repressive function of Myt1l is mediated via recruitment of a complex containing Sin3b by binding to a previously uncharacterized N-terminal domain. In agreement with its repressive function, the genomic binding sites of Myt1l are similar in neurons and fibroblasts and are preferentially in an open chromatin configuration. The Notch signalling pathway is repressed by Myt1l through silencing of several members, including Hes1. Acute knockdown of Myt1l in the developing mouse brain mimicked a Notch gain-of-function phenotype, suggesting that Myt1l allows newborn neurons to escape Notch activation during normal development. Depletion of Myt1l in primary postmitotic neurons de-repressed non-neuronal programs and impaired neuronal gene expression and function, indicating that many somatic lineage programs are actively and persistently repressed by Myt1l to maintain neuronal identity. It is now tempting to speculate that similar 'many-but-one' lineage repressors exist for other cell fates; such repressors, in combination with lineage-specific activators, would be prime candidates for use in reprogramming additional cell types.
  • Kaukonen, Riina; Mai, Anja; Georgiadou, Maria; Saari, Markku; De Franceschi, Nicola; Betz, Timo; Sihto, Harri; Ventela, Sami; Elo, Laura; Jokitalo, Eija; Westermarck, Jukka; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, Pirkko-Liisa; Joensuu, Heikki; Grenman, Reidar; Ivaska, Johanna (2016)
    Tissue homeostasis is dependent on the controlled localization of specific cell types and the correct composition of the extracellular stroma. While the role of the cancer stroma in tumour progression has been well characterized, the specific contribution of the matrix itself is unknown. Furthermore, the mechanisms enabling normal-not cancer-stroma to provide tumour-suppressive signals and act as an antitumorigenic barrier are poorly understood. Here we show that extracellular matrix (ECM) generated by normal fibroblasts (NFs) is softer than the CAF matrix, and its physical and structural features regulate cancer cell proliferation. We find that normal ECM triggers downregulation and nuclear exit of the histone demethylase JMJD1a resulting in the epigenetic growth restriction of carcinoma cells. Interestingly, JMJD1a positively regulates transcription of many target genes, including YAP/ TAZ (WWTR1), and therefore gene expression in a stiffness-dependent manner. Thus, normal stromal restricts cancer cell proliferation through JMJD1a-dependent modulation of gene expression.
  • Tervonen, Topi A.; Pant, Shishir M.; Belitskin, Denis; Englund, Johanna I.; Närhi, Katja; Haglund, Caj; Kovanen, Panu E.; Verschuren, Emmy W.; Klefström, Juha (2021)
    Ras proteins play a causal role in human cancer by activating multiple pathways that promote cancer growth and invasion. However, little is known about how Ras induces the first diagnostic features of invasion in solid tumors, including loss of epithelial integrity and breaching of the basement membrane (BM). In this study, we found that oncogenic Ras strongly promotes the activation of hepsin, a member of the hepsin/TMPRSS type II transmembrane serine protease family. Mechanistically, the Ras-dependent hepsin activation was mediated via Raf-MEK-ERK signaling, which controlled hepsin protein stability through the heat shock transcription factor-1 stress pathway. In Ras-transformed three-dimensional mammary epithelial culture, ablation of hepsin restored desmosomal cell-cell junctions, hemidesmosomes, and BM integrity and epithelial cohesion. In tumor xenografts harboring mutant KRas, silencing of hepsin increased local invasion concomitantly with accumulation of collagen IV. These findings suggest that hepsin is a critical protease for Ras-dependent tumorigenesis, executing cell-cell and cell-matrix pathologies important for early tumor dissemination. Significance: These findings identify the cell-surface serine protease hepsin as a potential therapeutic target for its role in oncogenic Ras-mediated deregulation of epithelial cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions and cohesion of epithelial structure.
  • Dourado, Mauricio R.; Miwa, Karen Y. M.; Hamada, Guilherme B.; Paranaiba, Livia M. R.; Sawazaki-Calone, Iris; Domingueti, Catherine B.; de Oliveira, Carine Ervolino; Furlan, Emylle C. B.; Longo, Bruna C.; Almangush, Alhadi; Salo, Tuula; Coletta, Ricardo D. (2020)
    Aims Previous studies have demonstrated that the tumour-stroma ratio (TSR) and tumour budding are of prognostic value for oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of those histological parameters, individually and in combination, for OSCC. Methods and results The TSR and tumour budding (the presence of five or more buds at the invasive front) were estimated in 254 patients with OSCC. The clinicopathological association was investigated with a chi-square test, and the prognostic significance (cancer-specific survival and disease-free survival) was verified with Kaplan-Meier analysis and the Cox proportional hazard model. The TSR (>= 50%, stroma-rich) was significantly and independently associated with both shortened cancer-specific survival and poor disease-free survival, whereas tumour budding was significantly associated with reduced cancer-specific survival. The TSR/tumour budding model was independently associated with a high risk of cancer mortality and recurrence (disease-free survival). In patients with early-stage tumours (clinical stage I and II, n = 103), the TSR, tumour budding and the TSR/tumour budding model were significantly associated with both cancer-related death and recurrence, whereas, in advanced-stage tumours (clinical stage III and IV, n = 144), only the TSR and the TSR/tumour budding model were significantly associated with cancer-specific survival. Conclusions The TSR, tumour budding and their combination provide significant information on OSCC outcome, suggesting that their incorporation in the routine evaluation of histopathological specimens might be useful in prognostication for OSCC patients.
  • Sonnenblick, Amir; Salmon-Divon, Mali; Salgado, Roberto; Dvash, Efrat; Pondé, Noam; Zahavi, Tamar; Salmon, Asher; Loibl, Sibylle; Denkert, Carsten; Joensuu, Heikki; Ameye, Lieveke; Van den Eynden, Gert; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, Pirkko-Liisa; Azaria, Amos; Loi, Sherene; Michiels, Stefan; Richard, Francois; Sotiriou, Christos (2020)
    We investigated the value of reactive stroma as a predictor for trastuzumab resistance in patients with early HER2-positive breast cancer receiving adjuvant therapy. The pathological reactive stroma and the mRNA gene signatures that reflect reactive stroma in 209 HER2-positive breast cancer samples from the FinHer adjuvant trial were evaluated. Levels of stromal gene signatures were determined as a continuous parameter, and pathological reactive stromal findings were defined as stromal predominant breast cancer (SPBC; >= 50% stromal) and correlated with distant disease-free survival. Gene signatures associated with reactive stroma in HER2-positive early breast cancer (N = 209) were significantly associated with trastuzumab resistance in estrogen receptor (ER)-negative tumors (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.27 p interaction = 0.014 [DCN], HR = 1.58, p interaction = 0.027 [PLAU], HR = 1.71, p interaction = 0.019 [HER2STROMA, novel HER2 stromal signature]), but not in ER-positive tumors (HR = 0.73 p interaction = 0.47 [DCN], HR = 0.71, p interaction = 0.73 [PLAU], HR = 0.84; p interaction = 0.36 [HER2STROMA]). Pathological evaluation of HER2-positive/ER-negative tumors suggested an association between SPBC and trastuzumab resistance. Reactive stroma did not correlate with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), and the expected benefit from trastuzumab in patients with high levels of TILs was pronounced only in tumors with low stromal reactivity (SPBC
  • Davidson, Sarah; Efremova, Mirjana; Riedel, Angela; Mahata, Bidesh; Pramanik, Jhuma; Huuhtanen, Jani; Kar, Gozde; Vento-Tormo, Roser; Hagai, Tzachi; Chen, Xi; Haniffa, Muzlifah A.; Shields, Jacqueline D.; Teichmann, Sarah A. (2020)
    Here, using single-cell RNA sequencing, we examine the stromal compartment in murine melanoma and draining lymph nodes (LNs) at points across tumor development, providing data at Naive lymphocytes from LNs undergo activation and clonal expansion within the tumor, before PD1 and Lag3 expression, while tumor-associated myeloid cells promote the formation of a suppressive niche. We identify three temporally distinct stromal populations displaying unique functional signatures, conserved across mouse and human tumors. Whereas "immune" stromal cells are observed in early tumors, "contractile" cells become more prevalent at later time points. Complement component C3 is specifically expressed in the immune population. Its cleavage product C3a supports the recruitment of C3aR(+) macrophages, and perturbation of C3a and C3aR disrupts immune infiltration, slowing tumor growth. Our results highlight the power of scRNA-seq to identify complex interplays and increase stromal diversity as a tumor develops, revealing that stromal cells acquire the capacity to modulate immune landscapes from early disease.
  • Jumppanen, Antti Mikael; Kinnunen, Sini M.; Välimäki, Mika Juhani; Talman, Virpi; Auno, Samuli; Bruun, Tanja; Boije af Gennäs, Gustav; Xhaard, Henri Guillaume Michel; Aumuller, Ingo Bernhard; Ruskoaho, Heikki; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari (2019)
    Transcription factors GATA4 and NKX2-5 directly interact and synergistically activate several cardiac genes and stretch-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Previously, we identified phenylisoxazole carboxamide 1 as a hit compound, which inhibited the GATA4-NKX2-5 transcriptional synergy. Here, the chemical space around the molecular structure of 1 was explored by synthesizing and characterizing 220 derivatives and structurally related compounds. In addition to the synergistic transcriptional activation, selected compounds were evaluated for their effects on transcriptional activities of GATA4 and NKX2-5 individually as well as potential cytotoxicity. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis revealed that the aromatic isoxazole substituent in the southern part regulates the inhibition of GATA4-NKX2-5 transcriptional synergy. Moreover, inhibition of GATA4 transcriptional activity correlated with the reduced cell viability. In summary, comprehensive SAR analysis accompanied by data analysis successfully identified potent and selective inhibitors of GATA4-NKX2-5 transcriptional synergy and revealed structural features important for it.