Browsing by Subject "FIBROSIS"

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  • Deneau, Mark R.; Valentino, Pamela L.; Mack, Cara; Alqoaer, Khaled; Amin, Mansi; Amir, Achiya Z.; Aumar, Madeleine; Auth, Marcus; Broderick, Annemarie; DiGuglielmo, Matthew; Draijer, Laura G.; El-Matary, Wael; Ferrari, Federica; Furuya, Katryn N.; Gottrand, Frederic; Gupta, Nitika; Homan, Matjaz; Jensen, M. K.; Kamath, Binita M.; Kim, Kyung Mo; Kolho, Kaija-Leena; Koot, Bart; Iorio, Raffaele; Martinez, Mercedes; Miloh, Tamir; Mohan, Parvathi; Palle, Sirish; Papadopoulou, Alexandra; Ricciuto, Amanda; Saubermann, Lawrence; Sathya, Pushpa; Shteyer, Eyal; Smolka, Vratislav; Tanaka, Atsushi; Varier, Raghu; Venkat, Veena; Vitola, Bernadette; Woynarowski, Marek; Guthery, Stephen (2020)
    Background: Natural history models for primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) are derived from adult patient data, but have never been validated in children. It is unclear how accurate such models are for children with PSC. Methods: We utilized the pediatric PSC consortium database to assess the Revised Mayo Clinic, Amsterdam-Oxford, and Boberg models. We calculated the risk stratum and predicted survival for each patient within each model using patient data at PSC diagnosis, and compared it with observed survival. We evaluated model fit using the c-statistic. Results: Model fit was good at 1 year (c-statistics 0.93, 0.87, 0.82) and fair at 10 years (0.78, 0.75, 0.69) in the Mayo, Boberg, and Amsterdam-Oxford models, respectively. The Mayo model correctly classified most children as low risk, whereas the Amsterdam-Oxford model incorrectly classified most as high risk. All of the models underestimated survival of patients classified as high risk. Albumin, bilirubin, AST, and platelets were most associated with outcomes. Autoimmune hepatitis was more prevalent in higher risk groups, and over-weighting of AST in these patients accounted for the observed versus predicted survival discrepancy. Conclusions: All 3 models offered good short-term discrimination of outcomes but only fair long-term discrimination. None of the models account for the high prevalence of features of autoimmune hepatitis overlap in children and the associated elevated aminotransferases. A pediatric-specific model is needed. AST, bilirubin, albumin, and platelets will be important predictors, but must be weighted to account for the unique features of PSC in children.
  • Hemanthakumar, Karthik Amudhala; Fang, Shentong; Anisimov, Andrey; Mäyränpää, Mikko I.; Mervaala, Eero; Kivelä, Riikka (2021)
    Aging, obesity, hypertension, and physical inactivity are major risk factors for endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We applied fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), RNA sequencing, and bioinformatic methods to investigate the common effects of CVD risk factors in mouse cardiac endothelial cells (ECs). Aging, obesity, and pressure overload all upregulated pathways related to TGF-beta signaling and mesenchymal gene expression, inflammation, vascular permeability, oxidative stress, collagen synthesis, and cellular senescence, whereas exercise training attenuated most of the same pathways. We identified collagen chaperone Serpinhl (also called as Hsp47) to be significantly increased by aging and obesity and repressed by exercise training. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that increased SERPINH1 in human ECs induced mesenchymal properties, while its silencing inhibited collagen deposition. Our data demonstrate that CVD risk factors significantly remodel the transcriptomic landscape of cardiac ECs inducing inflammatory, senescence, and mesenchymal features. SERPINH1 was identified as a potential therapeutic target in ECs.
  • Bossen, Lars; Vesterhus, Mette; Hov, Johannes R.; Färkkilä, Martti; Rosenberg, William M.; Moller, Holger J.; Boberg, Kirsten M.; Karlsen, Tom H.; Gronbaek, Henning (2021)
    INTRODUCTION: Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a progressive liver disease characterized by bile duct inflammation and fibrosis. The role of macrophages in PSC development and progression is less studied. Macrophage activation markers soluble (s)CD163 and mannose receptor (sMR) are associated with disease severity and outcome in other liver diseases, but not previously investigated in PSC. We evaluated sCD163 and sMR regarding disease severity and prognosis in patients with PSC. METHODS: We investigated 2 independent PSC cohorts from Oslo (n = 138) and Helsinki (n = 159) and analyzed blood sCD163 and sMR levels. The Mayo score, Enhanced Liver Fibrosis Test, and Amsterdam-Oxford model were assessed for comparison. RESULTS: Median (interquartile range) sCD163 was 3.32 (2.27-5.60) and 1.96 (1.47-2.70) mg/L in the Oslo and Helsinki cohorts, respectively, reflecting differences in disease severity between cohorts. Median sMR was similar in both cohorts, 0.28 (0.22-0.44) and 0.28 mg/L (0.20-0.36), respectively. In both cohorts, sCD163 and sMR levels raised with increasing disease severity (liver enzymes, Mayo score, and enhanced liver fibrosis test). Patients with high baseline levels of sCD163 had shorter transplant-free survival than patients with low baseline levels. Furthermore, sCD163 was associated with transplant-free survival in univariate cox-regression analyses. Both sCD163 and sMR performed better in the Oslo cohort of more severely diseased patients than those in the Helsinki cohort of more mildly diseased patients. DISCUSSION: Macrophage activation markers are elevated according to disease severity suggesting an important role of macrophages in PSC. Furthermore, sCD163 was identified as a prognostic marker and predictor of transplant-free survival in PSC (see Visual Abstract, Supplementary Digital Content 4, http://links.lww.com/CTG/A516). [GRAPHICS]
  • Landolt, Lea; Eikrem, Oystein; Strauss, Philipp; Scherer, Andreas; Lovett, David H.; Finne, Kenneth; Osman, Tarig; Ibrahim, Mohammad; Gausdal, Gro; Ahmed, Lavina; Lorens, James; Thiery, Jean Paul; Tan, Tuan Zea; Sekulic, Miroslav; Marti, Hans-Peter; Beisland, Christian (2017)
    Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) represents the most common type of kidney cancer with high mortality in its advanced stages. Our study aim was to explore the correlation between tumor epithelial‐to‐mesenchymal transition (EMT) and patient survival. Renal biopsies of tumorous and adjacent nontumorous tissue were taken with a 16 g needle from our patients (n = 26) undergoing partial or radical nephrectomy due to ccRCC. RNA sequencing libraries were generated using Illumina TruSeq® Access library preparation protocol and TruSeq Small RNA library preparation kit. Next generation sequencing (NGS) was performed on Illumina HiSeq2500. Comparative analysis of matched sample pairs was done using the Bioconductor Limma/voom R‐package. Liquid chromatography‐tandem mass spectrometry and immunohistochemistry were applied to measure and visualize protein abundance. We detected an increased generic EMT transcript score in ccRCC. Gene expression analysis showed augmented abundance of AXL and MMP14, as well as down‐regulated expression of KL (klotho). Moreover, microRNA analyses demonstrated a positive expression correlation of miR‐34a and its targets MMP14 and AXL. Survival analysis based on a subset of genes from our list EMT‐related genes in a publicly available dataset showed that the EMT genes correlated with ccRCC patient survival. Several of these genes also play a known role in fibrosis. Accordingly, recently published classifiers of solid organ fibrosis correctly identified EMT‐affected tumor samples and were correlated with patient survival. EMT in ccRCC linked to fibrosis is associated with worse survival and may represent a target for novel therapeutic interventions.
  • Karhu, S. Tuuli; Ruskoaho, Heikki; Talman, Virpi (2021)
    Cardiac fibrosis is characterized by accumulation and activation of fibroblasts and excessive production of extracellular matrix, which results in myocardial stiffening and eventually leads to heart failure. Although previous work suggests that protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms play a role in cardiac fibrosis and remodeling, the results are conflicting. Moreover, the potential of targeting PKC with pharmacological tools to inhibit pathologic fibrosis has not been fully evaluated. Here we investigated the effects of selected PKC agonists and inhibitors on cardiac fibroblast (CF) phenotype, proliferation, and gene expression using primary adult mouse CFs, which spontaneously transdifferentiate into myofibroblasts in culture. A 48-hour exposure to the potent PKC activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) at 10 nM concentration reduced the intensity of a-smooth muscle actin staining by 56% and periostin mRNA levels by 60% compared with control. The decreases were inhibited with the pan-PKC inhibitor Gö6983 and the inhibitor of classical PKC isoforms Gö6976, suggesting that classical PKCs regulate CF transdifferentiation. PMA also induced a 33% decrease in 5-bromo-2’-deoxyuridine–positive CFs, which was inhibited with Gö6983 but not with Gö6976, indicating that novel PKC isoforms (nPKCs) regulate CF proliferation. Moreover, PMA downregulated the expression of collagen-encoding genes Col1a1 and Col3a1 nPKC-dependently, showing that PKC activation attenuates matrix synthesis in CFs. The partial PKC agonist isophthalate derivative bis(1-ethylpentyl) 5-(hydroxymethyl)isophthalate induced parallel changes in phenotype, cell cycle activity, and gene expression. In conclusion, our results reveal distinct PKC-dependent regulation of CF transdifferentiation and proliferation and suggest that PKC agonists exhibit potential as an antifibrotic treatment.
  • Kerola, Anna; Lohi, Jouko; Heikkilä, Päivi; Mutanen, Annika; Jalanko, Hannu; Pakarinen, Mikko P. (2019)
    Background: Pathogenesis of progressive liver fibrosis in biliary atresia after successful portoenterostomy remains unclear. We related hepatic expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) superfamily cytokines to histologic liver injury after successful portoenterostomy. Methods: Enrolled in our study were 28 patients with biliary atresia who had liver biopsies obtained during and after successful portoenterostomy, which normalized serum bilirubin ( Results: After median follow-up of 3.0 years, histologic cholestasis resolved, whereas fibrosis had progressed only in isolated biliary atresia. Liver protein expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 and connective tissue growth factor (P Conclusion: These findings support a central role of transforming growth factor beta superfamily in mediating continuing liver fibrogenesis after successful portoenterostomy. Transforming growth factor beta pathway cytokines responded divergently to clearance of jaundice, which was reflected by differential progression of fibrosis between syndromic and isolated patients. (C) 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Kurvinen, Annika; Lohi, Jouko; Sorsa, Timo; Jalanko, Hannu; Pakarinen, Mikko P. (2016)
    Background. Intestinal failure is associated frequently with liver injury, which persists after weaning off parenteral nutrition. We compared features of liver remodeling in intestinal failure during and after weaning off parenteral nutrition. Methods. Liver biopsies and serum samples were obtained from 25 intestinal failure patients at a median age of 9.7 years (interquartile range: 4.6-18) and from age-matched control patients. Seven patients had been receiving parenteral nutrition for 53 months (22-160), and 18 patients had been weaned off parenteral nutrition 6.3 years (2.4-17) earlier, after having received parenteral nutrition for 10 months (3.3-34). Expression of alpha smooth muscle actin, collagen 1, proinflammatory cytokines, growth factors, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) was measured. Results. Significant increases in immunohistochemical expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin and collagen 1 were observed predominantly in portal areas and were similar to increases seen in patients currently receiving parenteral nutrition and in patients weaned off parenteral nutrition. Gene and protein expressions of alpha-smooth muscle actin and collagen were interrelated. Gene expression of ACTA2, encoding alpha-smooth muscle actin, was increased only in patients who were receiving parenteral nutrition currently. Comparable upregulation of interleukin-1 (alpha and beta), epidermal growth factor, integrin-beta 6, and MMP9 gene expression was observed in both patient groups, irrespective of whether they were receiving parenteral nutrition currently. Liver expression and serum levels of TIMP1 and MMP7 were increased only in the patients on parenteral nutrition currently but were not increased after weaning off parenteral nutrition. Conclusion. Intestinal failure is characterized by abnormal activation of hepatic myofibroblast and accumulation of collagen both during and after weaning off parenteral nutrition. Persistent transcriptional upregulation of proinflammatory and fibrogenic cytokines after weaning off parenteral nutrition suggests that factors other than parenteral nutrition may contribute to intestinal failure associated liver disease.
  • Sahlman, Perttu; Nissinen, Markku; Puukka, Pauli; Jula, Antti; Salomaa, Veikko; Männistö, Satu; Lundqvist, Annamari; Valsta, Liisa; Perola, Markus; Färkkilä, Martti; Åberg, Fredrik (2019)
    Background and Aim Liver disease is traditionally categorized as alcoholic and non-alcoholic. We studied various risk factors predictive of advanced non-viral liver disease in general population and analyzed the interaction between these factors and alcohol consumption. Methods Persons without underlying liver disease who participated in the Health2000 or FINRISK studies 1992-2012 comprised a cohort of 41 260 individuals. Pattern of alcohol consumption and metabolic, lifestyle-related, and anthropometric parameters were analyzed with Cox regression analysis using severe liver disease hospitalization, cancer, or death as end-point. Viral liver diseases were excluded. Results A total of 355 liver events occurred during the mean 12.4-year follow-up (511 789 person-years). In the multivariate model, age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.03, P = 0.0083 for men; HR 1.04, P = 0.0198 for women), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (HR 1.52, P = 0.0006 for men; HR 1.58, P = 0.0167 for women), patatin-like phospholipase-containing domain 3 mutations (HR 1.9, P = 0.024 for men; HR 2.7, P = 0.0109 for women), and weekly binge drinking (HR 2.4, P = 0.0024 for men; HR 7.4, P <0.0001 for women) predicted development of severe liver disease. Among men, diabetes (HR 2.7, P = 0.0002), average alcohol consumption (HR for 10 g/day 1.1, P = 0.0022), non-married status (HR 1.9, P = 0.0397 for single; HR 2.4, P = 0.0002 for widowed/separated), and serum high-density lipoprotein (HR 2.2, P = 0.0022) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HR 1.2, P = 0.0237) were additional risk factors. Alcohol intake increased the risk especially among persons with high WHR (P for interaction 0.009). Conclusions Age, patatin-like phospholipase-containing domain 3 haplotype, and WHR increase the risk for development of severe liver disease. We found strong synergism between alcohol and central obesity. Binge drinking is an additional risk factor.
  • Anstee, Quentin M.; Darlay, Rebecca; Cockell, Simon; Meroni, Marica; Govaere, Olivier; Tiniakos, Dina; Burt, Alastair D.; Bedossa, Pierre; Palmer, Jeremy; Liu, Yang-Lin; Aithal, Guruprasad P.; Allison, Michael; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele; Vacca, Michele; Dufour, Jean-Francois; Invernizzi, Pietro; Prati, Daniele; Ekstedt, Mattias; Kechagias, Stergios; Francque, Sven; Petta, Salvatore; Bugianesi, Elisabetta; Clement, Karine; Ratziu, Vlad; Schattenberg, Jörn M.; Valenti, Luca; Day, Christopher P.; Cordell, Heather J.; Daly, Ann K. (2020)
    Background and Aims Genetic factors associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remain incompletely understood. To date, most GWAS studies have adopted radiologically assessed hepatic triglyceride content as reference phenotype and so cannot address steatohepatitis or fibrosis. We describe a genome-wide association study (GWAS) encompassing the full spectrum of histologically characterized NAFLD. Methods The GWAS involved 1483 European NAFLD cases and 17781 genetically-matched population controls. A replication cohort of 559 NAFLD cases and 945 controls was genotyped to confirm signals showing genome-wide or close to genome-wide significance. Results Case-control analysis identified signals showing p-values ≤ 5 x 10-8 at four locations (chromosome (chr) 2 GCKR/C2ORF16; chr4 HSD17B13; chr19 TM6SF2; chr22 PNPLA3) together with two other signals with p
  • Donner, Iikki; Katainen, Riku; Sipilä, Lauri J.; Aavikko, Mervi; Pukkala, Eero; Aaltonen, Lauri A. (2018)
    Objectives: Although the primary cause of lung cancer is smoking, a considerable proportion of all lung cancers occur in never smokers. Gender influences the risk and characteristics of lung cancer and women are over-represented among never smokers with the disease. Young age at onset and lack of established environmental risk factors suggest genetic predisposition. In this study, we used population-based sampling of young patients to discover candidate predisposition variants for lung adenocarcinoma in never-smoking women. Materials and methods: We employed archival normal tissue material from 21 never-smoker women who had been diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma before the age of 45, and exome sequenced their germline DNA. Results and conclusion: Potentially pathogenic variants were found in eight Cancer Gene Census germline genes: BRCAI, BRCA2, ERCC4, EXT1, HNF1 A, PTCH1, SMARCB1 and TP53. The variants in TP53, BRCAI, and BRCA2 are likely to have contributed to the early onset lung cancer in the respective patients (3/21 or 14%). This supports the notion that lung adenocarcinoma can be a component of certain cancer predisposition syndromes. Fifteen genes displayed potentially pathogenic mutations in at least two patients: ABCC10, ATP7B, CACNA1S, CFTR, CLIP4, COL6A1, COL6A6, GCN1, GJB6, RYR1, SCN7A, SEC24A, SP100, TEN and USH2A. Four patients showed a mutation in COL6A1, three in CLIP4 and two in the rest of the genes. Some of these candidate genes may explain a subset of female lung adenocarcinoma.
  • Pakarinen, Mikko P. (2019)
  • Holmstrom, Miia; Kivisto, Sari; Helio, Tiina; Jurkko, Raija; Kaartinen, Maija; Antila, Margareta; Reissell, Eeva; Kuusisto, Johanna; Karkkainen, Satu; Peuhkurinen, Keijo; Koikkalainen, Juha; Lotjonen, Jyrki; Lauerma, Kirsi-Maria Susanna (2011)
  • Cuthbertson, Daniel J.; Brown, Emily; Koskinen, Juha; Magnussen, Costan G.; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Sabin, Matthew; Tossavainen, Päivi; Jokinen, Eero; Laitinen, Tomi; Viikari, Jorma; Raitakari, Olli T.; Juonala, Markus (2019)
    Background & Aims We aimed to determine how childhood body mass index and metabolic health, along with the change in body mass index between childhood and adulthood, determine the risk of adult non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Methods Data from 2020 participants aged 3-18 years at baseline, followed up 31 years later, were examined to assess the utility of four childhood metabolic phenotypes (Metabolic Groups I: normal body mass index, no metabolic disturbances; II: normal body mass index, one or more metabolic disturbances; III: overweight/obese, no metabolic disturbances; IV: overweight/obese, one or more metabolic disturbances) and four life-course adiposity phenotypes (Adiposity Group 1: normal child and adult body mass index; 2, high child, normal adult body mass index; 3, normal child body mass index, high adult body mass index; 4, high child and adult body mass index) in predicting adult non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Results The risk for adult non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was similar across all four groups after adjustment for age, sex, lifestyle factors and adult body mass index. Risk of adult non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was not increased among individuals overweight/obese in childhood but non-obese in adulthood. In contrast, overweight or obese adults, irrespective of their youth body mass index status, had similar to eight-fold to 10-fold increased risk (P <0.001). Conclusions Childhood overweight/obesity, not metabolic health, is associated with increased risk for adult non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. However, the increased risk associated with childhood overweight/obesity can be largely removed by obtaining a normal body mass index by adulthood.
  • Hakkarainen, Antti; Puustinen, Lauri; Kivisaari, Reetta; Boyd, Sonja; Nieminen, Urpo; Arkkila, Perttu; Lundbom, Nina (2017)
    Purpose: To study liver P-31 MRS, histology, transient elastography, and liver function tests in patients with virus C hepatitis (HCV) or autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) to test the hypothesis that P-31 MR metabolic profile of these diseases differ. Materials and methods: 25 patients with HCV (n = 12) or AIH (n = 13) underwent proton decoupled P-31 MRS spectroscopy performed on a 3.0 T MR imager. Intensities of phosphomonoesters (PME) of phosphoethanolamine (PE) and phosphocholine (PC), phosphodiesters (PDE) of glycerophosphoethanolamine( GPE) and glycerophosphocholine (GPC), and gamma, alpha and beta resonances of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) were determined. Liver stiffness was measured by transient elastography. Inflammation and fibrosis were staged according to METAVIR from biopsy samples. Activities of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALT) and thromboplastin time (TT) were determined from serum samples. Results: PME had a stronger correlation with AST (z = 1.73, p = 0.04) and ALT (z = 1.77, p = 0.04) in HCV than in AIH patients. PME, PME/PDE, PE/GPE correlated positively and PDE negatively with inflammatory activity. PE, PC and PME correlated positively with liver function tests. Conclusion: P-31-MRS suggests a more serious liver damage in HCV than in AIH with similar histopathological findings. P-31-MRS is more sensitive in detecting inflammation than fibrosis in the liver. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Liu, Zehua; Li, Yunzhan; Li, Wei; Xiao, Chen; Liu, Dongfei; Dong, Chao; Zhang, Ming; Mäkilä, Ermei; Kemell, Marianna; Salonen, Jarno; Hirvonen, Jouni T.; Zhang, Hongbo; Zhou, Dawang; Deng, Xianming; Santos, Helder A. (2018)
    Herein, a novel nanohybrid based on porous silicon, gold nanoparticles (Au NPs), and acetalated dextran (DPSi/DAu@AcDEX) is reported to encapsulate and deliver one drug and increase the computer tomography (CT) signal for acute-liver-failure (ALF) theranostics. A microfluidic-assisted method is used to co-encapsulate different NPs in a single step. By alternating the surface properties of different NPs and by modulating the composition of the organic phase, both PSi and Au NPs are effectively encapsulated into the polymer matrix simultaneously, thus further achieving a multifunctional application. This system can be used to identify pathologically changes in the tissues and selectively deliver drugs to these sites. The loading of a therapeutic compound (XMU-MP-1) improves the drug solubility, precise, in situ drug delivery, and the drug-functioning time. In vivo results confirm a superior treatment effect and better compliance of this newly developed nanoformulation than free compound. This nanosystem plays a crucial role in targeting the lesion area, thus increasing the local drug concentration important for ALF reverse-effect. Moreover, the residence of Au NPs within the matrix further endows our system for CT-imaging. Altogether, these results support that this nanohybrid is a potential theranostic platform for ALF.
  • Suominen, Janne S.; Lampela, Hanna; Heikkila, Paivi; Lohi, Jouko; Jalanko, Hannu; Pakarinen, Mikko P. (2014)
  • Holmer, Magnus; Melum, Espen; Isoniemi, Helena; Ericzon, Bo-Göran; Castedal, Maria; Nordin, Arno; Schultz, Nicolai Aagaard; Rasmussen, Allan; Line, Pal-Dag; Stål, Per; Bennet, William; Hagström, Hannes (2018)
    Background & Aims Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD) is the second most common cause of liver transplantation in the US. Data on NAFLD as a liver transplantation indication from countries with lower prevalences of obesity are lacking. We studied the temporal trends of NAFLD as an indication for liver transplantation in the Nordic countries, and compared outcomes for patients with NAFLD to patients with other indications for liver transplantation. MethodResultsPopulation-based cohort study using data from the Nordic Liver Transplant Registry on adults listed for liver transplantation between 1994 and 2015. NAFLD as the underlying indication for liver transplantation was defined as a listing diagnosis of NAFLD/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, or cryptogenic cirrhosis with a body mass index 25kg/m(2) and absence of other liver diseases. Waiting time for liver transplantation, mortality and withdrawal from the transplant waiting list were registered. Survival after liver transplantation was calculated using multivariable Cox regression, adjusted for age, sex, body mass index and model for end-stage liver disease. A total of 4609 patients listed for liver transplantation were included. NAFLD as the underlying indication for liver transplantation increased from 2.0% in 1994-1995 to 6.2% in 2011-2015 (P=.01) and was the second most rapidly increasing indication. NAFLD patients had higher age, model for end-stage liver disease and body mass index when listed for liver transplantation, but overall survival after liver transplantation was comparable to non--NAFLD patients (aHR 1.03, 95% CI 0.70-1.53 P=.87). ConclusionNAFLD is an increasing indication for liver transplantation in the Nordic countries. Despite more advanced liver disease, NAFLD patients have a comparable survival to other patients listed for liver transplantation.
  • Hukkinen, M; Mutanen, A; Nissinen, M; Merras-Salmio, L; Gylling, H; Pakarinen, M. P (2017)
    Background: Parenteral plant sterols (PSs) are considered hepatotoxic; however, liver PSs and their associations with liver injury in patients with intestinal failure (IF) have not been reported. Materials and Methods: We analyzed liver and serum PS (avenasterol, campesterol, sitosterol, and stigmasterol) concentrations and ratios to cholesterol and their associations with biochemical and histologic liver damage in children with IF during (n = 7) parenteral nutrition (PN) and after weaning off it (n = 9), including vegetable oil-based lipid emulsions. Results: Liver avenasterol, sitosterol, and total PS concentrations and cholesterol ratios were 2.4-fold to 5.6-fold higher in PN-dependent patients (P <.05). Parenteral PS delivery reflected liver avenasterol and sitosterol ratios to cholesterol (r = 0.83-0.89, P = .02-.04), while serum and liver total PS levels were positively interrelated (r = 0.98, P <.01). Any liver histopathology was equally common while portal inflammation more frequent (57 vs 0%, P = .02) in PN-dependent patients. All liver PS fractions correlated positively with histologic portal inflammation (r = 0.53-0.66, P <.05), and their total concentration was significantly (P = .01) higher among patients with versus without portal inflammation. In PN-dependent patients, liver fibrosis and any histopathology correlated with liver campesterol and stigmasterol levels (r = 0.79-0.87, P .03). Conclusion: Among children with IF, parenteral PSs accumulate in the liver, reflect their increased serum levels, and relate with biochemical liver injury, portal inflammation, and liver fibrosis, thus supporting their role in promoting liver damage.
  • Jurado Acosta, Alicia; Rysä, Jaana; Szabo, Zoltan; Moilanen, Anne-Mari; Serpi, Raisa; Ruskoaho, Heikki (2020)
    Abstract In this study, we investigated whether local intramyocardial GATA4 overexpression affects the left ventricular (LV) remodelling process and the importance of phosphorylation at serine-105 (S105) for the actions of GATA4 in an angiotensin II (AngII)-induced hypertension rat model. Adenoviral constructs overexpressing wild type GATA4 or GATA4 mutated at S105 were delivered into the anterior LV free wall. AngII (33.3 µg x kg-1 x h-1) was administered via subcutaneously implanted minipumps. Cardiac function and structure were examined by echocardiography, followed by histological immunostainings of LV sections and gene expression measurements by RT-qPCR. The effects of GATA4 on cultured neonatal rat ventricular fibroblasts were evaluated. In AngII?induced hypertension, GATA4 overexpression repressed fibrotic gene expression, reversed the hypertrophic adult-to-foetal isoform switch of myofibrillar genes and prevented apoptosis, whereas histological fibrosis was not affected. Overexpression of GATA4 mutated at S105 resulted in LV chamber dilatation, cardiac dysfunction and had minor effects on expression of myocardial remodelling genes. Fibrotic gene expression in cardiac fibroblasts was differently affected by overexpression of wild type or mutated GATA4. Our results indicate that GATA4 reduces AngII-induced responses by interfering with pro-fibrotic and hypertrophic gene expressions. GATA4 actions on LV remodelling and fibroblasts are dependent on phosphorylation site S105.
  • Solagna, Francesca; Tezze, C.; Lindenmeyer, M.T.; Lu, S.; Wu, G.; Liu, S.; Zhao, Y.; Mitchell, R.; Meyer, C.; Omairi, S.; Kilic, T.; Paolini, A.; Ritvos, O.; Pasternack, A.; Matsakas, A.; Kylies, D.; zur Wiesch, J.S.; Turner, J.-E.; Wanner, N.; Nair, V.; Eichinger, F.; Menon, R.; Martin, I.V.; Klinkhammer, B.M.; Hoxha, E.; Cohen, C.D.; Tharaux, P.-L.; Boor, P.; Ostendorf, T.; Kretzler, M.; Sandri, M.; Kretz, O.; Puelles, V.G.; Patel, K.; Huber, T.B. (2021)
    Skeletal muscle wasting is commonly associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD), resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. However, the link between kidney and muscle function remains poorly understood. Here, we took a complementary interorgan approach to investigate skeletal muscle wasting in CKD. We identified increased production and elevated blood levels of soluble pro-cachectic factors, including activin A, directly linking experimental and human CKD to skeletal muscle wasting programs. Single-cell sequencing data identified the expression of activin A in specific kidney cell populations of fibroblasts and cells of the juxtaglomerular apparatus. We propose that persistent and increased kidney production of procachectic factors, combined with a lack of kidney clearance, facilitates a vicious kidney/muscle signaling cycle, leading to exacerbated blood accumulation and, thereby, skeletal muscle wasting. Systemic pharmacological blockade of activin A using soluble activin receptor type IIB ligand trap as well as muscle-specific adeno-associated virus-mediated downregulation of its receptor ACVR2A/B prevented muscle wasting in different mouse models of experimental CKD, suggesting that activin A is a key factor in CKD-induced cachexia. In summary, we uncovered a crosstalk between kidney and muscle and propose modulation of activin signaling as a potential therapeutic strategy for skeletal muscle wasting in CKD.