Browsing by Subject "FIBROSIS"

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  • Deneau, Mark R.; Valentino, Pamela L.; Mack, Cara; Alqoaer, Khaled; Amin, Mansi; Amir, Achiya Z.; Aumar, Madeleine; Auth, Marcus; Broderick, Annemarie; DiGuglielmo, Matthew; Draijer, Laura G.; El-Matary, Wael; Ferrari, Federica; Furuya, Katryn N.; Gottrand, Frederic; Gupta, Nitika; Homan, Matjaz; Jensen, M. K.; Kamath, Binita M.; Kim, Kyung Mo; Kolho, Kaija-Leena; Koot, Bart; Iorio, Raffaele; Martinez, Mercedes; Miloh, Tamir; Mohan, Parvathi; Palle, Sirish; Papadopoulou, Alexandra; Ricciuto, Amanda; Saubermann, Lawrence; Sathya, Pushpa; Shteyer, Eyal; Smolka, Vratislav; Tanaka, Atsushi; Varier, Raghu; Venkat, Veena; Vitola, Bernadette; Woynarowski, Marek; Guthery, Stephen (2020)
    Background: Natural history models for primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) are derived from adult patient data, but have never been validated in children. It is unclear how accurate such models are for children with PSC. Methods: We utilized the pediatric PSC consortium database to assess the Revised Mayo Clinic, Amsterdam-Oxford, and Boberg models. We calculated the risk stratum and predicted survival for each patient within each model using patient data at PSC diagnosis, and compared it with observed survival. We evaluated model fit using the c-statistic. Results: Model fit was good at 1 year (c-statistics 0.93, 0.87, 0.82) and fair at 10 years (0.78, 0.75, 0.69) in the Mayo, Boberg, and Amsterdam-Oxford models, respectively. The Mayo model correctly classified most children as low risk, whereas the Amsterdam-Oxford model incorrectly classified most as high risk. All of the models underestimated survival of patients classified as high risk. Albumin, bilirubin, AST, and platelets were most associated with outcomes. Autoimmune hepatitis was more prevalent in higher risk groups, and over-weighting of AST in these patients accounted for the observed versus predicted survival discrepancy. Conclusions: All 3 models offered good short-term discrimination of outcomes but only fair long-term discrimination. None of the models account for the high prevalence of features of autoimmune hepatitis overlap in children and the associated elevated aminotransferases. A pediatric-specific model is needed. AST, bilirubin, albumin, and platelets will be important predictors, but must be weighted to account for the unique features of PSC in children.
  • Hemanthakumar, Karthik Amudhala; Fang, Shentong; Anisimov, Andrey; Mäyränpää, Mikko I.; Mervaala, Eero; Kivelä, Riikka (2021)
    Aging, obesity, hypertension, and physical inactivity are major risk factors for endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We applied fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), RNA sequencing, and bioinformatic methods to investigate the common effects of CVD risk factors in mouse cardiac endothelial cells (ECs). Aging, obesity, and pressure overload all upregulated pathways related to TGF-beta signaling and mesenchymal gene expression, inflammation, vascular permeability, oxidative stress, collagen synthesis, and cellular senescence, whereas exercise training attenuated most of the same pathways. We identified collagen chaperone Serpinhl (also called as Hsp47) to be significantly increased by aging and obesity and repressed by exercise training. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that increased SERPINH1 in human ECs induced mesenchymal properties, while its silencing inhibited collagen deposition. Our data demonstrate that CVD risk factors significantly remodel the transcriptomic landscape of cardiac ECs inducing inflammatory, senescence, and mesenchymal features. SERPINH1 was identified as a potential therapeutic target in ECs.
  • Bossen, Lars; Vesterhus, Mette; Hov, Johannes R.; Färkkilä, Martti; Rosenberg, William M.; Moller, Holger J.; Boberg, Kirsten M.; Karlsen, Tom H.; Gronbaek, Henning (2021)
    INTRODUCTION: Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a progressive liver disease characterized by bile duct inflammation and fibrosis. The role of macrophages in PSC development and progression is less studied. Macrophage activation markers soluble (s)CD163 and mannose receptor (sMR) are associated with disease severity and outcome in other liver diseases, but not previously investigated in PSC. We evaluated sCD163 and sMR regarding disease severity and prognosis in patients with PSC. METHODS: We investigated 2 independent PSC cohorts from Oslo (n = 138) and Helsinki (n = 159) and analyzed blood sCD163 and sMR levels. The Mayo score, Enhanced Liver Fibrosis Test, and Amsterdam-Oxford model were assessed for comparison. RESULTS: Median (interquartile range) sCD163 was 3.32 (2.27-5.60) and 1.96 (1.47-2.70) mg/L in the Oslo and Helsinki cohorts, respectively, reflecting differences in disease severity between cohorts. Median sMR was similar in both cohorts, 0.28 (0.22-0.44) and 0.28 mg/L (0.20-0.36), respectively. In both cohorts, sCD163 and sMR levels raised with increasing disease severity (liver enzymes, Mayo score, and enhanced liver fibrosis test). Patients with high baseline levels of sCD163 had shorter transplant-free survival than patients with low baseline levels. Furthermore, sCD163 was associated with transplant-free survival in univariate cox-regression analyses. Both sCD163 and sMR performed better in the Oslo cohort of more severely diseased patients than those in the Helsinki cohort of more mildly diseased patients. DISCUSSION: Macrophage activation markers are elevated according to disease severity suggesting an important role of macrophages in PSC. Furthermore, sCD163 was identified as a prognostic marker and predictor of transplant-free survival in PSC (see Visual Abstract, Supplementary Digital Content 4, http://links.lww.com/CTG/A516). [GRAPHICS]
  • Landolt, Lea; Eikrem, Oystein; Strauss, Philipp; Scherer, Andreas; Lovett, David H.; Finne, Kenneth; Osman, Tarig; Ibrahim, Mohammad; Gausdal, Gro; Ahmed, Lavina; Lorens, James; Thiery, Jean Paul; Tan, Tuan Zea; Sekulic, Miroslav; Marti, Hans-Peter; Beisland, Christian (2017)
    Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) represents the most common type of kidney cancer with high mortality in its advanced stages. Our study aim was to explore the correlation between tumor epithelial‐to‐mesenchymal transition (EMT) and patient survival. Renal biopsies of tumorous and adjacent nontumorous tissue were taken with a 16 g needle from our patients (n = 26) undergoing partial or radical nephrectomy due to ccRCC. RNA sequencing libraries were generated using Illumina TruSeq® Access library preparation protocol and TruSeq Small RNA library preparation kit. Next generation sequencing (NGS) was performed on Illumina HiSeq2500. Comparative analysis of matched sample pairs was done using the Bioconductor Limma/voom R‐package. Liquid chromatography‐tandem mass spectrometry and immunohistochemistry were applied to measure and visualize protein abundance. We detected an increased generic EMT transcript score in ccRCC. Gene expression analysis showed augmented abundance of AXL and MMP14, as well as down‐regulated expression of KL (klotho). Moreover, microRNA analyses demonstrated a positive expression correlation of miR‐34a and its targets MMP14 and AXL. Survival analysis based on a subset of genes from our list EMT‐related genes in a publicly available dataset showed that the EMT genes correlated with ccRCC patient survival. Several of these genes also play a known role in fibrosis. Accordingly, recently published classifiers of solid organ fibrosis correctly identified EMT‐affected tumor samples and were correlated with patient survival. EMT in ccRCC linked to fibrosis is associated with worse survival and may represent a target for novel therapeutic interventions.
  • Åberg, Fredrik; Luukkonen, Panu K.; But, Anna; Salomaa, Veikko; Britton, Annie; Petersen, Kasper Meidahl; Bojesen, Stig Egil; Balling, Mie; Nordestgaard, Borge G.; Puukka, Pauli; Männistö, Satu; Lundqvist, Annamari; Perola, Markus; Jula, Antti; Färkkilä, Martti (2022)
    Background & Aims: Current screening strategies for chronic liver disease focus on detection of subclinical advanced liver fibrosis but cannot identify those at high future risk of severe liver disease. Our aim was to develop and validate a risk pre-diction model for incident chronic liver disease in the general population based on widely available factors. Methods: Multivariable Cox regression analyses were used to develop prediction models for liver-related outcomes with and without laboratory measures (Modellab and Modelnon-lab) in 25,760 individuals aged 40-70 years. Their data were sourced from the Finnish population-based health examination surveys FINRISK 1992-2012 and Health 2000 (derivation cohort). The models were externally validated in the Whitehall II (n = 5,058) and Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS) (n = 3,049) cohorts. Results: The absolute rate of incident liver outcomes per 100,000 person-years ranged from 53 to 144. The final prediction model included age, sex, alcohol use (drinks/week), waist-hip ratio, diabetes, and smoking, and Modellab also included gamma-glutamyltransferase values. Internally validated Wolbers' C -sta-tistics were 0.77 for Modellab and 0.75 for Modelnon-lab, while apparent 15-year AUCs were 0.84 (95% CI 0.75-0.93) and 0.82 (95% CI 0.74-0.91). The models identified a small proportion (< 2%) of the population with > 10% absolute 15-year risk for liver events. Of all liver events, only 10% occurred in participants in the lowest risk category. In the validation cohorts, 15-year AUCs were 0.78 (Modellab) and 0.65 (Modelnon-lab) in the CCHS cohort, and 0.78 (Modelnon-lab) in the Whitehall II cohort. Conclusions: Based on widely available risk factors, the Chronic Liver Disease (CLivD) score can be used to predict risk of future advanced liver disease in the general population. Lay summary: Liver disease often progresses silently without symptoms and thus the diagnosis is often delayed until severe complications occur and prognosis becomes poor. In order to identify individuals in the general population who have a high risk of developing severe liver disease in the future, we developed and validated a Chronic Liver Disease (CLivD) risk prediction score, based on age, sex, alcohol use, waist-hip ratio, diabetes, and smoking, with or without measurement of the liver enzyme gamma-glutamyltransferase. The CLivD score can be used as part of health counseling, and for planning further liver investigations and follow-up. (C) 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of European Association for the Study of the Liver.
  • Karhu, S. Tuuli; Ruskoaho, Heikki; Talman, Virpi (2021)
    Cardiac fibrosis is characterized by accumulation and activation of fibroblasts and excessive production of extracellular matrix, which results in myocardial stiffening and eventually leads to heart failure. Although previous work suggests that protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms play a role in cardiac fibrosis and remodeling, the results are conflicting. Moreover, the potential of targeting PKC with pharmacological tools to inhibit pathologic fibrosis has not been fully evaluated. Here we investigated the effects of selected PKC agonists and inhibitors on cardiac fibroblast (CF) phenotype, proliferation, and gene expression using primary adult mouse CFs, which spontaneously transdifferentiate into myofibroblasts in culture. A 48-hour exposure to the potent PKC activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) at 10 nM concentration reduced the intensity of a-smooth muscle actin staining by 56% and periostin mRNA levels by 60% compared with control. The decreases were inhibited with the pan-PKC inhibitor Gö6983 and the inhibitor of classical PKC isoforms Gö6976, suggesting that classical PKCs regulate CF transdifferentiation. PMA also induced a 33% decrease in 5-bromo-2’-deoxyuridine–positive CFs, which was inhibited with Gö6983 but not with Gö6976, indicating that novel PKC isoforms (nPKCs) regulate CF proliferation. Moreover, PMA downregulated the expression of collagen-encoding genes Col1a1 and Col3a1 nPKC-dependently, showing that PKC activation attenuates matrix synthesis in CFs. The partial PKC agonist isophthalate derivative bis(1-ethylpentyl) 5-(hydroxymethyl)isophthalate induced parallel changes in phenotype, cell cycle activity, and gene expression. In conclusion, our results reveal distinct PKC-dependent regulation of CF transdifferentiation and proliferation and suggest that PKC agonists exhibit potential as an antifibrotic treatment.
  • Kerola, Anna; Lohi, Jouko; Heikkilä, Päivi; Mutanen, Annika; Jalanko, Hannu; Pakarinen, Mikko P. (2019)
    Background: Pathogenesis of progressive liver fibrosis in biliary atresia after successful portoenterostomy remains unclear. We related hepatic expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) superfamily cytokines to histologic liver injury after successful portoenterostomy. Methods: Enrolled in our study were 28 patients with biliary atresia who had liver biopsies obtained during and after successful portoenterostomy, which normalized serum bilirubin ( Results: After median follow-up of 3.0 years, histologic cholestasis resolved, whereas fibrosis had progressed only in isolated biliary atresia. Liver protein expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 and connective tissue growth factor (P Conclusion: These findings support a central role of transforming growth factor beta superfamily in mediating continuing liver fibrogenesis after successful portoenterostomy. Transforming growth factor beta pathway cytokines responded divergently to clearance of jaundice, which was reflected by differential progression of fibrosis between syndromic and isolated patients. (C) 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Liu, Yang; Meric, Guillaume; Havulinna, Aki S.; Teo, Shu Mei; Åberg, Fredrik; Ruuskanen, Matti; Sanders, Jon; Zhu, Qiyun; Tripathi, Anupriya; Verspoor, Karin; Cheng, Susan; Jain, Mohit; Jousilahti, Pekka; Vazquez-Baeza, Yoshiki; Loomba, Rohit; Lahti, Leo; Niiranen, Teemu; Salomaa, Veikko; Knight, Rob; Inouye, Michael (2022)
    The gut microbiome has shown promise as a predictive biomarker for various diseases. However, the potential of gut microbiota for prospective risk prediction of liver disease has not been assessed. Here, we utilized shallow shotgun metagenomic sequencing of a large population-based cohort (N > 7,000) with -15 years of follow-up in combination with machine learning to investigate the predictive capacity of gut microbial predictors individually and in conjunction with conventional risk factors for incident liver disease. Separately, conventional and microbial factors showed comparable predictive capacity. However, microbiome augmentation of conventional risk factors using machine learning significantly improved the performance. Similarly, disease free survival analysis showed significantly improved stratification using microbiome-augmented models. Investigation of predictive microbial signatures revealed previously unknown taxa for liver disease, as well as those previously associated with hepatic function and disease. This study supports the potential clinical validity of gut metagenomic sequencing to complement conventional risk factors for prediction of liver diseases.
  • Kurvinen, Annika; Lohi, Jouko; Sorsa, Timo; Jalanko, Hannu; Pakarinen, Mikko P. (2016)
    Background. Intestinal failure is associated frequently with liver injury, which persists after weaning off parenteral nutrition. We compared features of liver remodeling in intestinal failure during and after weaning off parenteral nutrition. Methods. Liver biopsies and serum samples were obtained from 25 intestinal failure patients at a median age of 9.7 years (interquartile range: 4.6-18) and from age-matched control patients. Seven patients had been receiving parenteral nutrition for 53 months (22-160), and 18 patients had been weaned off parenteral nutrition 6.3 years (2.4-17) earlier, after having received parenteral nutrition for 10 months (3.3-34). Expression of alpha smooth muscle actin, collagen 1, proinflammatory cytokines, growth factors, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) was measured. Results. Significant increases in immunohistochemical expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin and collagen 1 were observed predominantly in portal areas and were similar to increases seen in patients currently receiving parenteral nutrition and in patients weaned off parenteral nutrition. Gene and protein expressions of alpha-smooth muscle actin and collagen were interrelated. Gene expression of ACTA2, encoding alpha-smooth muscle actin, was increased only in patients who were receiving parenteral nutrition currently. Comparable upregulation of interleukin-1 (alpha and beta), epidermal growth factor, integrin-beta 6, and MMP9 gene expression was observed in both patient groups, irrespective of whether they were receiving parenteral nutrition currently. Liver expression and serum levels of TIMP1 and MMP7 were increased only in the patients on parenteral nutrition currently but were not increased after weaning off parenteral nutrition. Conclusion. Intestinal failure is characterized by abnormal activation of hepatic myofibroblast and accumulation of collagen both during and after weaning off parenteral nutrition. Persistent transcriptional upregulation of proinflammatory and fibrogenic cytokines after weaning off parenteral nutrition suggests that factors other than parenteral nutrition may contribute to intestinal failure associated liver disease.
  • Sahlman, Perttu; Nissinen, Markku; Puukka, Pauli; Jula, Antti; Salomaa, Veikko; Männistö, Satu; Lundqvist, Annamari; Valsta, Liisa; Perola, Markus; Färkkilä, Martti; Åberg, Fredrik (2020)
    Background and Aim Liver disease is traditionally categorized as alcoholic and non-alcoholic. We studied various risk factors predictive of advanced non-viral liver disease in general population and analyzed the interaction between these factors and alcohol consumption. Methods Persons without underlying liver disease who participated in the Health2000 or FINRISK studies 1992-2012 comprised a cohort of 41 260 individuals. Pattern of alcohol consumption and metabolic, lifestyle-related, and anthropometric parameters were analyzed with Cox regression analysis using severe liver disease hospitalization, cancer, or death as end-point. Viral liver diseases were excluded. Results A total of 355 liver events occurred during the mean 12.4-year follow-up (511 789 person-years). In the multivariate model, age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.03, P = 0.0083 for men; HR 1.04, P = 0.0198 for women), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (HR 1.52, P = 0.0006 for men; HR 1.58, P = 0.0167 for women), patatin-like phospholipase-containing domain 3 mutations (HR 1.9, P = 0.024 for men; HR 2.7, P = 0.0109 for women), and weekly binge drinking (HR 2.4, P = 0.0024 for men; HR 7.4, P <0.0001 for women) predicted development of severe liver disease. Among men, diabetes (HR 2.7, P = 0.0002), average alcohol consumption (HR for 10 g/day 1.1, P = 0.0022), non-married status (HR 1.9, P = 0.0397 for single; HR 2.4, P = 0.0002 for widowed/separated), and serum high-density lipoprotein (HR 2.2, P = 0.0022) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HR 1.2, P = 0.0237) were additional risk factors. Alcohol intake increased the risk especially among persons with high WHR (P for interaction 0.009). Conclusions Age, patatin-like phospholipase-containing domain 3 haplotype, and WHR increase the risk for development of severe liver disease. We found strong synergism between alcohol and central obesity. Binge drinking is an additional risk factor.
  • Anstee, Quentin M.; Darlay, Rebecca; Cockell, Simon; Meroni, Marica; Govaere, Olivier; Tiniakos, Dina; Burt, Alastair D.; Bedossa, Pierre; Palmer, Jeremy; Liu, Yang-Lin; Aithal, Guruprasad P.; Allison, Michael; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele; Vacca, Michele; Dufour, Jean-Francois; Invernizzi, Pietro; Prati, Daniele; Ekstedt, Mattias; Kechagias, Stergios; Francque, Sven; Petta, Salvatore; Bugianesi, Elisabetta; Clement, Karine; Ratziu, Vlad; Schattenberg, Jörn M.; Valenti, Luca; Day, Christopher P.; Cordell, Heather J.; Daly, Ann K. (2020)
    Background and Aims Genetic factors associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remain incompletely understood. To date, most GWAS studies have adopted radiologically assessed hepatic triglyceride content as reference phenotype and so cannot address steatohepatitis or fibrosis. We describe a genome-wide association study (GWAS) encompassing the full spectrum of histologically characterized NAFLD. Methods The GWAS involved 1483 European NAFLD cases and 17781 genetically-matched population controls. A replication cohort of 559 NAFLD cases and 945 controls was genotyped to confirm signals showing genome-wide or close to genome-wide significance. Results Case-control analysis identified signals showing p-values ≤ 5 x 10-8 at four locations (chromosome (chr) 2 GCKR/C2ORF16; chr4 HSD17B13; chr19 TM6SF2; chr22 PNPLA3) together with two other signals with p
  • Donner, Iikki; Katainen, Riku; Sipilä, Lauri J.; Aavikko, Mervi; Pukkala, Eero; Aaltonen, Lauri A. (2018)
    Objectives: Although the primary cause of lung cancer is smoking, a considerable proportion of all lung cancers occur in never smokers. Gender influences the risk and characteristics of lung cancer and women are over-represented among never smokers with the disease. Young age at onset and lack of established environmental risk factors suggest genetic predisposition. In this study, we used population-based sampling of young patients to discover candidate predisposition variants for lung adenocarcinoma in never-smoking women. Materials and methods: We employed archival normal tissue material from 21 never-smoker women who had been diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma before the age of 45, and exome sequenced their germline DNA. Results and conclusion: Potentially pathogenic variants were found in eight Cancer Gene Census germline genes: BRCAI, BRCA2, ERCC4, EXT1, HNF1 A, PTCH1, SMARCB1 and TP53. The variants in TP53, BRCAI, and BRCA2 are likely to have contributed to the early onset lung cancer in the respective patients (3/21 or 14%). This supports the notion that lung adenocarcinoma can be a component of certain cancer predisposition syndromes. Fifteen genes displayed potentially pathogenic mutations in at least two patients: ABCC10, ATP7B, CACNA1S, CFTR, CLIP4, COL6A1, COL6A6, GCN1, GJB6, RYR1, SCN7A, SEC24A, SP100, TEN and USH2A. Four patients showed a mutation in COL6A1, three in CLIP4 and two in the rest of the genes. Some of these candidate genes may explain a subset of female lung adenocarcinoma.
  • Pakarinen, Mikko P. (2019)
  • Holmstrom, Miia; Kivisto, Sari; Helio, Tiina; Jurkko, Raija; Kaartinen, Maija; Antila, Margareta; Reissell, Eeva; Kuusisto, Johanna; Karkkainen, Satu; Peuhkurinen, Keijo; Koikkalainen, Juha; Lotjonen, Jyrki; Lauerma, Kirsi-Maria Susanna (2011)
  • Sivunen, Johanna; Karlberg, Susann; Kivisaari, Reetta; Lohi, Jouko; Karlberg, Niklas; Jokinen, Eero; Sarkola, Taisto; Jahnukainen, Timo; Lipsanen-Nyman, Marita; Jalanko, Hannu (2022)
    Background and Aims Mulibrey nanism (MUL) is a multiorgan disease caused by recessive mutations in the TRIM37 gene. Chronic heart failure and hepatopathy are major determinants of prognosis in MUL patients, which prompted us to study liver biochemistry and pathology in a national cohort of MUL patients. Methods Clinical, laboratory and imaging data were collected in a cross-sectional survey and retrospectively from hospital records. Liver histology and immunohistochemistry for 10 biomarkers were assessed. Results Twenty-one MUL patients (age 1-51 years) with tumour suspicion showed moderate congestion, steatosis and fibrosis in liver biopsies and marginally elevated levels of serum GGT, AST, ALT and AST to platelet ratio index (APRI) in 20%-66%. Similarly, GGT, AST, ALT and APRI levels were moderately elevated in 12%-69% of 17 MUL patients prior to pericardiectomy. In a cross-sectional evaluation of 36 MUL outpatients, GGT, total bilirubin and galactose half-life (Gal1/2) correlated with age (r = 0.45, p = .017; r = 0.512, p = .007; r = 0.44, p = .03 respectively). The frequency of clearly abnormal serum values of 15 parameters analysed, however, was low even in patients with signs of restrictive cardiomyopathy. Transient elastography (TE) of the liver revealed elevated levels in 50% of patients with signs of heart failure and TE levels correlated with several biochemistry parameters. Biomarkers of fibrosis, sinusoidal capillarization and hepatocyte metaplasia showed increased expression in autopsy liver samples from 15 MUL patients. Conclusion Liver disease in MUL patients was characterized by sinusoidal dilatation, steatosis and fibrosis with individual progression to cirrhosis and moderate association of histology with cardiac function, liver biochemistry and elastography.
  • Godbole, Nimish; Nyholm, Iiris; Hukkinen, Maria; Davidson, Joseph R.; Tyraskis, Athanasios; Lohi, Jouko; Heikkilä, Päivi; Eloranta, Katja; Pihlajoki, Marjut; Davenport, Mark; Heikinheimo, Markku; Kyrönlahti, Antti; Pakarinen, Mikko P. (2022)
    Biliary atresia (BA) is a chronic neonatal cholangiopathy characterized by fibroinflammatory bile duct damage. Reliable biomarkers for predicting native liver survival (NLS) following portoenterostomy (PE) surgery are lacking. Herein we explore the utility of 22 preidentified profibrotic molecules closely connected to ductular reaction (DR) and prevailing after successful PE (SPE), in predicting PE outcomes and liver injury. We used qPCR and immunohistochemistry in a BA cohort including liver samples obtained at PE (n = 53) and during postoperative follow-up after SPE (n = 25). Of the 13 genes over-expressed in relation to cholestatic age-matched controls at PE, only secretin receptor (SCTR) expression predicted cumulative 5-year NLS and clearance of jaundice. Patients in the highest SCTR expression tertile showed 34-55% lower NLS than other groups at 1-5 years after PE (P = 0.006-0.04 for each year). SCTR expression was also significantly lower [42 (24-63) vs 75 (39-107) fold, P = 0.015] among those who normalized their serum bilirubin after PE. Liver SCTR expression localized in cholangiocytes and correlated positively with liver fibrosis, DR, and transcriptional markers of fibrosis (ACTA2) and cholangiocytes (KRT7, KRT19) both at PE and after SPE. SCTR is a promising prognostic marker for PE outcomes and associates with liver injury in BA.
  • Cuthbertson, Daniel J.; Brown, Emily; Koskinen, Juha; Magnussen, Costan G.; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Sabin, Matthew; Tossavainen, Päivi; Jokinen, Eero; Laitinen, Tomi; Viikari, Jorma; Raitakari, Olli T.; Juonala, Markus (2019)
    Background & Aims We aimed to determine how childhood body mass index and metabolic health, along with the change in body mass index between childhood and adulthood, determine the risk of adult non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Methods Data from 2020 participants aged 3-18 years at baseline, followed up 31 years later, were examined to assess the utility of four childhood metabolic phenotypes (Metabolic Groups I: normal body mass index, no metabolic disturbances; II: normal body mass index, one or more metabolic disturbances; III: overweight/obese, no metabolic disturbances; IV: overweight/obese, one or more metabolic disturbances) and four life-course adiposity phenotypes (Adiposity Group 1: normal child and adult body mass index; 2, high child, normal adult body mass index; 3, normal child body mass index, high adult body mass index; 4, high child and adult body mass index) in predicting adult non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Results The risk for adult non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was similar across all four groups after adjustment for age, sex, lifestyle factors and adult body mass index. Risk of adult non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was not increased among individuals overweight/obese in childhood but non-obese in adulthood. In contrast, overweight or obese adults, irrespective of their youth body mass index status, had similar to eight-fold to 10-fold increased risk (P <0.001). Conclusions Childhood overweight/obesity, not metabolic health, is associated with increased risk for adult non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. However, the increased risk associated with childhood overweight/obesity can be largely removed by obtaining a normal body mass index by adulthood.
  • Hakkarainen, Antti; Puustinen, Lauri; Kivisaari, Reetta; Boyd, Sonja; Nieminen, Urpo; Arkkila, Perttu; Lundbom, Nina (2017)
    Purpose: To study liver P-31 MRS, histology, transient elastography, and liver function tests in patients with virus C hepatitis (HCV) or autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) to test the hypothesis that P-31 MR metabolic profile of these diseases differ. Materials and methods: 25 patients with HCV (n = 12) or AIH (n = 13) underwent proton decoupled P-31 MRS spectroscopy performed on a 3.0 T MR imager. Intensities of phosphomonoesters (PME) of phosphoethanolamine (PE) and phosphocholine (PC), phosphodiesters (PDE) of glycerophosphoethanolamine( GPE) and glycerophosphocholine (GPC), and gamma, alpha and beta resonances of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) were determined. Liver stiffness was measured by transient elastography. Inflammation and fibrosis were staged according to METAVIR from biopsy samples. Activities of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALT) and thromboplastin time (TT) were determined from serum samples. Results: PME had a stronger correlation with AST (z = 1.73, p = 0.04) and ALT (z = 1.77, p = 0.04) in HCV than in AIH patients. PME, PME/PDE, PE/GPE correlated positively and PDE negatively with inflammatory activity. PE, PC and PME correlated positively with liver function tests. Conclusion: P-31-MRS suggests a more serious liver damage in HCV than in AIH with similar histopathological findings. P-31-MRS is more sensitive in detecting inflammation than fibrosis in the liver. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Liu, Zehua; Li, Yunzhan; Li, Wei; Xiao, Chen; Liu, Dongfei; Dong, Chao; Zhang, Ming; Mäkilä, Ermei; Kemell, Marianna; Salonen, Jarno; Hirvonen, Jouni T.; Zhang, Hongbo; Zhou, Dawang; Deng, Xianming; Santos, Helder A. (2018)
    Herein, a novel nanohybrid based on porous silicon, gold nanoparticles (Au NPs), and acetalated dextran (DPSi/DAu@AcDEX) is reported to encapsulate and deliver one drug and increase the computer tomography (CT) signal for acute-liver-failure (ALF) theranostics. A microfluidic-assisted method is used to co-encapsulate different NPs in a single step. By alternating the surface properties of different NPs and by modulating the composition of the organic phase, both PSi and Au NPs are effectively encapsulated into the polymer matrix simultaneously, thus further achieving a multifunctional application. This system can be used to identify pathologically changes in the tissues and selectively deliver drugs to these sites. The loading of a therapeutic compound (XMU-MP-1) improves the drug solubility, precise, in situ drug delivery, and the drug-functioning time. In vivo results confirm a superior treatment effect and better compliance of this newly developed nanoformulation than free compound. This nanosystem plays a crucial role in targeting the lesion area, thus increasing the local drug concentration important for ALF reverse-effect. Moreover, the residence of Au NPs within the matrix further endows our system for CT-imaging. Altogether, these results support that this nanohybrid is a potential theranostic platform for ALF.
  • Suominen, Janne S.; Lampela, Hanna; Heikkila, Paivi; Lohi, Jouko; Jalanko, Hannu; Pakarinen, Mikko P. (2014)