Browsing by Subject "FIELD-THEORY"

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Now showing items 1-9 of 9
  • Boguslavski, K.; Kurkela, A.; Lappi, Tuomas; Peuron, Jarkko (2021)
    Motivated by the initial stages of high-energy heavy-ion collisions, we study excitations of far-from-equilibrium 2+1 dimensional gauge theories using classical-statistical lattice simulations. We evolve field perturbations over a strongly overoccupied background undergoing self-similar evolution. While in 3+1D the excitations are described by hard-thermal loop theory, their structure in 2+1D is nontrivial and nonperturbative. These nonperturbative interactions lead to broad excitation peaks in spectral and statistical correlation functions. Their width is comparable to the frequency of soft excitations, demonstrating the absence of soft quasiparticles in these theories. Our results also suggest that excitations at higher momenta are sufficiently long-lived, such that an effective kinetic theory description for 2+1 dimensional Glasma-like systems may exist, but its collision kernel must be nonperturbatively determined.
  • Chaichian, Masud; Frasca, Marco (2018)
    Abstract We show that a criterion for confinement, based on the BRST invariance, holds in four dimensions, by solving a non-Abelian gauge theory with a set of exact solutions. The confinement condition we consider was obtained by Kugo and Ojima some decades ago. The current understanding of gauge theories permits us to apply the techniques straightforwardly for checking the validity of this criterion. In this way, we are able to show that the non-Abelian gauge theory is confining and that confinement is rooted in the BRST invariance and asymptotic freedom.
  • Tokariev, Anton; Roberts, James A.; Zalesky, Andrew; Zhao, Xuelong; Vanhatalo, Sampsa; Breakspear, Michael; Cocchi, Luca (2019)
    Sleep architecture carries vital information about brain health across the lifespan. In particular, the ability to express distinct vigilance states is a key physiological marker of neurological wellbeing in the newborn infant although systems-level mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate that the transition from quiet to active sleep in newborn infants is marked by a substantial reorganization of large-scale cortical activity and functional brain networks. This reorganization is attenuated in preterm infants and predicts visual performance at two years. We find a striking match between these empirical effects and a computational model of large-scale brain states which uncovers fundamental biophysical mechanisms not evident from inspection of the data. Active sleep is defined by reduced energy in a uniform mode of neural activity and increased energy in two more complex anteroposterior modes. Preterm-born infants show a deficit in this sleep-related reorganization of modal energy that carries novel prognostic information.
  • Fujikawa, Kazuo; Tureanu, Anca (2017)
    We present an alternative perspective on the see-saw mechanism for the neutrino mass, according to which the small neutrino mass is given as a difference of two large masses. This view emerges when an analogue of the Bogoliubov transformation is used to describe Majorana neutrinos in the Lagrangian of the see-saw mechanism, which is analogous to the BCS theory. The Bogoliubov transformation clarifies the natural appearance of Majorana fermions when C is strongly violated by the right-handed neutrino mass term with good CP in the single flavor model. Analyzing typical models with m(R) = 10(4) to 10(15) GeV, it is shown that a hitherto unrecognized fine tuning of the order m(nu) /m(R) = 10(-15) to 10(-26) is required to make the commonly perceived see-saw mechanism work in a natural setting, namely, when none of the dimensionless coupling constants are very small. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Bea, Yago; Jokela, Niko; Ponni, Arttu; Ramallo, Alfonso V. (2018)
    In this paper, we study noncommutative massive unquenched Chern-Simons matter theory using its gravity dual. We construct this novel background by applying a TsT-transformation on the known parent commutative solution. We discuss several aspects of this solution to the Type IIA supergravity equations of motion and, amongst others, check that it preserves Ar = 1 supersymmetry. We then turn our attention to applications and investigate how dynamical flavor degrees of freedom affect numerous observables of interest. Our framework can be regarded as a key step toward the construction of holographic quantum Hall states on a noncommutative plane.
  • Ghisoiu, Ioan; Gorda, Tyler; Kurkela, Aleksi; Romatschke, Paul; Säppi, Matias; Vuorinen, Aleksi (2017)
    We discuss the prospects of performing high-order perturbative calculations in systems characterized by a vanishing temperature but finite density. In particular, we show that the determination of generic Feynman integrals containing fermionic chemical potentials can be reduced to the evaluation of three-dimensional phase space integrals over vacuum on-shell amplitudes - a result reminiscent of a previously proposed "naive real-time formalism" for vacuum diagrams. Applications of these rules are discussed in the context of the thermodynamics of cold and dense QCD, where it is argued that they facilitate an extension of the Equation of State of cold quark matter to higher perturbative orders. (C) 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Boguslayski, K.; Kurkela, A.; Lappi, T.; Peuron, J. (2018)
    We study the spectral properties of a highly occupied non-Abelian nonequilibrium plasma appearing ubiquitously in weak coupling descriptions of QCD matter. The spectral function of this far-from-equilibrium plasma is measured by employing linear response theory in classical-statistical real-time lattice Yang-Mills simulations. We establish the existence of transversely and longitudinally polarized quasi-particles and obtain their dispersion relations, effective mass, plasmon frequency, damping rate and further structures in the spectral and statistical functions. Our new method can be interpreted as a nonperturbative generalization of hard thermal loop (HTL) effective theory. We see indications that our results approach leading order HTL in the appropriate limit. The method can also be employed beyond the range of validity of HTL.
  • Tiurev, Konstantin; Ollikainen, Tuomas; Kuopanportti, Pekko; Nakahara, Mikio; Hall, David S.; Möttönen, Mikko (2018)
    We introduce topologically stable three-dimensional skyrmions in the cyclic and biaxial nematic phases of a spin-2 Bose-Einstein condensate. These skyrmions exhibit exceptionally high mapping degrees resulting from the versatile symmetries of the corresponding order parameters. We show how these structures can be created in existing experimental setups and study their temporal evolution and lifetime by numerically solving the three-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equations for realistic parameter values. Although the biaxial nematic and cyclic phases are observed to be unstable against transition towards the ferromagnetic phase, their lifetimes are long enough for the skyrmions to be imprinted and detected experimentally.
  • Gould, Oliver; Rajantie, Arttu; Xie, Cheng (2018)
    With increasing temperatures, Schwinger pair production changes from a quantum tunneling to a classical, thermal process, determined by a worldline sphaleron. We show this and calculate the corresponding rate of pair production for both spinor and scalar quantum electrodynamics, including the semiclassical prefactor. For electron-positron pair production from a thermal bath of photons and in the presence of an electric field, the rate we derive is faster than both perturbative photon fusion and the zero temperature Schwinger process. We work to all-orders in the coupling and hence our results are also relevant to the pair production of (strongly coupled) magnetic monopoles in heavy-ion collisions.