Browsing by Subject "FILMS"

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  • Fraser, James P.; Postnikov, Pavel; Miliutina, Elena; Kolska, Zdenka; Valiev, Rashid; Svorcik, Vaclav; Lyutakov, Oleksiy; Ganin, Alexey Y.; Guselnikova, Olga (2020)
    Two-dimensional (2D) transition-metal dichalcogenides have become promising candidates for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), but currently very few examples of detection of relevant molecules are available. Herein, we show the detection of the lipophilic disease marker beta-sitosterol on few-layered MoTe2 films. The chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown films are capable of nanomolar detection, exceeding the performance of alternative noble-metal surfaces. We confirm that the enhancement occurs through the chemical enhancement (CE) mechanism via formation of a surface-analyte complex, which leads to an enhancement factor of approximate to 10(4), as confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), UV-vis, and cyclic voltammetry (CV) analyses and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Low values of signal deviation over a seven-layered MoTe2 film confirms the homogeneity and reproducibility of the results in comparison to noble-metal substrate analogues. Furthermore, beta-sitosterol detection within cell culture media, a minimal loss of signal over 50 days, and the opportunity for sensor regeneration suggest that MoTe2 can become a promising new SERS platform for biosensing.
  • Hautala, Jaana; Kääriäinen, Tommi; Hoppu, Pekka; Kemell, Marianna; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Cameron, David; George, Steven; Juppo, Anne Mari (2017)
    We introduce atomic layer deposition (ALD) as a novel method for the ultrathin coating (nanolayering) of minitablets. The effects of ALD coating on the tablet characteristics and taste masking were investigated and compared with the established coating method. Minitablets containing bitter tasting denatonium benzoate were coated by ALD using three different TiO2 nanolayer thicknesses (number of deposition cycles). The established coating of minitablets was performed in a laboratory-scale fluidized-bed apparatus using four concentration levels of aqueous Eudragit (R) E coating polymer. The coated minitablets were studied with respect to the surface morphology, taste masking capacity, in vitro disintegration and dissolution, mechanical properties, and uniformity of content. The ALD thin coating resulted in minimal increase in the dimensions and weight of minitablets in comparison to original tablet cores. Surprisingly, ALD coating with TiO2 nanolayers decreased the mechanical strength, and accelerated the in vitro disintegration of minitablets. Unlike previous studies, the studied levels of TiO2 nanolayers on tablets were also inadequate for effective taste masking. In summary, ALD permits a simple and rapid method for the ultrathin coating (nanolayering) of minitablets, and provides nanoscale-range TiO2 coatings on porous minitablets. More research, however, is needed to clarify its potential in tablet taste masking applications. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Perez-Tanoira, Ramon; Horwat, David; Kinnari, Teemu J.; Perez-Jorge, Concepcion; Gomez-Barrena, Enrique; Migot, Sylvie; Esteban, Jaime (2016)
    The aim of this study was to compare the bacterial adhesion of Staphylococcus spp. on Ti-6Al-4V with respect to Ti-6Al-V modified alloys with a set of Cubic yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and Ag-YSZ nanocomposite films. Silver is well known to have a natural biocidal character and its presence in the surface predicted to enhance the antimicrobial properties of biomedical surfaces. Microbial adhesion tests were performed using collection strains and twelve clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The adherence study was performed using a previously published protocol by Kinnari et al. Both collection strains and clinical isolates have shown lower bacterial adhesion to materials modified with respect to the alloy Ti-6Al-4V and the modification with silver reduced the bacterial adhesion for most of all the strains studied. Moreover the percentage of dead bacteria have been evaluated, demonstrating increased proportion of dead bacteria for the modified surfaces. Nanocrystalline silver dissolves releasing both Ag+ and Ag-0 whereas other silver sources release only Ag+. We can conclude that YSZ with nanocrystalline silver coating may lead to diminished postoperative infections and to increased corrosion and scratch resistance of YSZ incorporating alloys Ti-6Al-4V.
  • Spiliopoulos, Panagiotis; Gestranius, Marie; Zhang, Chao; Ghiyasi, Ramin; Tomko, John; Arstila, Kai; Putkonen, Matti; Hopkins, Patrick E.; Karppinen, Maarit; Tammelin, Tekla; Kontturi, Eero (2022)
    The employment of atomic layer deposition and spin coating techniques for preparing inorganic-organic hybrid multilayer structures of alternating ZnO-CNC layers was explored in this study. Helium ion microscopy and X-ray reflectivity showed the superlattice formation for the nanolaminate structures and atomic force microscopy established the efficient control of the CNCs surface coverage on the Al-doped Zeta nO by manipulating the concentration of the spin coating solution. Thickness characterization of the hybrid structures was performed via both ellipsometry and X-ray reflectivity and the thermal conductivity was examined by time domain thermoreflectance technique. It appears that even the incorporation of a limited amount of CNCs between the ZnO laminates strongly suppresses the thermal conductivity. Even small, submonolayer amounts of CNCs worked as a more efficient insulating material than hydroquinone or cellulose nanofibers which have been employed in previous studies.
  • Reyes, Guillermo; Lundahl, Meri; Alejandro-Martin, Serguei; Arteaga-Perez, Luis; Oviedo, Claudia; King, Alistair; Rojas, Orlando J. (2020)
    Hydrogels of TEMPO-oxidized nanocellulose were stabilized for dry-jet wet spinning using a shell of cellulose dissolved in 1,5-diazabicyclo[4.3.0]non-5-enium propionate ([DBNH][CO2Et]), a protic ionic liquid (PIL). Coagulation in an acidic water bath resulted in continuous core-shell filaments (CSFs) that were tough and flexible with an average dry (and wet) toughness of similar to 11 (2) MJ.m(-3) and elongation of similar to 9 (14) %. The CSF morphology, chemical composition, thermal stability, crystallinity, and bacterial activity were assessed using scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, wide-angle X-ray scattering, and bacterial cell culturing, respectively. The coaxial wet spinning yields PIL-free systems carrying on the surface the cellulose II polymorph, which not only enhances the toughness of the filaments but facilities their functionalization.
  • Kemppi, H.; Finnilä, M.A.; Lorite, G.S.; Nelo, M.; Juuti, J.; Kokki, M.; Kokki, H.; Räsänen, Juha; Mobasheri, A.; Saarakkala, S. (2021)
    In tissue engineering, the scaffold topography influences the adhesion, proliferation, and function of cells. Specifically, the interconnected porosity is crucial for cell migration and nutrient delivery in 3D scaffolds. The objective of this study was to develop a 3D porous composite scaffold for musculoskeletal tissue engineering applications by incorporating barium titanate nanoparticles (BTNPs) into a poly-L/D-lactide copolymer (PLDLA) scaffold using the breath figure method. The porous scaffold fabrication utilised 96/04 PLDLA, dioleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE), and different types of BTNPs, including uncoated BTNPs, Al2O3-coated BTNPs, and SiO2-coated BTNPs. The BTNPs were incorporated into the polymer scaffold, which was subsequently analysed using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The biocompatibility of each scaffold was tested using ovine bone marrow stromal stem cells. The cell morphology, viability, and proliferation were evaluated using FE-SEM, LIVE/DEAD staining, and Prestoblue assay. Porous 3D composite scaffolds were successfully produced, and it was observed that the incorporation of uncoated BTNPs increased the average pore size from 1.6 mu m (PLDLA) to 16.2 mu m (PLDLA/BTNP). The increased pore size in the PLDLA/BTNP scaffolds provided a suitable porosity for the cells to migrate inside the scaffold, while in the pure PLDLA scaffolds with their much smaller pore size, cells elongated on the surface. To conclude, the breath figure method was successfully used to develop a PLDLA/BTNP scaffold. The use of uncoated BTNPs resulted in a composite scaffold with an optimal pore size while maintaining the honeycomb-like structure. The composite scaffolds were biocompatible and yielded promising structures for future tissue engineering applications.
  • Ajdary, Rubina; Reyes, Guillermo; Kuula, Jani; Raussi-Lehto, Eija; Mikkola, Tomi S.; Kankuri, Esko; Rojas, Orlando J. (2022)
    Direct ink writing via single or multihead extrusion is used to synthesize layer-by-layer (LbL) meshes comprising renewable polysaccharides. The best mechanical performance (683 ± 63 MPa modulus and 2.5 ± 0.4 MPa tensile strength) is observed for 3D printed structures with full infill density, given the role of electrostatic complexation between the oppositely charged components (chitosan and cellulose nanofibrils). The LbL structures develop an unexpectedly high wet stability that undergoes gradual weight loss at neutral and slightly acidic pH. The excellent biocompatibility and noncytotoxicity toward human monocyte/macrophages and controllable shrinkage upon solvent exchange make the cellular meshes appropriate for use as biomedical implants.
  • Heikkinen, Niko; Keskiväli, Laura; Palo, Jasmiina; Reinikainen, Matti; Putkonen, Matti (2022)
    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) and molecular layer deposition (MLD) methods were used to prepare overcoatings on a cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch catalyst. A Co-Pt-Si/gamma-Al2O3 catalyst (21.4 wt % Co, 0.2 wt % Pt, and 1.6 wt % Si) prepared by incipient wetness impregnation was ALD overcoated with 30-40 cycles of trimethylaluminum (TMA) and water, followed by temperature treatment (420 degrees C) in an inert nitrogen atmosphere. MLD-overcoated samples with corresponding film thicknesses were prepared by using TMA and ethylene glycol, followed by temperature treatment (400 degrees C) in an oxidative synthetic air atmosphere. The ALD catalyst (40 deposition cycles) had a positive activity effect upon moderate water addition (P-H2O/P-H2 = 0.42), and compared with a non-overcoated catalyst, it showed resistance to irreversible deactivation after co-fed water conditions. In addition, MLD overcoatings had a positive effect on the catalyst activity upon moderate water addition. However, compared with a non-overcoated catalyst, only the 10-cycle MLD-overcoated catalyst retained increased activity throughout high added water conditions (P-H2O/P-H2 = 0.71). All catalyst variations exhibited irreversible deactivation under high added water conditions.
  • Zhang, Xue; Viitala, Tapani; Harjumäki, Riina; Kartal-Hodzic, Alma; Valle-Delgado, Juan Jose; Österberg, Monika (2021)
    The development of in vitro cell models that mimic cell behavior in organs and tissues is an approach that may have remarkable impact on drug testing and tissue engineering applications in the future. Plant based, chemically unmodified cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) hydrogel is a natural, abundant, and biocompatible material that has attracted great attention for biomedical applications, in particular for threedimensional cell cultures. However, the mechanisms of cell-CNF interactions and factors that affect these interactions are not yet fully understood. In this work, multi-parametric surface plasmon resonance (SPR) was used to study how the adsorption of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells on CNF films is affected by the different proteins and components of the cell medium. Both human recombinant laminin 521 (LN-521, a natural protein of the extracellular matrix) and poly -L-lysine (PLL) adsorbed on CNF films and enhanced the attachment of HepG2 cells. Cell medium components (glucose and amino acids) and serum proteins (fetal bovine serum, FBS) also adsorbed on both bare CNF and on protein-coated CNF substrates. However, the adsorption of FBS hindered the attachment of HepG2 cells to LN-521and PLLcoated CNF substrates, suggesting that serum proteins blocked the formation of laminin-integrin bonds and decreased favorable PLL-cell electrostatic interactions. This work sheds light on the effect of different factors on cell attachment to CNF, paving the way for the utilization and optimization of CNF-based materials for different tissue engineering applications. (C) 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • Kupka, K.; Leino, A. A.; Ren, W.; Vazquez, H.; Åhlgren, E. H.; Nordlund, K.; Tomut, M.; Trautmann, C.; Kluth, P.; Toulemonde, M.; Djurabekova, F. (2018)
    Stable C-C bonds existing in several sp hybridizations place carbon thin films of different structural compositions among the materials most tolerant to radiation damage, for applications in extreme environments. One of such applications, solid state electron stripper foils for heavy-ion accelerators, requires the understanding of the structural changes induced by high-energy ion irradiation. Tolerance of carbon structure to radiation damage, thermal effects and stress waves due to swift heavy ion impacts defines the lifetime and operational efficiency of the foils. In this work, we analyze the consequences of a single swift heavy ion impact on two different amorphous carbon structures by means of molecular dynamic simulations. The structures are constructed by using two different recipes to exclude the correlation of the evolution of sp2-to-sp3 hybridization with the initial condition. Both initial structures contain approximately 60% of sp2-bonded carbon atoms, however, with different degree of clustering of atoms with sp3 hybridization. We simulate the swift heavy ion impact employing an instantaneous inelastic thermal spike model. The analysis of changes in density, bonding content and the number and size of carbon primitive rings reveals graphitization of the material within the ion track, with higher degree of disorder in the core and more order in the outer shell. Simulated track dimensions are comparable to those observed in small angle x-ray scattering measurements of evaporation-deposited amorphous carbon stripper foils irradiated by 1.14 GeV U ions.
  • Hynninen, Ville; Hietala, Sami; McKee, Jason R.; Murtomäki, Lasse; Rojas, Orlando J.; Ikkala, Olli; Nonappa, [No Value] (2018)
    We show that composite hydrogels comprising methyl cellulose (MC) and cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) colloidal rods display a reversible and enhanced rheological storage modulus and optical birefringence upon heating, i.e., inverse thermoreversibility. Dynamic rheology, quantitative polarized optical microscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), circular dichroism (CD), and scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) were used for characterization. The concentration of CNCs in aqueous media was varied up to 3.5 wt % (i.e, keeping the concentration below the critical aq concentration) while maintaining the MC aq concentration at 1.0 wt %. At 20 degrees C, MC/CNC underwent gelation upon passing the CNC concentration of 1.5 wt %. At this point, the storage modulus (G') reached a plateau, and the birefringence underwent a stepwise increase, thus suggesting a percolative phenomenon. The storage modulus (G') of the composite gels was an order of magnitude higher at 60 degrees C compared to that at 20 degrees C. ITC results suggested that, at 60 degrees C, the CNC rods were entropically driven to interact with MC chains, which according to recent studies collapse at this temperature into ring-like, colloidal-scale persistent fibrils with hollow cross-sections. Consequently, the tendency of the MC to form more persistent aggregates promotes the interactions between the CNC chiral aggregates towards enhanced storage modulus and birefringence. At room temperature, ITC shows enthalpic binding between CNCs and MC with the latter comprising aqueous, molecularly dispersed polymer chains that lead to looser and less birefringent material. TEM, SEM, and CD indicate CNC chiral fragments within a MC/CNC composite gel. Thus, MC/CNC hybrid networks offer materials with tunable rheological properties and access to liquid crystalline properties at low CNC concentrations.
  • Palasingh, Chonnipa; Nakayama, Koyuru; Abik, Felix; Mikkonen, Kirsi S.; Evenäs, Lars; Ström, Anna; Nypelö, Tiina (2022)
    Xylan is a biopolymer readily available from forest resources. Various modification methods, including oxidation with sodium periodate, have been shown to facilitate the engineering applications of xylan. However, modification procedures are often optimized for semicrystalline high molecular weight polysaccharide cellulose rather than for lower molecular weight and amorphous polysaccharide xylan. This paper elucidates the procedure for the periodate oxidation of xylan into dialdehyde xylan and its further reduction into a dialcohol form and is focused on the modification work up. The oxidation–reduction reaction decreased the molecular weight of xylan while increased the dispersity more than 50%. Unlike the unmodified xylan, all the modified grades could be solubilized in water, which we see essential for facilitating the future engineering applications of xylan. The selection of quenching and purification procedures and pH-adjustment of the reduction step had no significant effect on the degree of oxidation, molecular weight and only a minor effect on the hydrodynamic radius in water. Hence, it is possible to choose the simplest oxidation-reduction route without time consuming purification steps within the sequence.
  • Liu, Jian; Muinos, Henrique Vazquez; Nordlund, Kai; Djurabekova, Flyura (2020)
    As a promising material used in accelerators and in space in the future, it is important to study the property and structural changes of graphene and diamond-like carbon on the surface as a protective layer before and after swift heavy ion irradiation, although this layer could have a loose structure due to the intrinsic sp(2) surrounding environment of graphene during its deposition period. In this study, by utilizing inelastic thermal spike model and molecular dynamics, we simulated swift heavy ion irradiation and examined the track radius in the vertical direction, as well as temperature, density, and sp(3) fraction distribution along the radius from the irradiation center at different time after irradiation. The temperature in the irradiation center can reach over 11000 K at the beginning of irradiation while there would be a low density and sp(3) fraction area left in the central region after 100 ps. Ring analysis also demonstrated a more chaotic cylindrical region in the center after irradiation. After comprehensive consideration, diamond-like carbon deposited by 70 eV carbon bombardment provided the best protection.
  • Forsman, Nina; Johansson, Leena-Sisko; Koivula, Hanna; Tuure, Matilda; Kääriäinen, Pirjo; Österberg, Monika (2020)
    Environmental benign cellulosic textiles are hampered by their tendency to absorb water, which restricts their use in functional clothing. Herein we describe a method to functionalize textile surfaces using thin, open coatings based on natural wax particles and natural polymers rendering cellulosic fabrics water-repellent while retaining their feel and breathability. The impact of curing temperature, cationic polymer and fabric properties on wetting and long-term water-repellency were studied using contact angle measurements and scanning electron microscopy. The wetting properties were correlated to roughness of the textiles using white light interferometer. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed the surface chemical composition, leading to fundamental understanding of the effect of annealing on the wax layer. Breathability was evaluated by water vapor permeability. The optimal curing temperature was 70 °C. The developed coating performed well on different natural textiles, and better than commercial alternatives. A set of garment prototypes were produced using the coating.
  • Liekkinen, Juho; Enkavi, Giray; Javanainen, Matti; Olmeda, Barbara; Pérez-Gil, Jesús; Vattulainen, Ilpo (2020)
    Surfactant protein B (SP-B) is essential in transferring surface-active phospholipids from membrane-based surfactant complexes into the alveolar air-liquid interface. This allows maintaining the mechanical stability of the surfactant film under high pressure at the end of expiration; therefore, SP-B is crucial in lung function. Despite its necessity, the structure and the mechanism of lipid transfer by SP-B have remained poorly characterized. Earlier, we proposed higher-order oligomerization of SP-B into ring-like supramolecular assemblies. In the present work, we used coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations to elucidate how the ring-like oligomeric structure of SP-B determines its membrane binding and lipid transfer. In particular, we explored how SP-B interacts with specific surfactant lipids, and how consequently SP-B reorganizes its lipid environment to modulate the pulmonary surfactant structure and function. Based on these studies, there are specific lipid-protein interactions leading to perturbation and reorganization of pulmonary surfactant layers. Especially, we found compelling evidence that anionic phospholipids and cholesterol are needed or even crucial in the membrane binding and lipid transfer function of SP-B. Also, on the basis of the simulations, larger oligomers of SP-B catalyze lipid transfer between adjacent surfactant layers. Better understanding of the molecular mechanism of SP-B will help in the design of therapeutic SP-B-based preparations and novel treatments for fatal respiratory complications, such as the acute respiratory distress syndrome. (C) 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Harjumaki, Riina; Nugroho, Robertus Wahyu N.; Zhang, Xue; Lou, Yan-Ru; Yliperttula, Marjo; Valle-Delgado, Juan Jose; Österberg, Monika (2019)
    In vitro cell culture or tissue models that mimic in vivo cellular response have potential in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, and are a more economical and accurate option for drug toxicity tests than animal experimentation. The design of in vivo-like cell culture models should take into account how the cells interact with the surrounding materials and how these interactions affect the cell behavior. Cell-material interactions are furthermore important in cancer metastasis and tumor progression, so deeper understanding of them can support the development of new cancer treatments. Herein, the colloidal probe microscopy technique was used to quantify the interactions of two cell lines (human pluripotent stem cell line WA07 and human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2) with natural, xeno-free biomaterials of different chemistry, morphology, and origin. Key components of extracellular matrices -human collagens I and IV, and human recombinant laminin-521-, as well as wood-derived, cellulose nanofibrils -with evidenced potential for 3D cell culture and tissue engineering- were analysed. Both strength of adhesion and force curve profiles depended on biomaterial nature and cell characteristics. The successful growth of the cells on a particular biomaterial required cell-biomaterial adhesion energies above 0.23 nJ/m. The information obtained in this work supports the development of new materials or hybrid scaffolds with tuned cell adhesion properties for tissue engineering, and provides a better understanding of the interactions of normal and cancerous cells with biomaterials in the human body.
  • Nugroho, Robertus Wahyu N.; Harjumäki, Riina; Zhang, Xue; Lou, Yan-Ru; Yliperttula, Marjo; Valle-Delgado, Juan Jose; Österberg, Monika (2019)
    Biomaterials of different nature have been and are widely studied for various biomedical applications. In many cases, biomaterial assemblies are designed to mimic biological systems. Although biomaterials have been thoroughly characterized in many aspects, not much quantitative information on the molecular level interactions between different biomaterials is available. That information is very important, on the one hand, to understand the properties of biological systems and, on the other hand, to develop new composite biomaterials for special applications. This work presents a systematic, quantitative analysis of self- and cross-interactions between films of collagen I (Col I), collagen IV (Col IV), laminin (LN-521), and cellulose nanofibrils (CNF), that is, biomaterials of different nature and structure that either exist in biological systems (e.g., extracellular matrices) or have shown potential for 3D cell culture and tissue engineering. Direct surface forces and adhesion between biomaterials-coated spherical micro-particles and flat substrates were measured in phosphate-buffered saline using an atomic force microscope and the colloidal probe technique. Different methods (Langmuir-Schaefer deposition, spin-coating, or adsorption) were applied to completely coat the flat substrates and the spherical micro particles with homogeneous biomaterial films. The adhesion between biomaterials films increased with the time that the films were kept in contact. The strongest adhesion was observed between Col IV films, and between Col IV and LN-521 films after 30 s contact time. In contrast, low adhesion was measured between CNF films, as well as between CNF and LN-521 films. Nevertheless, a good adhesion between CNF and collagen films (especially Col I) was observed. These results increase our understanding of the structure of biological systems and can support the design of new matrices or scaffolds where different biomaterials are combined for diverse biological or medical applications.
  • Ahvenniemi, Esko; Akbashev, Andrew R.; Ali, Saima; Bechelany, Mikhael; Berdova, Maria; Boyadjiev, Stefan; Cameron, David C.; Chen, Rong; Chubarov, Mikhail; Cremers, Veronique; Devi, Anjana; Drozd, Viktor; Elnikova, Liliya; Gottardi, Gloria; Grigoras, Kestutis; Hausmann, Dennis M.; Hwang, Cheol Seong; Jen, Shih-Hui; Kallio, Tanja; Kanervo, Jaana; Khmelnitskiy, Ivan; Kim, Do Han; Klibanov, Lev; Koshtyal, Yury; Krause, A. Outi I.; Kuhs, Jakob; Kaerkkaenen, Irina; Kaariainen, Marja-Leena; Kääriäinen, Tommi; Lamagna, Luca; Lapicki, Adam A.; Leskelä, Markku; Lipsanen, Harri; Lyytinen, Jussi; Malkov, Anatoly; Malygin, Anatoly; Mennad, Abdelkader; Militzer, Christian; Molarius, Jyrki; Norek, Malgorzata; Ozgit-Akgun, Cagla; Panov, Mikhail; Pedersen, Henrik; Piallat, Fabien; Popov, Georgi; Puurunen, Riikka L.; Rampelberg, Geert; Ras, Robin H. A.; Rauwel, Erwan; Roozeboom, Fred; Sajavaara, Timo; Salami, Hossein; Savin, Hele; Schneider, Nathanaelle; Seidel, Thomas E.; Sundqvist, Jonas; Suyatin, Dmitry B.; Torndahl, Tobias; van Ommen, J. Ruud; Wiemer, Claudia; Ylivaara, Oili M. E.; Yurkevich, Oksana (2017)
    Atomic layer deposition (ALD), a gas-phase thin film deposition technique based on repeated, self-terminating gas-solid reactions, has become the method of choice in semiconductor manufacturing and many other technological areas for depositing thin conformal inorganic material layers for various applications. ALD has been discovered and developed independently, at least twice, under different names: atomic layer epitaxy (ALE) and molecular layering. ALE, dating back to 1974 in Finland, has been commonly known as the origin of ALD, while work done since the 1960s in the Soviet Union under the name "molecular layering" (and sometimes other names) has remained much less known. The virtual project on the history of ALD (VPHA) is a volunteer-based effort with open participation, set up to make the early days of ALD more transparent. In VPHA, started in July 2013, the target is to list, read and comment on all early ALD academic and patent literature up to 1986. VPHA has resulted in two essays and several presentations at international conferences. This paper, based on a poster presentation at the 16th International Conference on Atomic Layer Deposition in Dublin, Ireland, 2016, presents a recommended reading list of early ALD publications, created collectively by the VPHA participants through voting. The list contains 22 publications from Finland, Japan, Soviet Union, United Kingdom, and United States. Up to now, a balanced overview regarding the early history of ALD has been missing; the current list is an attempt to remedy this deficiency. (C) 2016 Author(s).
  • Pitkänen, Leena M.; Heinonen, Marina; Mikkonen, Kirsi S. (2018)
    A growing population and concern over the sufficiency of natural resources for feeding this population has motivated researchers and industries to search for alternative and complementary sources of food ingredients and additives. Numerous plant species and parts of plants are explored as raw materials for food production. An interesting example is wood; to date, few wood-based additives or ingredients are authorized for food use. Wood hemicelluloses, such as softwood galactoglucomannans (GGM), constitute an abundant bioresource that shows a highly potential functionality in edible materials. Spruce GGM—“spruce gum”—acts as a multi-functional emulsion stabilizer, and it could be used in various processed food products, replacing less effective, conventional emulsifiers. Before new materials can be released onto the food market, their safety must be evaluated, according to the Novel Food regulation. This review focuses on the safety aspects that must be considered before polysaccharide- and phenolic-rich plant extracts can be awarded the status of authorized food ingredients. In this review, GGM is presented as a case study and examples are given of plant-based polysaccharides that are already authorized for food purposes. The legislation regarding Novel Food ingredients in Europe is also briefly reviewed.