Browsing by Subject "FINE-NEEDLE-ASPIRATION"

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  • Coca-Pelaz, Andres; Bishop, Justin A.; Zidar, Nina; Agaimy, Abbas; Mello Santiago Gebrim, Eloisa Maria; Mondin, Vanni; Cohen, Oded; Strojan, Primoz; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Shaha, Ashok R.; de Bree, Remco; Hamoir, Marc; Mäkitie, Antti A.; Kowalski, Luiz P.; Saba, Nabil F.; Ferlito, Alfio (2022)
    Introduction: Lymph node metastasis (LNM) from primary tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) is an infrequent condition, and classically it was thought that CNS tumors could not spread via the lymphatic route. Recent discoveries about this route of dissemination make its knowledge necessary for surgeons and pathologists to avoid delays in diagnosis and unnecessary treatments. The aim of this paper is to review the literature and to discuss the relevant pathogenetic mechanism and the cytologic features along with recommendations for surgical treatment of these cervical LNM. Materials and Methods: Using PRISMA guidelines, we conducted a systematic review of the literature published from 1944 to 2021, updating the comprehensive review published in 2010 by our group. Results: Our review includes data of 143 articles obtaining 174 patients with LNM from a primary CNS tumor. The mean age of the patients was 31.9 years (range, 0.1-87) and there were 61 females (35.1%) and 103 males (59.2%), and in 10 cases (5.7%) the gender was not specified. The more frequent sites of distant metastasis were bones (23%), lungs (11.5%) and non-cervical lymph nodes (11%). Conclusion: Cervical LNM from CNS tumors is infrequent. Pathologic diagnosis can be obtained by fine-needle aspiration cytology in most cases, giving surgeons the option to plan the appropriate surgical treatment. Given the poor prognosis of these cases, the most conservative possible cervical dissection is usually the treatment of choice.
  • Ito, Akira; Nakao, Minoru; Lavikainen, Antti; Hoberg, Eric (2017)
    Human cystic echinococcosis (CE) has been considered to be caused predominantly by Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (the dog-sheep strain). Molecular approaches' on CE, however, have revealed that human cases are also commonly caused by another species, Echinococcus canadensis. All indices for classification and standardization of CE pathology including available images, epidemiology, diagnostics and treatment are currently based largely on a mixture of infections which include at least E. granulosus s.s. and E. canadensis. Involvement of other species of Echinococcus in CE including E. ortleppi or otherwise cryptic diversity demonstrated recently in Africa requires further elucidation. Molecular identification of the causative species in CE cases is essential for better understanding of pathogenesis and disease. This article stresses the importance of molecular species identification of human CE as a foundation for re-evaluation of evidence-based epidemiology. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Int Head & Neck Sci Grp; Civantos, Francisco J.; Vermorken, Jan B.; Shah, Jatin P.; Mäkitie, Antti A.; Ferlito, Alfio (2020)
    Background Patients with metastases in the lymph nodes of the neck and no obvious primary tumor, neck cancer with unknown primary (NCUP), represent a management challenge. A majority of patients have metastatic squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), although other histologies do occur. Methods We comprehensively reviewed the literature, compared available guidelines, and conferred with an international team of experts. Results Positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) and fine needle aspiration (FNA) under ultrasound guidance increase accuracy of diagnosis. Immunohistochemistry (IHC), determination of human papilloma virus (HPV) status, by p16 staining or by in situ hybridization (ISH), and next-generation gene sequencing can guide us regarding probable primary sites and tumor biology. Narrow Band Imaging (NBI) has been introduced for the early detection of subtle mucosal lesions. Direct laryngoscopy (DL) and tonsillectomy have long been procedures used in the search for a primary site. More recently, TransOral Robotic Surgery (TORS) or Transoral LASER Microsurgery (TLM) have been introduced for lingual tonsillectomy. Conclusions New technologies have been developed which can better detect, diagnose, and treat occult primary tumors. Decisions regarding therapy are based on the primary tumor site (if discovered) and N stage. Options include neck dissection with or without postoperative adjuvant therapy, primary irradiation, or combined chemotherapy with irradiation. The preferred treatment of patients whose primary remains unidentified is controversial.
  • Aro, Katri; Korpi, Jarkko; Tarkkanen, Jussi; Mäkitie, Antti; Atula, Timo (2020)
    Background: The nature of parotid tumors often remains unknown preoperatively and final histopathology may reveal unexpected malignancy. Still, the use of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and imaging varies in the management of these tumors. Methods: We evaluated the preoperative examinations and management of all 195 parotid gland tumors diagnosed within our catchment area of 1.6 million people during 2015. Results: Altogether 171 (88%) tumors were classified as true salivary gland neoplasms. FNAC showed no false malignant findings, but it was false benign in 5 (2.6%) cases. Preoperative MRI was utilized in 48 patients (25%). Twenty (10%) malignancies included 16 salivary gland carcinomas. Pleomorphic adenomas accounted for 52% of all adenomas. For 24 (40%) Warthin tumors, surgery was omitted. Conclusion: The proportion of malignancies was lower than generally presented. Our proposed guidelines include ultrasound-guided FNAC with certain limitations. MRI is warranted in selected cases, but seems unnecessary routinely.