Browsing by Subject "FISH-OIL"

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  • Qin, Nanbing; Bayat, Ali-Reza; Trevisi, Erminio; Minuti, Andrea; Kairenius, Piia; Viitala, Sirja; Mutikainen, Mervi; Leskinen, Heidi; Elo, Kari Tapani; Kokkonen, Tuomo Juhani; Vilkki, Johanna (2018)
    To investigate the metabolic (.11, ! in the adipose tissue (AT) of dairy cows under milk fat depression (MFD), 30 cows were randomly allocated to a control diet, a conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-supplemented diet, or a high-starch diet supplemented with a mixture of sunflower and fish oil (2:1; as HSO diet) from 1 to 112 d in milk. Performance of animals, milk yield, milk composition, energy balance, and blood metabolites were measured during lactation. Quantitative PCR analyses were conducted on the AT samples collected at wk 3 and 15 of lactation. The CLA and HSO diets considerably depressed milk fat yield and milk fat content at both wk 3 and 15 in the absence of significant changes in milk protein and lactose contents. In addition, the HSO diet lowered milk yield at wk 15 and decreased dry matter intake of cows from wk 3 to 15. Compared with the control, both CLA and HSO groups showed reduced body weight loss, improved energy balance, and decreased plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and beta-hydroxybutyrate at early lactation. The gene expression analyses reflected suppressed lipolysis in AT of the CLA and HSO groups compared with the control at wk 3, as suggested by the downregulation of hormone-sensitive lipase and fatty acid binding protein 4 and the upregulation of perilipin 2. In addition, the HSO diet promoted lipogenesis in AT at wk 15 through the upregulation of 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 2, mitochondria' glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, perilipin 2, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. The CLA diet likely regulated insulin sensitivity in AT as it upregulated the transcription of various genes involved in insulin signaling, inflammatory responses, and ceramide metabolism, including protein kinase B2, nuclear factor kappa B1, toll-like receptor 4, caveolin 1, serine palmitoyltransferase long chain base subunit 1, and N-acylsphingosine amidohydrolase 1. In contrast, the HSO diet resulted in little or no change in the pathways relevant to insulin sensitivity. In conclusion, the CLA and HSO diets induced a shift in energy partitioning toward AT instead of mammary gland during lactation through the regulation of different pathways.
  • Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Käkelä, Reijo; Lehenkari, Petri; Huhtakangas, Johanna; Turunen, Sanna; Joukainen, Antti; Kaariainen, Tommi; Paakkonen, Tommi; Kroger, Heikki; Nieminen, Petteri (2019)
    Background: Infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) has recently emerged as a potential source of inflammation in knee arthropathies. It has been proposed to be one source of adipocytokines, fatty acids (FA), and FA-derived lipid mediators that could contribute to the pathophysiological processes in the knee joint. Alterations in synovial fluid (SF) lipid composition have been linked to both osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of the present study was to compare the FA signatures in the IFP and SF of RA and OA patients. Methods: Pairs of IFP and SF samples were collected from the same knees of RA (n=10) and OA patients (n=10) undergoing total joint replacement surgery. Control SF samples (n=6) were harvested during diagnostic or therapeutic arthroscopic knee surgery unrelated to RA or OA. The FA composition in the total lipids of IFP and SF was determined by gas chromatography with flame ionization and mass spectrometric detection. Results: Arthropathies resulted in a significant reduction in the SF proportions of n-6 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA), more pronouncedly in OA than in RA. OA was also characterized with reduced percentages of 22:6n-3 and lower product/precursor ratios of n-3 PUFA. The proportions of total monounsaturated FA increased in both RA and OA SF. Regarding IFP, RA patients had lower proportions of 20:4n-6, total n-6 PUFA, and 22:6n-3, as well as lower product/precursor ratios of n-3 PUFA compared to OA patients. The average chain length of SF FA decreased in both diagnoses and the double bond index in OA. Conclusions: The observed complex alterations in the FA signatures could have both contributed to but also limited the inflammatory processes and cartilage destruction in the RA and OA knees.
  • Damerau, Annelie; Kakko, Tanja; Tian, Ye; Tuomasjukka, Saska; Sandell, Mari; Hopia, Anu; Yang, Baoru (2020)
    A promising way of processing Baltic herring, Clupea harengus membras, is turning the fish into boneless mince. However, Baltic herring is prone to lipid oxidation, which possesses a challenge for industrial applications. The aim of this work was to study the efficacy of press cakes from Finnish berries and a supercritical CO2 plant extract to limit lipid oxidation during frozen storage of Baltic herring mince and to determine the impact of these additions on consumer acceptance in a fish product. Peroxide value, formation of volatile oxidation products and loss of polyunsaturated fatty acids showed that the tested natural additives decreased oxidation to a greater or similar extent as conventional antioxidants during 10-month storage. While potential of berry press cakes and plant extracts as "green label antioxidants" was shown, consumer study indicated need for further research to reach both optimal antioxidative efficacy and sensory properties.