Browsing by Subject "FLAVOR"

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  • Seppä, Laila Elisabet; Tahvonen, Risto; Tuorila, Hely Margareetta (2016)
  • Frank, Mariana; Huitu, Katri; Mondal, Subhadeep (2019)
    We analyze supersymmetric models augmented by an extra U(1) gauge group. To avoid anomalies in these models without introducing exotics, we allow for family-dependent U(1)' charges, and choose a simple form for these, dependent on one U(1)' charge parameter only. With this choice, Z' decays into ditaus but not dileptons, weakening considerably the constraints on its mass. In the supersymmetric sector, the effect is to lower the singlino mass, allowing it to be the dark matter candidate. We investigate the dark matter constraints and collider implications of such models, with mostly singlinos, mostly Higgsinos, or a mixture of the two as the lightest supersymmetric particles. In these scenarios, Z' decays significantly into chargino or neutralino pairs, and thus indirectly into final state leptons. We devise benchmarks which, with adequate cuts, can yield signals visible at the high-luminosity LHC.
  • Greis, Maija; Sainio, Taru Orvokki; Katina, Kati; Kinchla, Amanda J.; Nolden, Alissa; Partanen, Riitta; Seppä, Laila (2020)
    As texture properties in novel food categories have a crucial role in consumer acceptance, mouthfeel profile of different plant-based yogurt-like semi-solid products were studied and compared to dairy yogurts. Mouthfeel properties of five plant-based yogurt-like products and two dairy yogurts were analyzed using temporal dominance of sensations (TDS) with consumers (n = 87). The attributes evaluated were thick, thin, creamy, watery, sticky, and foamy. Following TDS, overall liking and mouthfeel liking were evaluated using a 7-point hedonic scale. Temporal drivers of mouthfeel liking were studied using correspondence analysis and penalty-lift analysis with different time points during mastication. For penalty-lift analysis TDS data was analyzed as check-all-that apply (CATA) data. Results from the present work show that mouthfeel perception in non-dairy yogurt alternatives is a dynamic process. Attributes typically used to describe dairy yogurts are also relevant for describing non-dairy yogurt alternatives. Yogurt alternatives and dairy yogurts can be similar and equally liked by their mouthfeel profile. Temporal drivers of liking in plant-based products are thickness and creaminess and temporal drivers of disliking are thinness and wateriness. In this study, the first dominant attributes were found to have a stronger impact on mouthfeel liking than the dominant attributes perceived later during mastication.
  • Hoppu, Ulla; Puputti, Sari; Mattila, Saila; Puurtinen, Marjaana; Sandell, Mari (2020)
    The food experience is multisensory and multisensory external stimuli may affect food choice and emotions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a multisensory eating environment on food choice, intake and the emotional states of the subjects in a salad lunch buffet setting. A total of 30 female subjects consumed a salad lunch twice in the multisensory laboratory. The two test conditions (control and multisensory condition with environmental stimuli) were randomized and the visits were scheduled one week apart. Subjects selected and ate a meal from a salad buffet including 14 food items and the intake of each item was weighed. They answered an online questionnaire about the meal and their emotional states (20 different emotion terms) after the lunch. There was no significant difference in the food consumption between the control and multisensory conditions. The subjects were very satisfied with their lunch for both study visits but the pleasantness of the eating environment was rated higher under the multisensory condition. In emotional terms, the subjects selected the term "happy" significantly more frequently under the multisensory condition compared with the control. In conclusion, the multisensory eating environment in this study was not related to food intake but may be associated with positive emotions. The effect of the eating environment on food choice and experience deserves further study with a larger study population in a real lunch restaurant setting.
  • Acharya, S.; Brucken, E. J.; Chang, B.; Kim, D. J.; Litichevskyi, V.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Orava, R.; Rak, J.; Räsänen, S. S.; Snellman, T. W.; Trzaska, W. H.; Viinikainen, J.; The ALICE collaboration (2017)
    We report a precise measurement of the J/psi elliptic flow in Pb-Pb collisions at root s(NN) = 5.02 TeV with the ALICE detector at the LHC. The J/psi mesons are reconstructed at midrapidity (|y| <0.9) in the dielectron decay channel and at forward rapidity (2.5 <y <4.0) in the dimuon channel, both down to zero transverse momentum. At forward rapidity, the elliptic flow v(2) of the J/psi is studied as a function of the transverse momentum and centrality. A positive v(2) is observed in the transverse momentum range 2
  • The ALICE collaboration; Acharya, S.; Brucken, E. J.; Chang, B.; Kim, D. J.; Litichevskyi, V.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Orava, R.; Rak, J.; Räsänen, S. S.; Saarinen, S.; Slupecki, M.; Snellman, T. W.; Trzaska, W. H.; Vargyas, M.; Viinikainen, J. (2018)
    The p(T)-differential production cross section of prompt Lambda(+)(c) charmed baryons was measured with the ALICE detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in pp collisions at root s = 7 TeV and in p-Pb collisions at root s(NN) = 5.02 TeV at midrapidity. The Lambda(+)(c) and (Lambda) over bar (-)(c) were reconstructed in the hadronic decay modes Lambda(+)(c) -> pK(-)pi(+), Lambda(+)(c)-> pK(S)(0)) and in the semileptonic channel Lambda(+ )(c)-> e(+)nu(e)Lambda (and charge conjugates). The measured values of the Lambda(+)(c)/D-0 ratio, which is sensitive to the c-quark hadronisation mechanism, and in particular to the production of baryons, are presented and are larger than those measured previously in different colliding systems, centre-of-mass energies, rapidity and p(T) intervals, where the Lambda(+)(c) production process may differ. The results are compared with the expectations obtained from perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics calculations and Monte Carlo event generators. Neither perturbative QCD calculations nor Monte Carlo models reproduce the data, indicating that the fragmentation of heavy-flavour baryons is not well understood. The first measurement at the LHC of the Lambda(+)(c) nuclear modification factor, R-ppb, is also presented. The R-ppb is found to be consistent with unity and with that of D mesons within the uncertainties, and consistent with a theoretical calculation that includes cold nuclear matter effects and a calculation that includes charm quark interactions with a deconfined medium.
  • Yang, Zhen; Piironen, Vieno Irene; Lampi, Anna-Maija (2017)
    The aim was to study lipase, lipoxygenase (LOX) and peroxygenase (PDX) activities in oat and faba bean samples to be able to evaluate their potential in formation of lipid-derived off-flavours. Lipase and LOX activities were measured by spectroscopy, and PDX activities via the formation of epoxides. An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography method was developed to study the formation of fatty acid epoxides. The epoxides of esters were measured by gas chromatography. Mass spectroscopy was used to verify the identity of the epoxides. Both oat and faba bean possessed high lipase activities. In faba bean, LOX catalysed the formation of hydroperoxides, whose break-down products are the likely cause of off-flavours. Since oat had low LOX activity, autoxidation is needed to initiate lipid oxidation. Oat had high PDX activity, which is able to convert hydroperoxides to epoxy and hydroxy fatty acids that could contribute significantly to off-flavours. PDX activity in the faba bean was low. Thus, in faba bean volatile lipid oxidation products could rapidly be formed by LOX, whereas in oat reactions are slower due to the need of autoxidation prior to further reactions.
  • The ALICE collaboration; Acharya, S.; Brücken, E. J.; Chang, B.; Hilden, T. E.; Kim, D. J.; Litichevskyi, V.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Orava, R.; Parkkila, J. E.; Rak, J.; Räsänen, S. S.; Saarinen, S.; Slupecki, M.; Snellman, T. W.; Trzaska, W. H.; Vargyas, M.; Viinikainen, J. (2018)
    We report measurements of the production of prompt D-0, D+, D*+ and D TeV. For D mesons, the values of R-AA are larger than those of non-strange D mesons, but compatible within uncertainties. In central collisions the average R-AA of non-strange D mesons is compatible with that of charged particles for p 8 GeV/c, while it is larger at lower p(T). The nuclear modification factors for strange and non-strange D mesons are also compared to theoretical models with different implementations of in-medium energy loss.
  • Adam, J.; Brucken, E. J.; Chang, B.; Kim, D. J.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Orava, R.; Rak, J.; Räsänen, S. S.; Snellman, T. W.; Trzaska, W. H.; Viinikainen, J.; The ALICE collaboration (2017)
    The production of beauty hadrons was measured via semi-leptonic decays at mid-rapidity with the ALICE detector at the LHC in the transverse momentum interval 1 <PT <8 GeV/c in minimum-bias p-Pb collisions at root(NN)-N-S = 5.02 TeV and in 1.3 <PT <8 GeV/c in the 20% most central Pb-Pb collisions at root(NN)-N-S = 2.76 TeV. The pp reference spectra at root s = 5.02 TeV and root s = 2.76 TeV, needed for the calculation of the nuclear modification factors RpPb and R-PbPb, were obtained by a pQCD-driven scaling of the cross section of electrons from beauty-hadron decays measured at root s = 7 TeV. In the PT interval 3 <PT <8 GeV/c, a suppression of the yield of electrons from beauty-hadron decays is observed in Pb-Pb compared to pp collisions. Towards lower PT, the R-PbPb values increase with large systematic uncertainties. The R-ppb is consistent with unity within systematic uncertainties and is well described by theoretical calculations that include cold nuclear matter effects in p-Pb collisions. The measured R-pPb and these calculations indicate that cold nuclear matter effects are small at high transverse momentum also in Pb-Pb collisions. Therefore, the observed reduction of R-PbPb below unity at high PT may be ascribed to an effect of the hot and dense medium formed in Pb-Pb collisions.
  • The CMS collaboration; Sirunyan, A. M.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T. (2018)
    The prompt D-0 meson azimuthal anisotropy coefficients, v(2) and ?v(3), are measured at midrapidity ( |y| < 1.0) in Pb-Pb collisions at a center-of-mass energy root s(NN) = 5.02 TeV per nucleon pair with data collected by the CMS experiment. The measurement is performed in the transverse momentum (p(T)) range of 1 to 40 GeV/c, for central and midcentral collisions. The v(2) coefficient is found to be positive throughout the p(T) range studied. The first measurement of the prompt D-0 meson v(3) coefficient is performed, and values up to 0.07 are observed for p(T) around 4 GeV/c. Compared to measurements of charged particles, a similar p(T) dependence, but smaller magnitude for p(T) < 6 GeV/r, is found for prompt D-0 meson v(2) and v(3) coefficients. The results are consistent with the presence of collective motion of charm quarks at low p(r) and a path length dependence of charm quark energy loss at high p(r), thereby providing new constraints on the theoretical description of the interactions between charm quarks and the quark-gluon plasma.
  • The ALICE collaboration; Acharya, S.; Adamova, D.; Huhta, Laura Maria; Kim, D. J.; Krizek, F.; Molander, Mikael Andreas; Novitzky, Norbert; Onnerstad, A.; Parkkila, J. E.; Rytkönen, Heidi Maria; Räsänen, Sami; Saarimäki, Oskari Antti Matti; Slupecki, M.; Trzaska, W. H. (2022)
    The production yield and angular anisotropy of prompt D-s(+) mesons were measured as a function of transverse momentum (p(T)) in Pb-Pb collisions at a centre-of-mass energy per nucleon pair root s(NN) = 5.02 TeV collected with the ALICE detector at the LHC. D-s(+) mesons and their charge conjugates were reconstructed at midrapidity (vertical bar y vertical bar < 0.5) from their hadronic decay channel D-s(+) -> phi pi(+), with phi -> K-K+, in the p(T) intervals 2 < p(T) < 50 GeV/c and 2 < p(T) < 36 GeV/c for the 0-10% and 30-50% centrality intervals. For p(T) > 10 GeV/c, the measured D-s(+)-meson nuclear modification factor R-AA is consistent with the one of non-strange D mesons within uncertainties, while at lower p(T) a hint for a D-s(+)-meson R-AA larger than that of non-strange D mesons is seen. The enhanced production of D-s(+) relative to non-strange D mesons is also studied by comparing the p(T)-dependent D-s(+)/D-0 production yield ratios in Pb-Pb and in pp collisions. The ratio measured in Pb-Pb collisions is found to be on average higher than that in pp collisions in the interval 2 < p(T) < 8 GeV/c with a significance of 2.3 sigma and 2.4 sigma for the 0-10% and 30-50% centrality intervals. The azimuthal anisotropy coefficient v(2) of prompt D-s(+) mesons was measured in Pb-Pb collisions in the 30-50% centrality interval and is found to be compatible with that of non-strange D mesons. The main features of the measured R-AA, D-s(+)/D-0 ratio, and v(2) as a function of p(T) are described by theoretical calculations of charm-quark transport in a hydrodynamically expanding quark-gluon plasma including hadronisation via charm-quark recombination with light quarks from the medium. The p(T)-integrated production yield of D-s(+) mesons is compatible with the prediction of the statistical hadronisation model. (c) 2022 European Organization for Nuclear Research, ALICE. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license ( Funded by SCOAP(3).
  • The ALICE collaboration; Acharya, S.; Adamova, D.; Huhta, Laura Maria; Kim, D. J.; Krizek, F.; Molander, Mikael Andreas; Novitzky, Norbert; Onnerstad, A.; Parkkila, J. E.; Rytkönen, Heidi Maria; Räsänen, Sami; Saarimäki, Oskari Antti Matti; Slupecki, M.; Trzaska, W. H. (2022)
    The production of prompt D-0, D+, and D*(+) mesons was measured at midrapidity (vertical bar y vertical bar < 0.5) in Pb-Pb collisions at the centre-of-mass energy per nucleon-nucleon pair root S-NN = 5.02 TeV with the ALICE detector at the LHC. The D mesons were reconstructed via their hadronic decay channels and their production yields were measured in central (0-10%) and semicentral (30-50%) collisions. The measurement was performed up to a transverse momentum (p(T)) of 36 or 50 GeV/c depending on the D meson species and the centrality interval. For the first time in Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC, the yield of D-0 mesons was measured down to p(T) = 0, which allowed a model-independent determination of the p(T)-integrated yield per unit of rapidity (dN/dy). A maximum suppression by a factor 5 and 2.5 was observed with the nuclear modification factor (R-AA) of prompt D mesons at p(T) = 6-8 GeV/c for the 0-10% and 30-50% centrality classes, respectively. The D-meson R-AA is compared with that of charged pions, charged hadrons, and J/psi mesons as well as with theoretical predictions. The analysis of the agreement between the measured R-AA, elliptic (v(2)) and triangular (v(3)) flow, and the model predictions allowed us to constrain the charm spatial diffusion coefficient D-s. Furthermore the comparison of R-AA and v(2) with different implementations of the same models provides an important insight into the role of radiative energy loss as well as charm quark recombination in the hadronisation mechanisms.
  • Ghosh, Dilip Kumar; Huitu, Katri; Mondal, Subhadeep; Mitra, Manimala (2019)
    We explore a minimal supersymmetric standard model scenario extended by one pair of gauge singlets per generation. In the model, light neutrino masses and their mixings are generated via the inverse seesaw mechanism. In such a scenario, a right-handed sneutrino can be the lightest supersymmetric particle and a cold dark matter (DM) candidate. if the Casas-Ibarra parametrization is imposed on the Dirac neutrino Yukawa coupling matrix (Y-nu) to fit the neutrino oscillation data, the resulting Y-nu is highly constrained from the lepton-flavor-violating decay constraints. The smallness of Y-nu requires the sneutrino DM to coannihilate with other sparticle(s) in order to satisfy the DM relic density constraint. We study sneutrino coannihilation with winos and observe that this sneutrino-wino compressed parameter space gives rise to a novel same-sign trilepton signal for the top squark, which is more effective than the conventional top squark search channels in the present framework. We show that the choice of neutrino mass hierarchy strongly affects the signal event rate, making it easier to probe the scenario with the inverted mass hierarchy.