Browsing by Subject "FLOW"

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  • Pallares, Jordi; Senan, Oriol; Guimera, Roger; Vernet, Anton; Aguilar-Mogas, Antoni; Vilahur, Gemma; Badimon, Lina; Sales-Pardo, Marta; Cito, Salvatore (2015)
    Thrombus formation is a multiscale phenomenon triggered by platelet deposition over a protrombotic surface (eg. a ruptured atherosclerotic plaque). Despite the medical urgency for computational tools that aid in the early diagnosis of thrombotic events, the integration of computational models of thrombus formation at different scales requires a comprehensive understanding of the role and limitation of each modelling approach. We propose three different modelling approaches to predict platelet deposition. Specifically, we consider measurements of platelet deposition under blood flow conditions in a perfusion chamber for different time periods (3, 5, 10, 20 and 30 minutes) at shear rates of 212 s(-1), 1390 s(-1) and 1690 s(-1). Our modelling approaches are: i) a model based on the mass-transfer boundary layer theory; ii) a machine-learning approach; and iii) a phenomenological model. The results indicate that the three approaches on average have median errors of 21%, 20.7% and 14.2%, respectively. Our study demonstrates the feasibility of using an empirical data set as a proxy for a real-patient scenario in which practitioners have accumulated data on a given number of patients and want to obtain a diagnosis for a new patient about whom they only have the current observation of a certain number of variables.
  • Demmler, Joanne C.; Gosztonyi, Ákos; Du, Yaxing; Leinonen, Matti; Ruotsalainen, Laura; Järvi , Leena; Ala-Mantila, Sanna (2021)
    Background Air pollution is one of the major environmental challenges cities worldwide face today. Planning healthy environments for all future populations, whilst considering the ongoing demand for urbanisation and provisions needed to combat climate change, remains a difficult task. Objective To combine artificial intelligence (AI), atmospheric and social sciences to provide urban planning solutions that optimise local air quality by applying novel methods and taking into consideration population structures and traffic flows. Methods We will use high-resolution spatial data and linked electronic population cohort for Helsinki Metropolitan Area (Finland) to model (a) population dynamics and urban inequality related to air pollution; (b) detailed aerosol dynamics, aerosol and gas-phase chemistry together with detailed flow characteristics; (c) high-resolution traffic flow addressing dynamical changes at the city environment, such as accidents, construction work and unexpected congestion. Finally, we will fuse the information resulting from these models into an optimal city planning model balancing air quality, comfort, accessibility and travelling efficiency.
  • Kamarainen, A.; Jokinen, K.; Linden, L. (2020)
    The addition of Sphagnum to peat-based growing media ('Sphagnum replacement') influences plant performance. The primary physical effect of Sphagnum addition appears to be enhanced water retention. Good performance of plants cultivated in Sphagnum seems partly explainable in terms of its water retention properties. The large body of nutrient solution retained in Sphagnum can delay disadvantageous changes in its concentration during cultivation. The physical quantity of Sphagnum per unit volume, i.e. its bulk density, governs the volume of retained water and thus determines the strength of effects contributing to plant performance. When subjected to severe drought, plants cultivated in Sphagnum did not show clear signs of water deficit up to at least 1,572 hPa of matric suction, which is the estimated wilting point for plants grown in light peat. Using Sphagnum to replace peat in the growing medium appears advantageous to plants not only during drought but also during ordinary greenhouse cultivation.
  • Moura, Fernando S.; Beraldo, Roberto G.; Ferreira, Leonardo A.; Siltanen, Samuli (2021)
    Objective. The objective of this work is to develop a 4D (3D+T) statistical anatomical atlas of the electrical properties of the upper part of the human head for cerebral electrophysiology and bioimpedance applications. Approach. The atlas was constructed based on 3D magnetic resonance images (MRI) of 107 human individuals and comprises the electrical properties of the main internal structures and can be adjusted for specific electrical frequencies. T1w+T2w MRI images were used to segment the main structures of the head while angiography MRI was used to segment the main arteries. The proposed atlas also comprises a time-varying model of arterial brain circulation, based on the solution of the Navier-Stokes equation in the main arteries and their vascular territories. Main results. High-resolution, multi-frequency and time-varying anatomical atlases of resistivity, conductivity and relative permittivity were created and evaluated using a forward problem solver for EIT. The atlas was successfully used to simulate electrical impedance tomography measurements indicating the necessity of signal-to-noise between 100 and 125 dB to identify vascular changes due to the cardiac cycle, corroborating previous studies. The source code of the atlas and solver are freely available to download. Significance. Volume conductor problems in cerebral electrophysiology and bioimpedance do not have analytical solutions for nontrivial geometries and require a 3D model of the head and its electrical properties for solving the associated PDEs numerically. Ideally, the model should be made with patient-specific information. In clinical practice, this is not always the case and an average head model is often used. Also, the electrical properties of the tissues might not be completely known due to natural variability. Anatomical atlases are important tools for in silico studies on cerebral circulation and electrophysiology that require statistically consistent data, e.g. machine learning, sensitivity analyses, and as a benchmark to test inverse problem solvers.
  • Plaschke, F.; Hietala, H.; Angelopoulos, V. (2013)
  • Wang, Qian; Lintunen, Anna; Zhao, Ping; Shen, Weijun; Salmon, Yann; Chen, Xia; Ouyang, Lei; Zhu, Liwei; Ni, Guangyan; Sun, Dan; Rao, Xinquan; Holtta, Teemu (2020)
    Prerequisite for selection of appropriate tree species in afforestation programs is to understand their water use strategy. Acacia mangium Willd., Schima wallichii Choisy, and Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook are the three main vegetation restoration pioneer species in southern China, but no comparative research on the water use strategy of these three tree species have been reported. Our objective was to gain a detailed understanding of how photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), vapor pressure deficit (VPD), and soil water content (SWC) at different soil depths control the sap flux density (J(s)) in the dry and wet seasons. We measured the J(s) of these three tree species by using the thermal dissipation method in low subtropical China. We found that both S. wallichii and C. lanceolata differed clearly in their stomatal behavior from one season to another, while A. mangium did not. The canopy conductance per sapwood area of S. wallichii and C. lanceolata was very sensitive to VPD in the dry season, but not in the wet season. The J(s) of A. mangium was negatively correlated to SWC in all soil layers and during both seasons, while the other two species were not sensitive to SWC in the deeper layers and only positively correlated to SWC in dry season. Our results demonstrate that the three species have distinct water use strategies and may therefore respond differently to changing climate.
  • Turc, Lucile; Taryus, Vertti; Dimmock, Andrew P.; Battarbee, Markus; Ganse, Urs; Johlander, Andreas; Grandin, Maxime; Pfau-Kempf, Yann; Dubart, Maxime; Palmroth, Minna (2020)
    Bounded by the bow shock and the magnetopause, the magnetosheath forms the interface between solar wind and magnetospheric plasmas and regulates solar wind-magnetosphere coupling. Previous works have revealed pronounced dawn-dusk asymmetries in the magnetosheath properties. The dependence of these asymmetries on the upstream parameters remains however largely unknown. One of the main sources of these asymmetries is the bow shock configuration, which is typically quasi-parallel on the dawn side and quasi-perpendicular on the dusk side of the terrestrial magnetosheath because of the Parker spiral orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) at Earth. Most of these previous studies rely on collections of spacecraft measurements associated with a wide range of upstream conditions which are processed in order to obtain average values of the magnetosheath parameters. In this work, we use a different approach and quantify the magnetosheath asymmetries in global hybrid-Vlasov simulations performed with the Vlasiator model. We concentrate on three parameters: the magnetic field strength, the plasma density, and the flow velocity. We find that the Vlasiator model reproduces the polarity of the asymmetries accurately but that their level tends to be higher than in spacecraft measurements, probably because the magnetosheath parameters are obtained from a single set of upstream conditions in the simulation, making the asymmetries more prominent. A set of three runs with different upstream conditions allows us to investigate for the first time how the asymmetries change when the angle between the IMF and the Sun-Earth line is reduced and when the Alfven Mach number decreases. We find that a more radial IMF results in a stronger magnetic field asymmetry and a larger variability of the magnetosheath density. In contrast, a lower Alfven Mach number leads to a reduced magnetic field asymmetry and a decrease in the variability of the magnetosheath density, the latter likely due to weaker foreshock processes. Our results highlight the strong impact of the quasi-parallel shock and its associated foreshock on global magnetosheath properties, in particular on the magnetosheath density, which is extremely sensitive to transient quasi-parallel shock processes, even with the perfectly steady upstream conditions in our simulations. This could explain the large variability of the density asymmetry levels obtained from spacecraft measurements in previous studies.
  • Adam, J.; Brucken, E. J.; Chang, B.; Kim, D. J.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Orava, R.; Rak, J.; Räsänen, S. S.; Snellman, T. W.; Trzaska, W. H.; The ALICE collaboration (2016)
    We present measurements of the azimuthal dependence of charged jet production in central and semi-central root s(NN) = 2.76 TeV Pb-Pb collisions with respect to the second harmonic event plane, quantified as nu(ch)(2) (jet). Jet finding is performed employing the anti-k(T) algorithm with a resolution parameter R = 0.2 using charged tracks from the ALICE tracking system. The contribution of the azimuthal anisotropy of the underlying event is taken into account event-by-event. The remaining (statistical) region-to-region fluctuations are removed on an ensemble basis by unfolding the jet spectra for different event plane orientations independently. Significant non-zero nu(ch)(2) (jet) is observed in semi-central collisions (30-50% centrality) for 20 <p(T)(ch) (jet) <90 GeV/c. The azimuthal dependence of the charged jet production is similar to the dependence observed for jets comprising both charged and neutral fragments, and compatible with measurements of the nu(2) of single charged particles at high p(T). Good agreement between the data and predictions from JEWEL, an event generator simulating parton shower evolution in the presence of a dense QCD medium, is found in semi-central collisions. (C) 2015 CERN for the benefit of the ALICE Collaboration. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (
  • The ALICE collaboration; Acharya, S.; Brücken, E. J.; Chang, B.; Hilden, T. E.; Kim, D. J.; Litichevskyi, V.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Orava, R.; Parkkila, J. E.; Rak, J.; Räsänen, S. S.; Saarinen, S.; Slupecki, M.; Snellman, T. W.; Trzaska, W. H.; Vargyas, M.; Viinikainen, J. (2019)
    Angular conclations between heavy-flavor decay electrons and charged particles at midrapidity (vertical bar eta vertical bar < 0.8) are measured in p-Pb collisions at root s(NN) = 5.02 TeV. The analysis is carried out for the 0%-20% (high) and 60%-100% (low) multiplicity ranges. The jet contribution in the correlation distribution from high-multiplicity events is removed by subtracting the distribution from low-multiplicity events. An azimuthal modulation remains after removing the jet contribution, similar to previous observations in two-particle angular correlation measurements for light-flavor hadrons. A Fourier decomposition of the modulation results in a positive second-order coefficient (nu(2)) for heavy-flavor decay electrons in the transverse momentum interval 1.5 < p(T) < 4 GeV/c in high-multiplicity events, with a significance larger than 5 sigma. The results are compared with those of charged particles at midrapidity and those of inclusive muons at forward rapidity. The nu(2) measurement of open heavy-flavor particles at midrapidity in small collision systems could provide crucial information to help interpret the anisotropies observed in such systems.
  • Lappi, Otto; Lehtonen, Esko; Pekkanen, Jami; Itkonen, Teemu (2013)
  • Boldt, Robert; Mäkelä, Pauliina M.; Immeli, Lotta; Sund, Reijo; Leskinen, Markus; Luukkainen, Päivi; Andersson, Sture (2021)
    Very low birthweight (VLBW) infants are at risk of intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) and delayed closure of ductus arteriosus. We investigated mean arterially recorded blood pressure (MAP) changes during the first day of life in VLBW infants as potential risk factors for a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and IVH. This retrospective cohort study exploring MAP changes during adaption and risk factors for a PDA and IVH comprised 844 VLBW infants admitted to the Helsinki University Children's Hospital during 2005-2013. For each infant, we investigated 600 time-points of MAP recorded 4-24 hours after birth. Based on blood pressure patterns revealed by a data-driven method, we divided the infants into two groups. Group 1 (n = 327, mean birthweight = 1019 g, mean gestational age = 28 + (1/7) weeks) consisted of infants whose mean MAP was lower at 18-24 hours than at 4-10 hours after birth. Group 2 (n = 517, mean birthweight = 1070 g, mean gestational age = 28 + (5/7) weeks) included infants with a higher mean MAP at 18-24 hours than at 4-10 hours after birth. We used the group assignments, MAP, gestational age at birth, relative size for gestational age, surfactant administration, inotrope usage, invasive ventilation, presence of respiratory distress syndrome or sepsis, fluid intake, and administration of antenatal steroids to predict the occurrence of IVH and use of pharmacological or surgical therapy for a PDA before 42 weeks of gestational age. Infants whose mean MAP is lower at 18-24 hours than at 4-10 hours after birth are more likely to undergo surgical ligation of a PDA (odds ratio = 2.1; CI 1.14-3.89; p = 0.018) and to suffer from IVH (odds ratio = 1.83; CI 1.23-2.72; p = 0.003).
  • The CMS collaboration; Sirunyan, A. M.; Eerola, P.; Kirschenmann, H.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Havukainen, J.; Heikkilä, J. K.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurila, S.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuuva, T. (2018)
    The differential yields of charged particles having pseudorapidity within vertical bar eta vertical bar < 1 are measured using xenon-xenon (XeXe) collisions at root S-NN = 5.44 TeV. The data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.42 mu b(-1), were collected in 2017 by the CMS experiment at the LHC. The yields are reported as functions of collision centrality and transverse momentum, pT, from 0.5 to 100 GeV. A previously reported pT spectrum from proton-proton collisions at root S = 5.02 TeV is used for comparison after correcting for the difference in center-of-mass energy. The nuclear modification factors using this reference, R-AA*, are constructed and compared to previous measurements and theoretical predictions. In head-on collisions, the R-AA* has a value of 0.17 in the pT range of 6-8 GeV, but increases to approximately 0.7 at 100 GeV. Above approximate to 6 GeV, the XeXe data show a notably smaller suppression than previous results for lead-lead (PbPb) collisions at root S-NN = 5.02 TeV when compared at the same centrality (i.e., the same fraction of total cross section). However, the XeXe suppression is slightly greater than that for PbPb in events having a similar number of participating nucleons.
  • Dumitru, Adrian; Mäntysaari, Heikki; Paatelainen, Risto (2021)
    Color charge correlators provide fundamental information about the proton structure. In this Letter, we evaluate numerically two-point color charge correlations in a proton on the light cone including the next-to-leading order corrections due to emission or exchange of a perturbative gluon. The non-perturbative valence quark structure of the proton is modelled in a way consistent with high-x proton structure data. Our results show that the correlator exhibits startlingly non-trivial behavior at large momentum transfer or central impact parameters, and that the color charge correlation depends not only on the impact parameter but also on the relative transverse momentum of the two gluon probes and their relative angle. Furthermore, from the two-point color charge correlator, we compute the dipole scattering amplitude. Its azimuthal dependence differs significantly from a impact parameter dependent McLerran-Venugopalan model based on geometry. Our results also provide initial conditions for Balitsky-Kovchegov evolution of the dipole scattering amplitude. These initial conditions depend not only on the impact parameter and dipole size vectors, but also on their relative angle and on the light-cone momentum fraction x in the target. (C) 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Lauronen, Sirkka-Liisa; Kalliomäki, Maija-Liisa; Kalliovalkama, Jarkko; Aho, Antti; Huhtala, Heini; Yli-Hankala, Arvi M.; Mäkinen, Marja-Tellervo (2022)
    Because of the difficulties involved in the invasive monitoring of conscious patients, core temperature monitoring is frequently neglected during neuraxial anaesthesia. Zero heat flux (ZHF) and double sensor (DS) are non-invasive methods that measure core temperature from the forehead skin. Here, we compare these methods in patients under spinal anaesthesia. Sixty patients scheduled for elective unilateral knee arthroplasty were recruited and divided into two groups. Of these, thirty patients were fitted with bilateral ZHF sensors (ZHF group), and thirty patients were fitted with both a ZHF sensor and a DS sensor (DS group). Temperatures were saved at 5-min intervals from the beginning of prewarming up to one hour postoperatively. Bland-Altman analysis for repeated measurements was performed and a proportion of differences within 0.5 degrees C was calculated as well as Lin`s concordance correlation coefficient (LCCC). A total of 1261 and 1129 measurement pairs were obtained. The mean difference between ZHF sensors was 0.05 degrees C with 95% limits of agreement - 0.36 to 0.47 degrees C, 99% of the readings were within 0.5 degrees C and LCCC was 0.88. The mean difference between ZHF and DS sensors was 0.33 degrees C with 95% limits of agreement - 0.55 to 1.21 degrees C, 66% of readings were within 0.5 degrees C and LCCC was 0.59. Bilaterally measured ZHF temperatures were almost identical. DS temperatures were mostly lower than ZHF temperatures. The mean difference between ZHF and DS temperatures increased when the core temperature decreased. Trial registration: The study was registered in on 13th May 2019, Code NCT03408197.
  • The ALICE collaboration; Acharya, S.; Brucken, E. J.; Chang, B.; Kim, D. J.; Litichevskyi, V.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Orava, R.; Rak, J.; Räsänen, S. S.; Saarinen, S.; Snellman, T. W.; Trzaska, W. H.; Viinikainen, J. (2018)
    In ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions, the event-by-event variation of the elliptic flow v(2) reflects fluctuations in the shape of the initial state of the system. This allows to select events with the same centrality but different initial geometry. This selection technique, Event Shape Engineering, has been used in the analysis of charge-dependent two-and three-particle correlations in Pb-Pb collisions at root s(NN) = 2.76 TeV. The two-particle correlator <cos(phi(alpha) - phi(ss))>, calculated for different combinations of charges alpha and beta, is almost independent of v(2) (for a given centrality), while the three-particle correlator <cos(phi(alpha) + phi(beta) - 2 Psi(2))> scales almost linearly both with the event v(2) and charged-particle pseudorapidity density. The charge dependence of the three-particle correlator is often interpreted as evidence for the Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME), a parity violating effect of the strong interaction. However, its measured dependence on v(2) points to a large non-CME contribution to the correlator. Comparing the results with Monte Carlo calculations including a magnetic field due to the spectators, the upper limit of the CME signal contribution to the three-particle correlator in the 10-50% centrality interval is found to be 26-33% at 95% confidence level. (c) 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Albacete, Javier L.; Niemi, Harri; Petersen, Hannah; Soto-Ontoso, Alba (2019)
    We present a systematic study on the influence of spatial correlations between the proton constituents, in our case gluonic hot spots, their size and their number on the symmetric cumulant SC(2, 3), at the eccentricity level, within a Monte Carlo Glauber framework [1]. When modeling the proton as composed by 3 gluonic hot spots, the most common assumption in the literature, we find that the inclusion of spatial correlations is indispensable to reproduce the negative sign of SC(2, 3) in the highest centrality bins as dictated by data. Further, the subtle interplay between the different scales of the problem is discussed. To conclude, the possibility of feeding a 2+1D viscous hydrodynamic simulation with our entropy profiles is exposed.
  • The CMS collaboration; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Eerola, P.; Kirschenmann, H.; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, M.; Havukainen, J.; Heikkilä, J.K.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurila, S.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuuva, T. (2021)
    Event-by-event long-range correlations of azimuthal anisotropy Fourier coefficients (v(n)) in 8.16 TeV pPb data, collected by the CMS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider, are extracted using a subevent four-particle cumulant technique applied to very low multiplicity events. Each combination of four charged particles is selected from either two, three, or four distinct subevent regions of a pseudorapidity range from -2.4 to 2.4 of the CMS tracker, and with transverse momentum between 0.3 and 3.0 GeV. Using the subevent cumulant technique, correlations between v(n) of different orders are measured as functions of particle multiplicity and compared to the standard cumulant method without subevents over a wide event multiplicity range. At high multiplicities, the v(2) and v(3) coefficients exhibit an anticorrelation; this behavior is observed consistently using various methods. The v(2) and v(4) correlation strength is found to depend on the number of subevents used in the calculation. As the event multiplicity decreases, the results from different subevent methods diverge because of different contributions of noncollective or few-particle correlations. Correlations extracted with the four-subevent method exhibit a tendency to diminish monotonically toward the lowest multiplicity region (about 20 charged tracks) investigated. These findings extend previous studies to a significantly lower event multiplicity range and establish the evidence for the onset of long-range collective multiparticle correlations in small system collisions.
  • Xu, Wenkai; Niu, Gang; Hyvarinen, Aapo; Sugiyama, Masashi (2021)
    Summarizing large-scale directed graphs into small-scale representations is a useful but less-studied problem setting. Conventional clustering approaches, based on Min-Cut-style criteria, compress both the vertices and edges of the graph into the communities, which lead to a loss of directed edge information. On the other hand, compressing the vertices while preserving the directed-edge information provides a way to learn the small-scale representation of a directed graph. The reconstruction error, which measures the edge information preserved by the summarized graph, can be used to learn such representation. Compared to the original graphs, the summarized graphs are easier to analyze and are capable of extracting group-level features, useful for efficient interventions of population behavior. In this letter, we present a model, based on minimizing reconstruction error with nonnegative constraints, which relates to a Max-Cut criterion that simultaneously identifies the compressed nodes and the directed compressed relations between these nodes. A multiplicative update algorithm with column-wise normalization is proposed. We further provide theoretical results on the identifiability of the model and the convergence of the proposed algorithms. Experiments are conducted to demonstrate the accuracy and robustness of the proposed method.
  • Vu, T. H. Y.; Dufour, C.; Khomenkov, V.; Leino, A. A.; Djurabekova, F.; Nordlund, K.; Coulon, P. -E.; Rizza, G.; Hayoun, M. (2019)
    The elongation process under swift heavy ion irradiation (74 MeV Kr ions) of gold NPs, with a diameter in the range 10-30 nm, and embedded in a silica matrix has been investigated by combining experiment and simulation techniques: three-dimensional thermal spike (3DTS), molecular dynamics (MD) and a phenomenological simulation code specially developed for this study. 3DTS simulations evidence the formation of a track in the host matrix and the melting of the NP after the passage of the impinging ion. MD simulations demonstrate that melted NPs have enough time to expand after each ion impact. Our phenomenological simulation relies on the expansion of the melted NP, which flows in the track in silica with modified (lower) density, followed by its recrystallization upon cooling. Finally, the elongation of the spherical NP into a cylindrical one, with a length proportional to its initial size and a width close to the diameter of the track, is the result of the superposition of the independent effects of each expansion/recrystallization process occurring for each ion impact. In agreement with experiment, the simulation shows the gradual elongation of spherical NPs in the ion-beam direction until their widths saturate in the steady state and reach a value close to the track diameter. Moreover, the simulations indicate that the expansion of the gold NP is incomplete at each ion impact.
  • Makkonen, Taina; Tirri, Kirsi; Lavonen, Jari (2021)
    Research on the advantages and disadvantages of project-based learning (PBL) among gifted pupils studying physics is scarce. This mixed-methods study investigates engagement, experiences, and learning outcomes among gifted Finnish uppersecondary-level students learning physics through PBL. A six-lesson PBL module on basic Newtonian mechanics was designed and implemented for a group of gifted students (N = 38), whereas a traditional teacher-driven approach was used among a control group (N = 38) of gifted students. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire, interviews and a physics test. According to the results, PBL met the preconditions (challenge, skill, interest) for engaging the students in learning physics. It generated interest in learning among the vast majority, but not as many found it challenging. The findings also highlight the impact of autonomy when learning through PBL. No differences in overall learning outcomes were found between the groups.