Browsing by Subject "FLOW"

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  • Pallares, Jordi; Senan, Oriol; Guimera, Roger; Vernet, Anton; Aguilar-Mogas, Antoni; Vilahur, Gemma; Badimon, Lina; Sales-Pardo, Marta; Cito, Salvatore (2015)
    Thrombus formation is a multiscale phenomenon triggered by platelet deposition over a protrombotic surface (eg. a ruptured atherosclerotic plaque). Despite the medical urgency for computational tools that aid in the early diagnosis of thrombotic events, the integration of computational models of thrombus formation at different scales requires a comprehensive understanding of the role and limitation of each modelling approach. We propose three different modelling approaches to predict platelet deposition. Specifically, we consider measurements of platelet deposition under blood flow conditions in a perfusion chamber for different time periods (3, 5, 10, 20 and 30 minutes) at shear rates of 212 s(-1), 1390 s(-1) and 1690 s(-1). Our modelling approaches are: i) a model based on the mass-transfer boundary layer theory; ii) a machine-learning approach; and iii) a phenomenological model. The results indicate that the three approaches on average have median errors of 21%, 20.7% and 14.2%, respectively. Our study demonstrates the feasibility of using an empirical data set as a proxy for a real-patient scenario in which practitioners have accumulated data on a given number of patients and want to obtain a diagnosis for a new patient about whom they only have the current observation of a certain number of variables.
  • Kamarainen, A.; Jokinen, K.; Linden, L. (2020)
    The addition of Sphagnum to peat-based growing media ('Sphagnum replacement') influences plant performance. The primary physical effect of Sphagnum addition appears to be enhanced water retention. Good performance of plants cultivated in Sphagnum seems partly explainable in terms of its water retention properties. The large body of nutrient solution retained in Sphagnum can delay disadvantageous changes in its concentration during cultivation. The physical quantity of Sphagnum per unit volume, i.e. its bulk density, governs the volume of retained water and thus determines the strength of effects contributing to plant performance. When subjected to severe drought, plants cultivated in Sphagnum did not show clear signs of water deficit up to at least 1,572 hPa of matric suction, which is the estimated wilting point for plants grown in light peat. Using Sphagnum to replace peat in the growing medium appears advantageous to plants not only during drought but also during ordinary greenhouse cultivation.
  • Plaschke, F.; Hietala, H.; Angelopoulos, V. (2013)
  • Wang, Qian; Lintunen, Anna; Zhao, Ping; Shen, Weijun; Salmon, Yann; Chen, Xia; Ouyang, Lei; Zhu, Liwei; Ni, Guangyan; Sun, Dan; Rao, Xinquan; Holtta, Teemu (2020)
    Prerequisite for selection of appropriate tree species in afforestation programs is to understand their water use strategy. Acacia mangium Willd., Schima wallichii Choisy, and Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook are the three main vegetation restoration pioneer species in southern China, but no comparative research on the water use strategy of these three tree species have been reported. Our objective was to gain a detailed understanding of how photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), vapor pressure deficit (VPD), and soil water content (SWC) at different soil depths control the sap flux density (J(s)) in the dry and wet seasons. We measured the J(s) of these three tree species by using the thermal dissipation method in low subtropical China. We found that both S. wallichii and C. lanceolata differed clearly in their stomatal behavior from one season to another, while A. mangium did not. The canopy conductance per sapwood area of S. wallichii and C. lanceolata was very sensitive to VPD in the dry season, but not in the wet season. The J(s) of A. mangium was negatively correlated to SWC in all soil layers and during both seasons, while the other two species were not sensitive to SWC in the deeper layers and only positively correlated to SWC in dry season. Our results demonstrate that the three species have distinct water use strategies and may therefore respond differently to changing climate.
  • Turc, Lucile; Taryus, Vertti; Dimmock, Andrew P.; Battarbee, Markus; Ganse, Urs; Johlander, Andreas; Grandin, Maxime; Pfau-Kempf, Yann; Dubart, Maxime; Palmroth, Minna (2020)
    Bounded by the bow shock and the magnetopause, the magnetosheath forms the interface between solar wind and magnetospheric plasmas and regulates solar wind-magnetosphere coupling. Previous works have revealed pronounced dawn-dusk asymmetries in the magnetosheath properties. The dependence of these asymmetries on the upstream parameters remains however largely unknown. One of the main sources of these asymmetries is the bow shock configuration, which is typically quasi-parallel on the dawn side and quasi-perpendicular on the dusk side of the terrestrial magnetosheath because of the Parker spiral orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) at Earth. Most of these previous studies rely on collections of spacecraft measurements associated with a wide range of upstream conditions which are processed in order to obtain average values of the magnetosheath parameters. In this work, we use a different approach and quantify the magnetosheath asymmetries in global hybrid-Vlasov simulations performed with the Vlasiator model. We concentrate on three parameters: the magnetic field strength, the plasma density, and the flow velocity. We find that the Vlasiator model reproduces the polarity of the asymmetries accurately but that their level tends to be higher than in spacecraft measurements, probably because the magnetosheath parameters are obtained from a single set of upstream conditions in the simulation, making the asymmetries more prominent. A set of three runs with different upstream conditions allows us to investigate for the first time how the asymmetries change when the angle between the IMF and the Sun-Earth line is reduced and when the Alfven Mach number decreases. We find that a more radial IMF results in a stronger magnetic field asymmetry and a larger variability of the magnetosheath density. In contrast, a lower Alfven Mach number leads to a reduced magnetic field asymmetry and a decrease in the variability of the magnetosheath density, the latter likely due to weaker foreshock processes. Our results highlight the strong impact of the quasi-parallel shock and its associated foreshock on global magnetosheath properties, in particular on the magnetosheath density, which is extremely sensitive to transient quasi-parallel shock processes, even with the perfectly steady upstream conditions in our simulations. This could explain the large variability of the density asymmetry levels obtained from spacecraft measurements in previous studies.
  • Adam, J.; Adamova, D.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Rinella, G. Aglieri; Agnello, M.; Agrawal, N.; Ahmmed, Z.; Ahn, S. U.; Aiola, S.; Akindinov, A.; Alam, S. N.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Molina, R. Alfaro; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Almaraz, J. R. M.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Prado, C. Alves Garcia; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anielski, J.; Anticic, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, R.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshaeuser, H.; Arcelli, S.; Arnaldi, R.; Arnold, O. W.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Audurier, B.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Azmi, M. D.; Brucken, E. J.; Chang, B.; Kim, D. J.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Orava, R.; Rak, J.; Räsänen, S. S.; Snellman, T. W.; Trzaska, W. H. (2016)
    We present measurements of the azimuthal dependence of charged jet production in central and semi-central root s(NN) = 2.76 TeV Pb-Pb collisions with respect to the second harmonic event plane, quantified as nu(ch)(2) (jet). Jet finding is performed employing the anti-k(T) algorithm with a resolution parameter R = 0.2 using charged tracks from the ALICE tracking system. The contribution of the azimuthal anisotropy of the underlying event is taken into account event-by-event. The remaining (statistical) region-to-region fluctuations are removed on an ensemble basis by unfolding the jet spectra for different event plane orientations independently. Significant non-zero nu(ch)(2) (jet) is observed in semi-central collisions (30-50% centrality) for 20 <p(T)(ch) (jet) <90 GeV/c. The azimuthal dependence of the charged jet production is similar to the dependence observed for jets comprising both charged and neutral fragments, and compatible with measurements of the nu(2) of single charged particles at high p(T). Good agreement between the data and predictions from JEWEL, an event generator simulating parton shower evolution in the presence of a dense QCD medium, is found in semi-central collisions. (C) 2015 CERN for the benefit of the ALICE Collaboration. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
  • The ALICE collaboration; Acharya, S.; Brücken, E. J.; Chang, B.; Hilden, T. E.; Kim, D. J.; Litichevskyi, V.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Orava, R.; Parkkila, J. E.; Rak, J.; Räsänen, S. S.; Saarinen, S.; Slupecki, M.; Snellman, T. W.; Trzaska, W. H.; Vargyas, M.; Viinikainen, J. (2019)
    Angular conclations between heavy-flavor decay electrons and charged particles at midrapidity (vertical bar eta vertical bar < 0.8) are measured in p-Pb collisions at root s(NN) = 5.02 TeV. The analysis is carried out for the 0%-20% (high) and 60%-100% (low) multiplicity ranges. The jet contribution in the correlation distribution from high-multiplicity events is removed by subtracting the distribution from low-multiplicity events. An azimuthal modulation remains after removing the jet contribution, similar to previous observations in two-particle angular correlation measurements for light-flavor hadrons. A Fourier decomposition of the modulation results in a positive second-order coefficient (nu(2)) for heavy-flavor decay electrons in the transverse momentum interval 1.5 < p(T) < 4 GeV/c in high-multiplicity events, with a significance larger than 5 sigma. The results are compared with those of charged particles at midrapidity and those of inclusive muons at forward rapidity. The nu(2) measurement of open heavy-flavor particles at midrapidity in small collision systems could provide crucial information to help interpret the anisotropies observed in such systems.
  • Lappi, Otto; Lehtonen, Esko; Pekkanen, Jami; Itkonen, Teemu (2013)
  • The CMS collaboration; Sirunyan, A. M.; Eerola, P.; Kirschenmann, H.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Havukainen, J.; Heikkilä, J. K.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurila, S.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuuva, T. (2018)
    A search has been performed for heavy resonances decaying to ZZ or ZW in 2l2q final states, with two charged leptons (l = e, mu) produced by the decay of a Z boson, and two quarks produced by the decay of a W or Z boson. The analysis is sensitive to resonances with masses in the range from 400 to 4500 GeV. Two categories are defined based on the merged or resolved reconstruction of the hadronically decaying vector boson, optimized for high- and low-mass resonances, respectively. The search is based on data collected during 2016 by the CMS experiment at the LHC in proton-proton collisions with a center-of-mass energy of root s = 13 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb(-1). No excess is observed in the data above the standard model background expectation. Upper limits on the production cross section of heavy, narrow spin-1 and spin-2 resonances are derived as a function of the resonance mass, and exclusion limits on the production of W' bosons and bulk graviton particles are calculated in the framework of the heavy vector triplet model and warped extra dimensions, respectively.
  • The ALICE collaboration; Acharya, S.; Brucken, E. J.; Chang, B.; Kim, D. J.; Litichevskyi, V.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Orava, R.; Rak, J.; Räsänen, S. S.; Saarinen, S.; Snellman, T. W.; Trzaska, W. H.; Viinikainen, J. (2018)
    In ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions, the event-by-event variation of the elliptic flow v(2) reflects fluctuations in the shape of the initial state of the system. This allows to select events with the same centrality but different initial geometry. This selection technique, Event Shape Engineering, has been used in the analysis of charge-dependent two-and three-particle correlations in Pb-Pb collisions at root s(NN) = 2.76 TeV. The two-particle correlator <cos(phi(alpha) - phi(ss))>, calculated for different combinations of charges alpha and beta, is almost independent of v(2) (for a given centrality), while the three-particle correlator <cos(phi(alpha) + phi(beta) - 2 Psi(2))> scales almost linearly both with the event v(2) and charged-particle pseudorapidity density. The charge dependence of the three-particle correlator is often interpreted as evidence for the Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME), a parity violating effect of the strong interaction. However, its measured dependence on v(2) points to a large non-CME contribution to the correlator. Comparing the results with Monte Carlo calculations including a magnetic field due to the spectators, the upper limit of the CME signal contribution to the three-particle correlator in the 10-50% centrality interval is found to be 26-33% at 95% confidence level. (c) 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Albacete, Javier L.; Niemi, Harri; Petersen, Hannah; Soto-Ontoso, Alba (2019)
    We present a systematic study on the influence of spatial correlations between the proton constituents, in our case gluonic hot spots, their size and their number on the symmetric cumulant SC(2, 3), at the eccentricity level, within a Monte Carlo Glauber framework [1]. When modeling the proton as composed by 3 gluonic hot spots, the most common assumption in the literature, we find that the inclusion of spatial correlations is indispensable to reproduce the negative sign of SC(2, 3) in the highest centrality bins as dictated by data. Further, the subtle interplay between the different scales of the problem is discussed. To conclude, the possibility of feeding a 2+1D viscous hydrodynamic simulation with our entropy profiles is exposed.
  • The CMS collaboration; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Eerola, P.; Kirschenmann, H.; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, M.; Havukainen, J.; Heikkilä, J.K.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurila, S.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuuva, T. (2021)
    Event-by-event long-range correlations of azimuthal anisotropy Fourier coefficients (v(n)) in 8.16 TeV pPb data, collected by the CMS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider, are extracted using a subevent four-particle cumulant technique applied to very low multiplicity events. Each combination of four charged particles is selected from either two, three, or four distinct subevent regions of a pseudorapidity range from -2.4 to 2.4 of the CMS tracker, and with transverse momentum between 0.3 and 3.0 GeV. Using the subevent cumulant technique, correlations between v(n) of different orders are measured as functions of particle multiplicity and compared to the standard cumulant method without subevents over a wide event multiplicity range. At high multiplicities, the v(2) and v(3) coefficients exhibit an anticorrelation; this behavior is observed consistently using various methods. The v(2) and v(4) correlation strength is found to depend on the number of subevents used in the calculation. As the event multiplicity decreases, the results from different subevent methods diverge because of different contributions of noncollective or few-particle correlations. Correlations extracted with the four-subevent method exhibit a tendency to diminish monotonically toward the lowest multiplicity region (about 20 charged tracks) investigated. These findings extend previous studies to a significantly lower event multiplicity range and establish the evidence for the onset of long-range collective multiparticle correlations in small system collisions.
  • Vu, T. H. Y.; Dufour, C.; Khomenkov, V.; Leino, A. A.; Djurabekova, F.; Nordlund, K.; Coulon, P. -E.; Rizza, G.; Hayoun, M. (2019)
    The elongation process under swift heavy ion irradiation (74 MeV Kr ions) of gold NPs, with a diameter in the range 10-30 nm, and embedded in a silica matrix has been investigated by combining experiment and simulation techniques: three-dimensional thermal spike (3DTS), molecular dynamics (MD) and a phenomenological simulation code specially developed for this study. 3DTS simulations evidence the formation of a track in the host matrix and the melting of the NP after the passage of the impinging ion. MD simulations demonstrate that melted NPs have enough time to expand after each ion impact. Our phenomenological simulation relies on the expansion of the melted NP, which flows in the track in silica with modified (lower) density, followed by its recrystallization upon cooling. Finally, the elongation of the spherical NP into a cylindrical one, with a length proportional to its initial size and a width close to the diameter of the track, is the result of the superposition of the independent effects of each expansion/recrystallization process occurring for each ion impact. In agreement with experiment, the simulation shows the gradual elongation of spherical NPs in the ion-beam direction until their widths saturate in the steady state and reach a value close to the track diameter. Moreover, the simulations indicate that the expansion of the gold NP is incomplete at each ion impact.
  • Makkonen, Taina; Tirri, Kirsi; Lavonen, Jari (2021)
    Research on the advantages and disadvantages of project-based learning (PBL) among gifted pupils studying physics is scarce. This mixed-methods study investigates engagement, experiences, and learning outcomes among gifted Finnish uppersecondary-level students learning physics through PBL. A six-lesson PBL module on basic Newtonian mechanics was designed and implemented for a group of gifted students (N = 38), whereas a traditional teacher-driven approach was used among a control group (N = 38) of gifted students. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire, interviews and a physics test. According to the results, PBL met the preconditions (challenge, skill, interest) for engaging the students in learning physics. It generated interest in learning among the vast majority, but not as many found it challenging. The findings also highlight the impact of autonomy when learning through PBL. No differences in overall learning outcomes were found between the groups.
  • Mikkonen, Kirsi S.; Kirjoranta, Satu; Xu, Chunlin; Hemming, Jarl; Pranovich, Andrey; Bhattarai, Mamata; Peltonen, Leena; Kilpeläinen, Petri; Maina, Ndegwa; Tenkanen, Maija; Lehtonen, Mari; Willför, Stefan (2019)
    Wood biorefining currently involves large-scale industrial processes where a notable portion of raw materials, namely hemicelluloses and lignin, are either lost with the process water, degraded, or burnt for energy. Value added utilization of polymeric hemicelluloses is challenging due to their intermediate molar mass and the presence of other wood components, such as phenolic residues or wood extractives. Oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions represent a diverse and abundant class of applications in which the natural properties of wood hemicelluloses are beneficial. In the current work, we present highly promising new technical alkyd paint emulsion systems stabilized with hardwood glucuronoxylans (GX) and softwood galactoglucomannans (GGM). Samples from three isolation methods and their further fractionation by ethanol precipitation were systematically compared with regard to hemicellulose composition, interfacial activity, and functionality in emulsions. Emulsification of alkyd resins was successful with both GX and GGM obtained by various biorefining strategies. The highest emulsion stability over storage was achieved using crude non-purified GX and GGM fractions, and was correlated with the presence of phenolic compounds and extractives, interfacial activity, and small droplet size. Hardwood GX and softwood GGM are envisioned as natural emulsifiers of alkyd O/W emulsions, which are examples of diverse and abundantly-used technical dispersions. This study can be utilized as a guideline for targeted extraction of hemicelluloses with desired functionality, and as a protocol for developing environmentally-compatible industrial dispersions.
  • Milardi, Marco; Gavioli, Anna; Soininen, Janne; Castaldelli, Giuseppe (2019)
    Exotic species invasions often result in native biodiversity loss, i.e. a lower taxonomic diversity, but current knowledge on invasions effects underlined a potential increase of functional diversity. We thus explored the connections between functional diversity and exotic species invasions, while accounting for their environmental drivers, using a fine-resolution large dataset of Mediterranean stream fish communities. While functional diversity of native and exotic species responded similarly to most environmental constraints, we found significant differences in the effects of altitude and in the different ranking of constraints. These differences suggest that invasion dynamics could play a role in overriding some major environmental drivers. Our results also showed that a lower diversity of ecological traits in communities (about half of less disturbed communities) corresponded to a high invasion degree, and that the exotic component of communities had typically less diverse ecological traits than the native one, even when accounting for stream order and species richness. Overall, our results suggest that possible outcomes of severe exotic species invasions could include a reduced functional diversity of invaded communities, but analyzing data with finer ecological, temporal and spatial resolutions would be needed to pinpoint the causal relationship between invasions and functional diversity.
  • Gallmeister, K.; Niemi, H.; Greiner, C.; Rischke, D. H. (2018)
    Background: Experimental data from heavy-ion experiments at RHIC-BNL and LHC-CERN are quantitatively described using relativistic fluid dynamics. Even p + A and p + p collisions show signs of collective behavior describable in the same manner. Nevertheless, small system sizes and large gradients strain the limits of applicability of fluid-dynamical methods. Purpose: The range of applicability of fluid dynamics for the description of the collective behavior, and in particular of the elliptic flow, of small systems needs to be explored. Method: Results of relativistic fluid-dynamical simulations are compared with solutions of the Boltzmann equation in a longitudinally boost-invariant picture. As the initial condition, several different transverse energy-density profiles for equilibrated matter are investigated. Results: While there is overall a fair agreement of energy- and particle-density profiles, components of the shear-stress tensor are more sensitive to details of the implementation. The highest sensitivity is exhibited by quantities influenced by properties of the medium at freeze-out. Conclusions: For some quantities, like the shear-stress tensor, agreement between fluid dynamics and transport theory extends into regions of Knudsen numbers and inverse Reynolds numbers where relativistic fluid dynamics is believed to fail.
  • Paatelainen, R.; Eskola, K. J.; Niemi, H.; Tuominen, Kimmo Ilmari (2014)
  • Elshibli, Sakina; Korpelainen, Helena (2021)
    Medemia argun is a wild, dioecious palm, adapted to the harsh arid environment of the Nubian Desert in Sudan and southern Egypt. There is a concern about its conservation status, since little is known about its distribution, abundance, and genetic variation. M. argun grows on the floodplains of seasonal rivers (wadis). The continuing loss of suitable habitats in the Nubian Desert is threatening the survival of this species. We analyzed the genetic diversity, population genetic structure, and occurrence of M. argun populations to foster the development of conservation strategies for M. argun. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) analyses were performed using a whole-genome profiling service. We found an overall low genetic diversity and moderate genetic structuring based on 40 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 9,866 SilicoDArT markers. The expected heterozygosity of the total population (H-T) equaled 0.036 and 0.127, and genetic differentiation among populations/groups (F-ST) was 0.052 and 0.092, based on SNP and SilicoDArT markers, respectively. Bayesian clustering analyses defined five genetic clusters that did not display any ancestral gene flow among each other. Based on SilicoDArT markers, the results of the analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) confirmed the previously observed genetic differentiation among generation groups (23%; p < 0.01). Pairwise F-ST values indicated a genetic gap between old and young individuals. The observed low genetic diversity and its loss among generation groups, even under the detected high gene flow, show genetically vulnerable M. argun populations in the Nubian Desert in Sudan. To enrich and maintain genetic variability in these populations, conservation plans are required, including collection of seed material from genetically diverse populations and development of ex situ gene banks.
  • Aberg, Susanne C.; Korkka-Niemi, Kirsti; Rautio, Anne; Salonen, Veli-Pekka; Aberg, Annika K. (2019)
    Areas of groundwater-surface water interaction in riverbanks and open mires are important habitats for groundwater-dependent species. In order to preserve these ecosystems, the planning and development of mining operations on such locations require a fundamental understanding of the groundwater discharge-recharge and flow patterns. In this study. 3D flow modelling and a TIR survey were used to define the groundwater discharge. Simultaneously, the flow modelling and groundwater table fluctuation were used for defining groundwater recharge at a mining development site in northern Finland. The results indicated flow towards the River Kitinen and the discharge of groundwater in the banks of the river. The discharge also occurred within the mire area, which may provide suitable habitats for groundwater-dependent plant species. The modelling results and stable isotope variations indicated complex flow patterns and a potential groundwater connection from the Viiankiaapa mire through possible bedrock fractures to the river. Recharge mainly occurred in the sorted sediment accumulations of the riverbanks and partly also in the mire area.