Browsing by Subject "FLUID"

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  • Williams, Monique; Valayannopoulos, Vassili; Altassan, Ruqaiah; Chung, Wendy K.; Heijboer, Annemieke C.; Keng, Wei Teik; Lapatto, Risto; McClean, Patricia; Mulder, Margot F.; Tylki-Szymanska, Anna; Walenkamp, Marie-Jose E.; Alfadhel, Majid; Alakeel, Hajar; Salomons, Gajja S.; Eyaid, Wafaa; Wamelink, Mirjam M. C. (2019)
    BackgroundTransaldolase deficiency (TALDO-D) is a rare autosomal recessive inborn error of the pentose phosphate pathway. Since its first description in 2001, several case reports have been published, but there has been no comprehensive overview of phenotype, genotype, and phenotype-genotype correlation. MethodsWe performed a retrospective questionnaire and literature study of clinical, biochemical, and molecular data of 34 patients from 25 families with proven TALDO-D. In some patients, endocrine abnormalities have been found. To further evaluate these abnormalities, we performed biochemical investigations on blood of 14 patients. Results and conclusionsMost patients (n =22) had an early-onset presentation (prenatally or before 1 month of age); 12 patients had a late-onset presentation (3 months to 9 years). Main presenting symptoms were intrauterine growth restriction, dysmorphic facial features, congenital heart disease, anemia, thrombocytopenia, and hepato(spleno)megaly. An older sib of two affected patients was asymptomatic until the age of 9 years, and only after molecular diagnosis was hepatomegaly noted. In some patients, there was gonadal dysfunction with low levels of testosterone and secondary luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) abnormalities later in life. This overview provides information that can be helpful for managing patients and counseling families regarding prognosis. Diagnostic guidelines, possible genotype-phenotype correlations, treatment options, and pathophysiological disease mechanisms are proposed.
  • Vlasov, Hanna; Juvonen, Tatu; Hiippala, Seppo; Suojaranta, Raili; Peltonen, Markku; Schramko, Alexey; Arvonen, Kaapo; Salminen, Ulla-Stina; Kleine Budde, Ilona; Eränen, Tiina; Mazanikov, Maxim; Meinberg, Mihkel; Vähäsilta, Tommi; Wilkman, Erika; Pettilä, Ville; Pesonen, Eero (2020)
    Background In cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), large amounts of fluids are administered. CPB priming with crystalloid solution causes marked hemodilution and fluid extravasation. Colloid solutions may reduce fluid overload because they have a better volume expansion effect than crystalloids. The European Medicines Agency does not recommend the use of hydroxyethyl starch solutions (HES) due to harmful renal effects. Albumin solution does not impair blood coagulation but the findings on kidney function are conflicting. On the other hand, albumin may reduce endothelial glycocalyx destruction and decrease platelet count during CPB. No large randomized, double-blind, clinical trials have compared albumin solution to crystalloid solution in cardiac surgery. Methods/design In this single-center, double-blind, randomized controlled trial comprising 1386 adult cardiac surgery patients, 4% albumin solution will be compared to Ringer's acetate solution in CPB priming and volume replacement up to 3200 mL during surgery and the first 24 h of intensive care unit stay. The primary efficacy outcome is the number of patients with at least one major adverse event (MAE) during 90 postoperative days (all-cause death, acute myocardial injury, acute heart failure or low output syndrome, resternotomy, stroke, major arrhythmia, major bleeding, infection compromising post-procedural rehabilitation, acute kidney injury). Secondary outcomes are total number of MAEs, incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE; cardiac death, acute myocardial injury, acute heart failure, arrhythmia), amount of each type of blood product transfused (red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma, platelets), total fluid balance at the end of the intervention period, total measured blood loss, development of acute kidney injury, days alive without mechanical ventilation in 90 days, days alive outside intensive care unit at 90 days, days alive at home at 90 days, and 90-day mortality. Discussion The findings of this study will provide new evidence regarding efficacy and safety of albumin solution in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB.
  • Kärenlampi, Kimmo; Heinonen, Jussi S.; Kontinen, Asko; Hanski, Eero; Huhma, Hannu (2021)
    The origin of ferroan A-type granites in anorogenic tectonic settings remains a long-standing petrological puzzle. The proposed models range from extreme fractional crystallization of mantle-derived magmas to partial melting of crustal rocks, or involve combination of both. In this study, we apply whole-rock chemical and Sm-Nd isotopic compositions and thermodynamically constrained modeling (Magma Chamber Simulator, MCS) to decipher the genesis of a suite of A1-type peralkaline to peraluminous granites and associated intermediate rocks (monzodiorite-monzonite, syenite) from the southwestern margin of the Archean Karelia craton, central Finland, Fennoscandian Shield. These plutonic rocks were emplaced at ca. 2.05 Ga during an early stage of the break-up of the Karelia craton along its western margin and show trace element affinities to ocean island basalt-type magmas. The intermediate rocks show positive epsilon Nd(2050 Ma) values (+1.3 to +2.6), which are only slightly lower than the estimated contemporaneous depleted mantle value (+3.4), but much higher than average epsilon Nd(2050 Ma) of Archean TTGs (-10) in the surrounding bedrock, indicating that these rocks were essentially derived from a mantle source. The epsilon Nd(2050 Ma) values of the peralkaline and peraluminous granite samples overlap (-0.9 to +0.6 and -3.2 to +0.9, respectively) and are somewhat lower than those in the intermediate rocks, suggesting that the mafic magmas parental to granite must have assimilated some amount of older Archean continental crust during their fractionation, which is consistent with the continental crust-like trace element signatures of the granite members. The MCS modeling indicates that fractional crystallization of mantle-derived magmas can explain the major element characteristics of the intermediate rocks. The generation of the granites requires further fractional crystallization of these magmas coupled with assimilation of Archean crust. These processes took place in the middle to upper crust (-2-4 kbar, -7-15 km) and involved crystallization of large amounts of clinopyroxene, plagioclase and olivine. Our results highlight the importance of coupled FC-AFC processes in the petrogenesis of A-type magmas and support the general perception that magmas of A-type ferroan granites become more peraluminous by assimilation of crust. They further suggest that variable fractionation paths of the magmas upon the onset of assimilation may explain the broad variety of A-type felsic and intermediate igneous rocks that is often observed emplaced closely in time and space within the same igneous complex.
  • Sorsa, Timo; Bacigalupo, Joseph; Könönen, Mauno; Pärnänen, Pirjo; Räisänen, Ismo T. (2020)
    Previous studies report periodontitis and peri-implantitis being able to induce systemic low-grade inflammation, which is known to be associated with increased risk for some systemic medical disease such as cardiovascular disease. In this regard, recent studies have shown that host modulation therapy (HMT) together with traditional mechanical and surgical treatment not only cease the progression of periodontitis but also reduce the systemic collagenolytic biomarkers in both oral fluids and circulation. This suggests that the corresponding adjunctive HMT-medication could be effective in the prevention and treatment of dental peri-implantitis, as well. Furthermore, low-cost, safe, and practical oral fluid active matrix metalloproteinase-8 (aMMP-8) lateral-flow immunotests have been proposed as point-of-care/chair-side diagnostic tools to detect peri-implantitis and periodontitis, and to monitor their effective resolutions, while using various therapeutic strategies, including host modulation. This study reports the potential benefits of HMT-medication in the prevention and treatment of dental peri-implantitis among five patients (four of five were current/ex-smokers). In addition, the aMMP-8 point-of-care test diagnosed 20 peri-implantitis and 20 healthy controls correctly. In conclusion, this study and previous studies support the potential effectiveness of HMT-medication(s) and point-of-care/chair-side technologies in the treatment and diagnostics/monitoring of peri-implantitis. However, more studies are needed to further confirm this.
  • Suojalehto, Hille; Wolff, Henrik; Lindström, Irmeli; Puustinen, Anne (2018)
    Background The mechanisms of work-related asthma (WRA) are incompletely delineated. Nasal cell samples may be informative about processes in the lower airways. Our aim was to determine the nasal protein expression profiles of WRA caused by different kind of exposures. Methods We collected nasal brush samples from 82 nonsmoking participants, including healthy controls and WRA patients exposed to (i) protein allergens, (ii) isocyanates and (iii) welding fumes the day after relevant exposure. The proteome changes in samples were analysed by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis, and the differentially regulated proteins found were identified by mass spectrometry. Immunological comparison was carried out using Western blot. Results We detected an average of 2500 spots per protein gel. Altogether, 228 protein spots were chosen for identification, yielding 77 different proteins. Compared to the controls, exposure to protein allergens had the largest effects on the proteome. Hierarchical clustering revealed that protein allergen- and isocyanate-related asthma had similar profiles, whereas asthma related to welding fumes differed. The highly overrepresented functional categories in the asthma groups were defence response, protease inhibitor activity, inflammatory and calcium signalling, complement activation and cellular response to oxidative stress. Immunological analysis confirmed the found abundance differences in galectin 10 and protein S100-A9 between the groups. Conclusions Work-related asthma patients exposed to protein allergens and isocyanates elicit similar nasal proteome responses and the profiles of welders and healthy controls were alike. Revealed biological activities of the protein expression changes are associated with allergic inflammation and asthma.
  • Nascimento, Gustavo G.; Baelum, Vibeke; Sorsa, Timo; Tervahartiala, Taina; Skottrup, Peter D.; Lopez, Rodrigo (2019)
    Aim: This study aimed to investigate the association between salivary levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO), neutrophil elastase (NE), soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8 and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1 and gingival inflammation development during an experimental gingivitis study. Methods: A three-week experimental gingivitis study was conducted. Clinical recordings of dental plaque biofilm (Modified Quigley Hein Plaque Index, TQHPI) and gingival inflammation (Modified Gingival Index, MGI) were made at specific time points for each of the 42 participants. Salivary levels of MPO, NE, suPAR, MMP-8 and TIMP-1 at the same time points were measured using distinct immunoassays. For data analysis growth curve modelling was employed to account for the time-varying outcome (MGI score) and the time-varying covariates (salivary marker levels, and TQHPI score). Analyses were stratified according to the MGI-score trajectory groups previously identified as 'fast', respectively 'slow' responders. Results: Overall, higher MGI scores were statistically significantly positively associated with higher levels of MPO, MMP-8 and TIMP-1. Stratified analysis according to inflammation development trajectory group revealed higher levels of salivary MPO, MMP-8 and MMP-8/TIMP-1 ratio among the 'fast' responders than among 'slow' responders. None of the investigated salivary protein markers was associated with a 'slow' inflammation development response. Conclusions: Salivary levels of MPO, MMP-8 and TIMP-1 were associated with the extent and severity of gingival inflammation. While the 'fast' gingival inflammation response was associated with increased levels of MPO, MMP-8 and MMP-8/TIMP-1 ratio, the 'slow' response was not associated with any of the salivary protein markers investigated in this study. Neutrophil activity seems to orchestrate a 'fast' gingival inflammatory response among participants previously primed to gingival inflammation.
  • Tuovinen, Timo; Kananen, Janne; Rajna, Zalan; Lieslehto, Johannes; Korhonen, Vesa; Rytty, Riikka; Mattila, Heli; Huotari, Niko; Raitamaa, Lauri; Helakari, Heta; Abou Elseoud, Ahmed; Krüger, Johanna; LeVan, Pierre; Tervonen, Osmo; Hennig, Juergen; Remes, Anne M.; Nedergaard, Maiken; Kiviniemi, Vesa (2020)
    Biomarkers sensitive to prodromal or early pathophysiological changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) symptoms could improve disease detection and enable timely interventions. Changes in brain hemodynamics may be associated with the main clinical AD symptoms. To test this possibility, we measured the variability of blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal in individuals from three independent datasets (totaling 80 AD patients and 90 controls). We detected a replicable increase in brain BOLD signal variability in the AD populations, which constituted a robust biomarker for clearly differentiating AD cases from controls. Fast BOLD scans showed that the elevated BOLD signal variability in AD arises mainly from cardiovascular brain pulsations. Manifesting in abnormal cerebral perfusion and cerebrospinal fluid convection, present observation presents a mechanism explaining earlier observations of impaired glymphatic clearance associated with AD in humans.
  • Pflugmacher, Stephan; Sulk, Amalia; Kim, Sanghun; Esterhuizen-Londt, Maranda (2019)
    Uptake of the commonly occurring cyanobacterial toxin microcystin-LR (MC-LR) into crop plants via spray irrigation has been demonstrated. As other hazardous compounds such as pesticides were shown to be transported within plants, it was essential to understand the transport and fate of MC-LR in plants and the risks posed to grazers and other consumers. Of specific interest was to investigate if MC-LR could be detected in guttation drops and the toxicity thereof. Triticum aestivum (wheat) seedlings were exposed to 100 μg L−1 MC-LR in two separate experiments during which guttation drops were collected at various time points. The plants of one experiment were sectioned to investigate MC-LR distribution to the various plant appendages via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. After exposure, MC-LR could be detected in the roots, stems, leaves, and the guttation drops. However, the guttation drops were not toxic to Daphnia. As the environmentally relevant toxin concentration used was not sufficient to promote mortality in Daphnia, the physiological effect in insects, which rely on guttation drops as a water source, remains unknown. Combined with other contaminants that insects may be exposed to, the additional MC-LR exposure could contribute to the overall toxicity through the “tears of death”.