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  • Perälä, Mia-Maria; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela; Männistö, Satu; Salonen, Minna; Simonen, Mika; Kanerva, Noora Karoliina; Pohjolainen, Pertti; Kajantie, Eero Olavi; Rantanen, Taina; Eriksson, Johan Gunnar (2016)
    Epidemiological studies have shown that a number of nutrients are associated with better physical performance. However, little is still known about the role of the whole diet, particularly a healthy Nordic diet, in relation to physical performance. Therefore, we examined whether a healthy Nordic diet was associated with measures of physical performance 10 years later. We studied 1072 participants from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. Participants' diet was assessed using a validated 128-item FFQ at the mean age of 61 years, and a priori-defined Nordic diet score (NDS) was calculated. The score included Nordic fruits and berries, vegetables, cereals, PUFA:SFA and trans-fatty acids ratio, low-fat milk, fish, red and processed meat, total fat and alcohol. At the mean age of 71 years, participants' physical performance was measured using the Senior Fitness Test (SFT), and an overall SFT score was calculated. Women in the highest fourth of the NDS had on average 5 points higher SFT score compared with those in the lowest fourth (P-for trend 0.005). No such association was observed in men. Women with the highest score had 17% better result in the 6-min walk test, 16% better arm curl and 20% better chair stand results compared with those with the lowest score (all P values <0.01). In conclusion, a healthy Nordic diet was associated with better overall physical performance among women and might help decrease the risk of disability in old age.
  • Kanerva, Noora; Harald, Kennet; Männistö, Satu; Kaartinen, Niina E.; Maukonen, Mirkka; Haukkala, Ari; Jousilahti, Pekka (2018)
    Studies indicate that the healthy Nordic diet may improve heart health, but its relation to weight change is less clear. We studied the association between the adherence to the healthy Nordic diet and long-term changes in weight, BMI and waist circumference. Furthermore, the agreement between self-reported and measured body anthropometrics was examined. The population-based DIetary, Lifestyle and Genetic Determinants of Obesity and Metabolic syndrome Study in 2007 included 5024 Finns aged 25-75 years. The follow-up was conducted in 2014 (n 3735). One-third of the participants were invited to a health examination. The rest were sent measuring tape and written instructions along with questionnaires. The Baltic Sea Diet Score (BSDS) was used to measure adherence to the healthy Nordic diet. Association of the baseline BSDS and changes in BSDS during the follow-up with changes in body anthropometrics were examined using linear regression analysis. The agreement between self-reported and nurse-measured anthropometrics was determined with Bland-Altman analysis. Intra-class correlation coefficients between self-reported and nurse-measured anthropometrics exceeded 0.95. The baseline BSDS associated with lower weight (beta = -0.056, P = 0.043) and BMI (beta = -0.021, P=0.031) over the follow-up. This association was especially evident among those who had increased their BSDS. In conclusion, both high initial and improved adherence to the healthy Nordic diet may promote long-term weight maintenance. The self-reported/measured anthropometrics were shown to have high agreement with nurse-measured values which adds the credibility of our results.
  • Männistö, Satu; Harald, Kennet; Härkänen, Tommi; Maukonen, Mirkka; Eriksson, Johan G.; Heikkinen, Sanna; Jousilahti, Pekka; Kaartinen, Niina E.; Kanerva, Noora; Knekt, Paul; Koskinen, Seppo; Laaksonen, Maarit A.; Malila, Nea; Rissanen, Harri; Pitkäniemi, Janne (2021)
    There is limited evidence for any dietary factor, except alcohol, in breast cancer (BC) risk. Therefore, studies on a whole diet, using diet quality indices, can broaden our insight. We examined associations of the Nordic Diet (mNDI), Mediterranean diet (mMEDI) and Alternative Healthy Eating Index (mAHEI) with postmenopausal BC risk. Five Finnish cohorts were combined including 6374 postmenopausal women with dietary information. In all, 8-9 dietary components were aggregated in each index, higher total score indicating higher adherence to a healthy diet. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the combined hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for BC risk. During an average 10-year follow-up period, 274 incident postmenopausal BC cases were diagnosed. In multivariable models, the HR for highest vs. lowest quintile of index was 0.67 (95 %CI 0.48-1.01) for mNDI, 0.88 (0.59-1.30) for mMEDI and 0.89 (0.60-1.32) for mAHEI. In this combined dataset, a borderline preventive finding of high adherence to mNDI on postmenopausal BC risk was found. Of the indices, mNDI was more based on the local food culture than the others. Although a healthy diet has beneficially been related to several chronic diseases, the link with the etiology of postmenopausal BC does not seem to be that obvious.
  • Prasad, Marianne; Takkinen, Hanna-Mari; Uusitalo, Liisa; Tapanainen, Heli; Ovaskainen, Marja-Leena; Alfthan, Georg; Erlund, Iris; Ahonen, Suvi; Åkerlund, Mari; Toppari, Jorma; Ilonen, Jorma; Knip, Mikael; Veijola, Riitta; Virtanen, Suvi M. (2018)
    Fruit and vegetable intake has been associated with a reduced risk of many chronic diseases. These foods are the main dietary source of carotenoids. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the associations between dietary intake and serum concentrations of alpha- and beta-carotene in a sample of young Finnish children from the population-based birth cohort of the Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention (DIPP) Study. The current analysis comprised 3-day food records and serum samples from 207 children aged 1, 2 and 3 years. Spearman and partial correlations, as well as a cross-classification analyses, were used to assess the relationship between dietary intake and the corresponding biomarkers. Serum concentrations of alpha- and beta-carotene were significantly higher among the 1-year-old compared to the 3-year-old children. Dietary intakes of alpha- and beta-carotene correlated significantly with their respective serum concentrations in all age groups, the association being highest at the age of 1 year (alpha-carotene r = 0.48; p <0.001 and beta-carotene r = 0.47; p <0.001), and lowest at the age of 3 years (alpha-carotene r = 0.44; p <0.001 and beta-carotene r = 0.30; p <0.001). A cross-classification showed that 72-81% of the participants were correctly classified to the same or adjacent quartile, when comparing the reported dietary intakes and the concentrations of the corresponding carotenoid in serum. The 3-day food record seems to be reasonably valid in the assessment of root vegetable consumption among young Finnish children. Root vegetables were the main dietary source of both carotenoids in all age groups. The high consumption of commercial baby foods among the 1-year-old children was reflected in the relatively high dietary intake and serum concentration of both carotenoids.
  • Konstari, Sanna; Sares-Jäske, Laura; Heliövaara, Markku; Rissanen, Harri; Knekt, Paul; Arokoski, Jari; Sundvall, Jouko; Karppinen, Jaro (2019)
    Objectives To study whether low dietary magnesium (Mg) intake and serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) predict the development of clinical knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods The cohort consisted of 4,953 participants of a national health examination survey who were free of knee and hip OA at baseline. Information on the incidence of knee OA leading to hospitalization was drawn from the National Care Register for Health Care. During the follow-up of 10 years, 123 participants developed incident knee OA. Dietary magnesium intake was assessed on the basis of a food frequency questionnaire from the preceding year. We used Cox's proportional hazards model to estimate the strength of the association between the tertiles of dietary Mg intake and incident knee OA, adjusted for baseline age, gender, energy intake, BMI, history of physical workload, leisure time physical activity, injuries, knee complaints, the use of Mg supplements, and serum hs-CRP levels. Results At baseline, dietary Mg intake was inversely associated with serum hs-CRP even after adjustment for all the potential confounding factors. During the follow-up, the adjusted hazard ratios (with their 95% confidence intervals) for incident knee OA in dietary Mg intake tertiles were 1.00, 1.28 (0.78-2.10), and 1.38 (0.73-2.62); the p value for trend was 0.31. Serum hs-CRP level at baseline did not predict incident knee OA. Conclusions The results do not support the hypothesis that low dietary Mg intake contributes to the development of clinical knee OA, although Mg intake is inversely associated with serum hs-CRP level.
  • Sallinen, Riitta J.; Dethelsen, Olga; Ruotsalainen, Sanni; Mills, Robert D.; Miettinen, Timo; Jääskeläinen, Tuija E.; Lundqvist, Annamari; Kyllönen, Eero; Kröger, Heikki; Karppinen, Jaro; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel; Viljakainen, Heli; Kaunisto, Mari A.; Kallioniemi, Olli (2021)
    Background Genetic factors modify serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration and can affect the optimal intake of vitamin D. Objectives We aimed to personalize vitamin D supplementation by applying knowledge of genetic factors affecting serum 25(OH)D concentration. Methods We performed a genome-wide association study of serum 25(OH)D concentration in the Finnish Health 2011 cohort (n = 3339) using linear regression and applied the results to develop a population-matched genetic risk score (GRS) for serum 25(OH)D. This GRS was used to tailor vitamin D supplementation for 96 participants of a longitudinal Digital Health Revolution (DHR) Study. The GRS, serum 25(OH)D concentrations, and personalized supplementation and dietary advice were electronically returned to participants. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were assessed using immunoassays and vitamin D intake using FFQs. In data analyses, cross-sectional and repeated-measures statistical tests and models were applied as described in detail elsewhere. Results GC vitamin D-binding protein and cytochrome P450 family 2 subfamily R polypeptide 1 genes showed genome-wide significant associations with serum 25(OH)D concentration. One single nucleotide polymorphism from each locus (rs4588 and rs10741657) was used to develop the GRS. After returning data to the DHR Study participants, daily vitamin D supplement users increased from 32.6% to 60.2% (P = 6.5 x 10(-6)) and serum 25(OH)D concentration from 64.4 +/- 20.9 nmol/L to 68.5 +/- 19.2 nmol/L (P = 0.006) between August and November. Notably, the difference in serum 25(OH)D concentrations between participants with no risk alleles and those with 3 or 4 risk alleles decreased from 20.7 nmol/L to 8.0 nmol/L (P = 0.0063). Conclusions We developed and applied a population-matched GRS to identify individuals genetically predisposed to low serum 25(OH)D concentration. We show how the electronic return of individual genetic risk, serum 25(OH)D concentrations, and factors affecting vitamin D status can be used to tailor vitamin D supplementation. This model could be applied to other populations and countries.
  • Meinilä, Jelena; Perälä, Mia-Maria; Kautiainen, Hannu; Männistö, Satu; Kanerva, Noora; Shivappa, Nitin; Hebert, James R.; Iozzo, Patricia; Guzzardi, Maria Angela; Eriksson, Johan G. (2019)
    Background Telomeres are repeats of DNA that contain the sequence TTAGGG at the ends of each chromosome, and their function is to protect DNA from damage. Little evidence exists regarding the relationship between dietary patterns and telomere length, especially derived applying longitudinal design. The aim was to study if overall dietary pattern is associated with leukocyte telomere length (LTL) or faster telomere attrition or both. Methods The setting was longitudinal and observational. Participants were 456 men and 590 women whose birth settled in between 1934 and 1944 and who participated in the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. Baltic sea diet score (BSDS), modified Mediterranean diet score (mMED), and dietary inflammatory index (DII (R)) were calculated based on a 128-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) collected in 2001-2004. LTL was measured twice, in 2001-2004 and in 2011-2013 by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Association between the dietary patterns and LTL were analysed by general linear models with appropriate contrasts. Results BSDS, mMED, and DII did not associate with LTL in the cross-sectional analysis in men or women. Higher mMED at baseline (2001-2004) was associated with slightly faster LTL shortening during the follow-up (standardized beta -0.08, 95% CI -0.15, -0.01). No association between mMED and LTL change was found in men. Adherence to BSDS and DII did not associate with LTL change in men or women. Conclusion Baltic sea diet, Mediterranean diet, and diet's inflammatory potential seem to have only little impact on telomere length and telomere attrition in elderly Finnish men and women.
  • Lim, SX; Colega, MT; Ayob, MNM; Robinson, SM; Godfrey, KM; Bernard, JY; Lee, YS; Tan, KH; Yap, F; Shek, LPC; Chong, YS; Eriksson, JG; Chan, JKY; Chan, SY; Chong, MFF (2021)
    Objective: To identify a posteriori dietary patterns among women planning pregnancy and assess the reproducibility of these patterns in a subsample using two dietary assessment methods. Design: A semi-quantitative FFQ was administered to women enrolled in the Singapore PREconception Study of long-Term maternal and child Outcomes study. Dietary patterns from the FFQ were identified using exploratory factor analysis (EFA). In a subsample of women (n 289), 3-d food diaries (3DFD) were also completed and analysed. Reproducibility of the identified patterns was assessed using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) in the subsample, and goodness of fit of the CFA models was examined using several fit indices. Subsequently, EFA was conducted in the subsample and dietary patterns of the FFQ and the 3DFD were compared. Setting: Singapore. Participants: 1007 women planning pregnancy (18-45 years). Results: Three dietary patterns were identified from the FFQ: the 'Fish, Poultry/Meat and Noodles' pattern was characterised by higher intakes of fish, poultry/meat and noodles in soup; 'Fast Food and Sweetened Beverages' pattern was characterised by higher intakes of fast food, sweetened beverages and fried snacks; 'Bread, Legumes and Dairy' pattern was characterised by higher intakes of buns/ethnic breads, nuts/legumes and dairy products. The comparative fit indices from the CFA models were 0 center dot 79 and 0 center dot 34 for the FFQ and 3DFD of the subsample, respectively. In the subsample, three similar patterns were identified in the FFQ while only two for the 3DFD. Conclusions: Dietary patterns from the FFQ are reproducible within this cohort, providing a basis for future investigations on diet and health outcomes.
  • Pisa, Pedro T.; Landais, Edwige; Margetts, Barrie; Vorster, Hester H.; Friedenreich, Christine M.; Huybrechts, Inge; Martin-Prevel, Yves; Branca, Francesco; Lee, Warren T. K.; Leclercq, Catherine; Jerling, Johann; Zotor, Francis; Amuna, Paul; Al Jawaldeh, Ayoub; Aderibigbe, Olaide Ruth; Amoussa, Waliou Hounkpatin; Anderson, Cheryl A. M.; Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Atek, Madjid; Benhura, Chakare; Chifamba, Jephat; Covic, Namukolo; Dary, Omar; Delisle, Helene; El Ati, Jalila; El Hamdouchi, Asmaa; El Rhazi, Karima; Faber, Mieke; Kalimbira, Alexander; Korkalo, Liisa; Kruger, Annamarie; Ledo, James; Machiweni, Tatenda; Mahachi, Carol; Mathe, Nonsikelelo; Mokori, Alex; Mouquet-rivier, Claire; Mutie, Catherine; Nashandi, Hilde Liisa; Norris, Shane A.; Onabanjo, Oluseye Olusegun; Rambeloson, Zo; Saha, Foudjo Brice U.; Ubaoji, Kingsley Ikechukwu; Zaghloul, Sahar; Slimani, Nadia (2018)
    Objective: To carry out an inventory on the availability, challenges, and needs of dietary assessment (DA) methods in Africa as a pre-requisite to provide evidence, and set directions (strategies) for implementing common dietary methods and support web-research infrastructure across countries. Methods: The inventory was performed within the framework of the " Africa's Study on Physical Activity and Dietary Assessment Methods" (AS-PADAM) project. It involves international institutional and African networks. An inventory questionnaire was developed and disseminated through the networks. Eighteen countries responded to the dietary inventory questionnaire. Results: Various DA tools were reported in Africa; 24-Hour Dietary Recall and Food Frequency Questionnaire were the most commonly used tools. Few tools were validated and tested for reliability. Face-to-face interview was the common method of administration. No computerized software or other new (web) technologies were reported. No tools were standardized across countries. Conclusions: The lack of comparable DA methods across represented countries is a major obstacle to implement comprehensive and joint nutrition-related programmes for surveillance, programme evaluation, research, and prevention. There is a need to develop new or adapt existing DA methods across countries by employing related research infrastructure that has been validated and standardized in other settings, with the view to standardizing methods for wider use.
  • Lounassalo, Irinja; Hirvensalo, Mirja; Palomaki, Sanna; Salin, Kasper; Tolvanen, Asko; Pahkala, Katja; Rovio, Suvi; Fogelholm, Mikael; Yang, Xiaolin; Hutri-Kahonen, Nina; Raitakari, Olli T.; Tammelin, Tuija H. (2021)
    BackgroundEvidence on whether leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) facilitates individuals' adoption of multiple healthy behaviors remains scarce. This study investigated the associations of diverse longitudinal LTPA trajectories from childhood to adulthood with diet, screen time, smoking, binge drinking, sleep difficulties, and sleep duration in adulthood.MethodsData were drawn from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Participants were aged 9-18years (N=3553; 51% females) in 1980 and 33-49years at the latest follow-up in 2011. The LTPA trajectories were identified using a latent profile analysis. Differences in self-reported health-related behaviors across the LTPA trajectories were studied separately for women and men by using the Bolck-Croon-Hagenaars approach. Models were adjusted for age, body mass index, education level, marital status, total energy intake and previous corresponding behaviors.ResultsPersistently active, persistently low-active, decreasingly and increasingly active trajectories were identified in both genders and an additional inactive trajectory for women. After adjusting the models with the above-mentioned covariates, the inactive women had an unhealthier diet than the women in the other trajectories (p< 0.01; effect size (ES)>0.50). The low-active men followed an unhealthier diet than the persistently and increasingly active men (p< 0.01; ES>0.50). Compared to their inactive and low-active peers, smoking frequency was lower in the increasingly active women and men (p< 0.01; ES>0.20) and persistently active men (p< 0.05; ES>0.20). The increasingly active men reported lower screen time than the low-active (p< 0.001; ES>0.50) and persistently active (p< 0.05; ES>0.20) men. The increasingly and persistently active women reported fewer sleep difficulties than the inactive (p< 0.001; ES>0.80) and low-active (p< 0.05; ES>0.50 and>0.80, respectively) women. Sleep duration and binge drinking were not associated with the LTPA trajectories in either gender, nor were sleep difficulties in men and screen time in women.ConclusionsNot only persistently higher LTPA but also an increasing tendency to engage in LTPA after childhood/adolescence were associated with healthier diet and lower smoking frequency in both genders, having less sleep difficulties in women and lower screen time in increasingly active men. Inactivity and low activity were associated with the accumulation of several unhealthy behaviors in adulthood. Associations were stronger in women.
  • Kaseva, Nina; Vääräsmaki, Marja; Matinolli, Hanna-Maria; Sipola, Marika; Tikanmäki, Marjaana; Kanerva, Noora; Heinonen, Kati; Lano, Aulikki; Wolke, Dieter; Andersson, Sture; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Räikkönen, Katri; Eriksson, Johan G.; Männistö, Satu; Kajantie, Eero (2020)
    Background/Objectives Maternal pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity and gestational diabetes (GDM) are associated with increased fat deposition in adult offspring. The purpose of this study was to identify if maternal pre-pregnancy overweight (body mass index (BMI) >= 25 kg/m(2)) or GDM are associated with dietary quality or intake in adult offspring. Subjects/Methods Participants (n = 882) from two longitudinal cohort studies (ESTER Maternal Pregnancy Disorders Study and the Arvo Ylppo Longitudinal Study) completed a validated food-frequency questionnaire at a mean age of 24.2 years (SD 1.3). Diet quality was evaluated by a Recommended Finnish Diet Index (RDI). The study sample included offspring of normoglycaemic mothers with pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity (ONO = 155), offspring of mothers with GDM regardless of BMI (OGDM = 190) and offspring of mothers with normal weight and no GDM (controls;n = 537). Results Among men, daily energy and macronutrient intakes were similar in ONO and controls. However, after adjusting for current offspring characteristics, including BMI, daily carbohydrate intake relative to total energy intake was higher in ONO-men [2.2 percentages of total energy intake (95% confidence interval 0.4, 4.0)]. In ONO-women, macronutrient intakes relative to total energy intake were similar with controls, while total daily energy intake seemed lower [-587.2 kJ/day (-1192.0, 4.4)]. After adjusting for confounders, this difference was attenuated. Adherence to a healthy diet, as measured by RDI, was similar in ONO and controls [mean difference: men 0.40 (-0.38, 1.18); women 0.25 (-0.50, 1.00)]. In OGDM vs. controls, total energy and macronutrient intakes were similar for both men and women. Also adherence to a healthy diet was similar [RDI: men 0.09 (-0.62, 0.80); women -0.17 (-0.93, 0.59)]. Conclusions Our study suggested higher daily carbohydrate intake in male offspring exposed to maternal pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity, compared with controls. Prenatal exposure to GDM was not associated with adult offspring dietary intakes.
  • Wallström, Peter; Drake, Isabel; Sonestedt, Emily; Gullberg, Bo; Bjartell, Anders; Olsson, Håkan; Adlercreutz, Herman; Tikkanen, Matti J.; Wirfält, Elisabet (2018)
    Enterolactone (ENL) is formed in the human gut after consumption of lignans, has estrogenic properties, and has been associated with risk of prostate cancer. We examined the association between plasma ENL levels and prostate cancer in a nested case-control study within the population-based Malmo Diet and Cancer cohort. We also examined the association between plasma ENL and dietary and lifestyle factors. The study population consisted of 1010 cases occurring during a mean follow-up of 14.6 years, and 1817 controls matched on age and study entry date. We used national registers (95%) and hospital records (5%) to ascertain cases. Diet was estimated by a modified diet history method. Plasma ENL concentrations were determined by a time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay. Odds ratios were calculated by unconditional logistic regression. There were no significant associations between plasma ENL and incidence of all prostate cancer (odds ratio 0.99 [95% confidence interval 0.77-1.280] for the highest ENL quintile versus lowest, p for trend 0.66). However, in certain subgroups of men, including men with abdominal obesity (p for interaction = 0.012), we observed associations between high ENL levels and lower odds of high-risk prostate cancer. Plasma ENL was positively associated with consumption of high-fibre bread, fruit, tea, and coffee; with age, and with height, while it was negatively associated with smoking and waist circumference; however, although significant, all associations were rather weak (r ae |0.14|). ENL concentration was not consistently associated with lower prostate cancer risk, although it was weakly associated with a healthy lifestyle.
  • Vasankari, Tuula; Harkanen, Tommi; Kainu, Annette; Sääksjärvi, Katri; Mattila, Tiina; Jousilahti, Pekka; Laitinen, Tarja (2019)
    In the present study we aimed to investigate the incidence and predictors of spirometry based airway obstruction in a representative population-based sample. Altogether 3,863 subjects, 1,651 males and 2,212 females aged 30years had normal spirometry in year 2000. Fifty-three percent of them were never and 23% current smokers. A re-spirometry was performed 11years later. Several characteristics, such as level of education, use of alcohol, physical activity, diet using Alternate healthy eating (AHEI) index, body mass index, circumwaist, sensitive C reactive protein (CRP) and cotinine of the laboratory values and co-morbidities including asthma, allergic rhinitis, sleep apnoea and chronic bronchitis, as potential risk factors for airway obstruction were evaluated. Using forced expiratory volume in one second/ forced vital capacity below the lower limit of normal, we observed 124 new cases of airway obstruction showing a cumulative 11-year incidence of 3.2% and corresponding to an incidence rate of 5.6/1,000 per year (PY). The incidence rate was higher in men than in women (6.3/1,000 PY vs. 5.0/1,000 PY, respectively). The strongest risk factors were current smoking (Odds ratio [OR] 2.5) and previously diagnosed asthma (OR 2.1). Sensitive CRP associated with the increased risk and high AHEI index with the decreased risk of airway obstruction. Using the similar study approach our findings on the incidence of airway obstruction are in line with the previously published figures in Europe. We were able to confirm the recent findings on the protective effect of healthy diet.
  • Adebayo, Folasade A.; Itkonen, Suvi T.; Lilja, Eero; Jaaskelainen, Tuija; Lundqvist, Annamari; Laatikainen, Tiina; Koponen, Paivikki; Cashman, Kevin D.; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel (2020)
    Objective: We investigated the determinants of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [S-25(OH)D] and dietary vitamin D sources among three immigrant groups in Finland and compared their S-25(OH)D to the general Finnish population. Design: Cross-sectional population-based Migrant Health and Wellbeing Study and the nationally representative Finnish Health 2011 Survey. S-25(OH)D was standardised according to the Vitamin D Standardisation Program. Vitamin D sources were assessed by interview. Setting: Six different municipalities in Finland (60 degrees-63 degrees N). Participants: Immigrants aged 18-64 years (446 Russians, 346 Somalis, 500 Kurds), 798 Finns aged 30-64 years. Results: The mean of S-25(OH)D was 64 (95 % CI 62, 66), 44 (95 % CI 41, 46), 35 (95 % CI 34, 37) and 64 (95 % CI 62, 66) nmol/l for Russians, Somalis, Kurds and Finns, respectively. S-25(OH)D among Somalis and Kurds was lower compared with Finns (P <0 center dot 001). The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (S-25(OH)D
  • Sares-Jäske, Laura; Knekt, Paul; Männistö, Satu; Lindfors, Olavi; Heliövaara, Markku (2019)
    Dieting attempts have become popular worldwide. Dieting, however, seems to have both positive and negative health-related consequences. So far, only a few studies have focused on the determinants of dieting in detail. This study explores the association between self-report dieting attempts and intentional weight loss (IWL) during the previous year and several demographic, lifestyle, health, and psychological factors in a cross-sectional study design using data from the representative Finnish Health 2000 Survey. The sample comprised 2147 men and 2378 women, aged 30-69. Information for potential determinants was assembled via health examinations, interviews, and questionnaires. Approximately 24% of the men and 39% of the women reported dieting attempts and 10% of the men and 15% of the women reported IWL. Dieting attempts were associated with younger age, education, BMI, formerly smoking, more favourable values in lifestyle variables, and unfavorable values in serum HDL and triglycerides, a worse sense of coherence, concerns about one's appearance, and concerns about one's health. Among men, diabetics and those sleeping
  • Sares-Jäske, L.; Knekt, P.; Männistö, S.; Lindfors, O.; Heliövaara, M. (2019)
    Objective This prospective study explores whether dieting attempts and previous changes in weight predict changes in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Methods The study was based on the representative Finnish Health 2000 Survey and on its follow-up examination 11 years later. The sample included 2,785 participants, aged 30-69. BMI and WC were determined at health examinations. Information on dieting attempts and previous changes in weight was collected using a questionnaire including questions on whether participant had tried to lose weight (no/yes), gained weight (no/yes) or lost weight (no/yes) during the previous year. Results At baseline, 32.8% were dieters. Of these, 28.4% had lost weight during the previous year. Dieters had higher BMI and WC than non-dieters. During the follow-up, the measures increased more in dieters and in persons with previous weight loss. The mean BMI changes in non-dieters versus dieters were 0.74 (standard deviation [SD] 2.13) kg/m(2) and 1.06 (SD 2.77) kg/m(2) (P = 0.002), respectively. The corresponding numbers for those with no previous weight change versus those who had lost weight were 0.65 (SD 2.07) kg/m(2) and 1.52 (SD 2.61) kg/m(2). The increases in BMI and WC were most notable in dieters with initially normal weight. Conclusions The increases in BMI and WC were greater in dieters than in non-dieters, suggesting dieting attempts to be non-functional in the long term in the general population.
  • Kanerva, Noora; Kontto, Jukka; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Nevalainen, Jaakko; Männistö, Satu (2018)
    Aims: Factors that contribute to the development of overweight are numerous and form a complex structure with many unknown interactions and associations. We aimed to explore this structure (i.e. the mutual importance or hierarchy of sociodemographic and lifestyle-related risk factors of being overweight) using a machine-learning technique called random forest (RF). The results were compared with traditional logistic regression (LR) analysis. Methods: The cross-sectional FINRISK 2007 Study included 4757 Finns (aged 25-74 years). Information on participants' lifestyle and sociodemographic characteristics were collected with questionnaires. Diet was assessed, using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Height and weight were measured. Participants with a body mass index (BMI) 25 kg/m(2) were classified as overweight. R-statistical software was used to run RF analysis (randomForest') to derive estimates for variable importance and out-of-bag error, which were compared to a LR model. Results: In total, 704 (32%) men and 1119 (44%) women had normal BMI, whereas 1502 (69%) men and 1432 (57%) women had BMI 25. Estimated error rates for the models were similar (RF vs. LR: 42% vs. 40% for men, 38% vs. 35% for women). Both models ranked age, education and physical activity as the most important risk factors for being overweight, but RF ranked macronutrients (carbohydrates and protein) as more important compared to LR. Conclusions: RF did not demonstrate higher power in variable selection compared to LR in our study. The features of RF are more likely to appear beneficial in settings with a larger number of predictors.
  • Perälä, Mia-Maria; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B.; Männistö, Satu; Salonen, Minna K.; Simonen, Mika; Pohjolainen, Pertti; Kajantie, Eero; Rantanen, Taina; Eriksson, Johan G. (2019)
    Background/Objective: Diet has a major impact on a person's health. However, limited information exists on the long-term role of the whole diet on disability. We investigated the association of the healthy Nordic diet and the Mediterranean diet with incident disability 10 years later. Design: Longitudinal, with a follow-up of 10 years. Settings/Participants: A total of 962 home-dwelling men and women from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, mean age 61.6 years, who were free of disability at baseline. Measurements: At baseline, 2001-2004, the Nordic diet score (NDS) and modified Mediterranean diet score (mMDS) were calculated using a validated 128-item food-frequency questionnaire. Higher scores indicated better adherence to the diet. Participants' incident disability was assessed during 2011-2013 by a self-reported questionnaire and was based on mobility limitations and difficulties to perform self-care activities. Analyses were performed using logistic regression and adjusted for potential confounding factors. Results: In total, 94 participants (9.8%) developed mobility limitations and 45 participants (4.7%) developed difficulties in self-care activities during 10 year follow-up. The likelihood of having mobility limitations (odds ratio (OR) 0.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.22-0.80) and difficulties in self-care activities (OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.15-0.94) were lower among those in the highest NDS tertile than among those in the lowest NDS tertile. Greater mMDS was associated with a lower disability incidence; however, the association was not statistically significant. Conclusions/Implications: Adherence to the healthy Nordic diet predicts 10-year incidence of mobility limitations and difficulties to perform self-care activities in old age and may thus be protective against disability in Nordic population. (C) 2018 AMDA - The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine.