Browsing by Subject "FOOD SECURITY"

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  • Hari, Pertti Kaarlo Juhani; Petäjä, Tuukka Taneli; Bäck, Jaana Kaarina; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Lappalainen, Hanna K; Vihma, Timo; Laurila, Tuomas; Viisanen, Yrjö; Vesala, Timo Veikko; Kulmala, Markku Tapio (2016)
    The global environment is changing rapidly due to anthropogenic emissions and actions. Such activities modify aerosol and greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere, leading to regional and global climate change and affecting, e.g., food and fresh-water security, sustainable use of natural resources and even demography. Here we present a conceptual design of a global, hierarchical observation network that can provide tools and increased understanding to tackle the inter-connected environmental and societal challenges that we will face in the coming decades. The philosophy behind the conceptual design relies on physical conservation laws of mass, energy and momentum, as well as on concentration gradients that act as driving forces for the atmosphere-biosphere exchange. The network is composed of standard, flux and/or advanced and flagship stations, each of which having specific and identified tasks. Each ecosystem type on the globe has its own characteristic features that have to be taken into consideration. The hierarchical network as a whole is able to tackle problems related to large spatial scales, heterogeneity of ecosystems and their complexity. The most comprehensive observations are envisioned to occur in flagship stations, with which the process-level understanding can be expanded to continental and global scales together with advanced data analysis, Earth system modelling and satellite remote sensing. The denser network of the flux and standard stations allows application and up-scaling of the results obtained from flagship stations to the global level.
  • Santangeli, Andrea; Toivonen, Tuuli; Pouzols, Federico Montesino; Pogson, Mark; Hastings, Astley; Smith, Pete; Moilanen, Atte (2016)
    Reliance on fossil fuels is causing unprecedented climate change and is accelerating environmental degradation and global biodiversity loss. Together, climate change and biodiversity loss, if not averted urgently, may inflict severe damage on ecosystem processes, functions and services that support the welfare of modern societies. Increasing renewable energy deployment and expanding the current protected area network represent key solutions to these challenges, but conflicts may arise over the use of limited land for energy production as opposed to biodiversity conservation. Here, we compare recently identified core areas for the expansion of the global protected area network with the renewable energy potential available from land-based solar photovoltaic, wind energy and bioenergy (in the form of Miscanthusxgiganteus). We show that these energy sources have very different biodiversity impacts and net energy contributions. The extent of risks and opportunities deriving from renewable energy development is highly dependent on the type of renewable source harvested, the restrictions imposed on energy harvest and the region considered, with Central America appearing at particularly high potential risk from renewable energy expansion. Without restrictions on power generation due to factors such as production and transport costs, we show that bioenergy production is a major potential threat to biodiversity, while the potential impact of wind and solar appears smaller than that of bioenergy. However, these differences become reduced when energy potential is restricted by external factors including local energy demand. Overall, we found that areas of opportunity for developing solar and wind energy with little harm to biodiversity could exist in several regions of the world, with the magnitude of potential impact being particularly dependent on restrictions imposed by local energy demand. The evidence provided here helps guide sustainable development of renewable energy and contributes to the targeting of global efforts in climate mitigation and biodiversity conservation.
  • Bernatchez, Louis; Wellenreuther, Maren; Araneda, Cristin; Ashton, David T.; Barth, Julia M. I.; Beacham, Terry D.; Maes, Gregory E.; Martinsohn, Jann T.; Miller, Kristina M.; Naish, Kerry A.; Ovenden, Jennifer R.; Primmer, Craig R.; Suk, Ho Young; Therkildsen, Nina O.; Withler, Ruth E. (2017)
    Best use of scientific knowledge is required to maintain the fundamental role of seafood in human nutrition. While it is acknowledged that genomic-based methods allow the collection of powerful data, their value to inform fisheries management, aquaculture, and biosecurity applications remains underestimated. We review genomic applications of relevance to the sustainable management of seafood resources, illustrate the benefits of, and identify barriers to their integration. We conclude that the value of genomic information towards securing the future of seafood does not need to be further demonstrated. Instead, we need immediate efforts to remove structural roadblocks and focus on ways that support integration of genomic-informed methods into management and production practices. We propose solutions to pave the way forward.
  • Haapasaari, Paivi; Ignatius, Suvi; Pihlajamaki, Mia; Sarkki, Simo; Tuomisto, Jouni; Delaney, Alyne (2019)
    This article focuses on the dioxin problem of Baltic herring and salmon fisheries and its governance that is based on natural scientific knowledge. The dioxin problem weakens the perceived quality of Baltic salmon and herring as food and affects the way the catches can be used. This influences negatively the fishing livelihood, the coastal culture, and the availability of the fish for consumers. We explored how the governance of the dioxin problem could be improved, to better address its socio-economic and cultural implications. We identified four main actions: (1) adopt environmental, economic and social sustainability, and food security and safety as shared principles between the environmental, food safety/public health, and fisheries policies, (2) establish collaboration between the environmental, public health, and fisheries sectors at the regional level, (3) enhance interaction around the dioxin problem within the fisheries sector, and (4) support the participation of the Baltic fisheries stakeholders in the EU-level food safety governance. Viewing dioxins in fish not only as a natural scientific problem but as a multidimensional one would enable a wider toolbox of governing instruments to be developed to better address the different dimensions. This would support steps towards collaborative governance and a food system approach.
  • Fahmi, Mustafa Kamil Mahmoud; Dafa-Alla, Dafa-Alla Mohamed; Kanninen, Markku; Luukkanen, Olavi (2018)
    National food security has been a major policy goal in Sudan since the country gained its independence in 1956. One of the fundamental reasons is to ensure the social welfare for people living in rural areas. In this study we aimed to analyse how farmers secure their food and generate income in the semi-arid Sennar state in Sudan, using two selected sites, El Dali and El Mazmum, as examples. We interviewed 281 randomly sampled household heads, of which 145 at El Dali and 136 at El Mazmum, between July and November 2011. We identified four distinct land use systems, of which three consist of monocropping and one of cultivation in agroforestry parklands. Several statistical techniques and economic analysis were applied on the study data. Our results show that, in the two areas, the highest average yields over a 10-year period for the three crops studied, sorghum, pearl millet and sesame, were achieved in agroforestry system, except for the case of sesame at El Mazmum. Economic returns for the farmers, as indicated by net present value or benefit/cost ratio, followed the same pattern. The study concludes that farmers should rely more on agroforestry to improve their food security and cash income generation. Land use and land right policies, which currently discourage farmers from growing trees on their lands, should be revised, so as to give more incentive to them to adopt ecologically and economically more sustainable land use practices.
  • Córdova, Raúl; Hogarth, Nicholas; Kanninen, Markku (2019)
    Smallholder farming is considered one of the most vulnerable sectors to the impacts of climate change, variability, and extremes, especially in the developing world. This high vulnerability is due to the socioeconomic limitations and high environmental sensitivity which aect the biophysical and socioeconomic components of their farming systems. Therefore, systems’ functionality and farmers’ livelihoods will also be aected, with significant implications for global food security, land-use/land-cover change processes and agrobiodiversity conservation. Thus, less vulnerable and more resilient smallholder farming systems constitute an important requisite for sustainable land management and to safeguard the livelihoods of millions of rural and urban households. This study compares a comprehensive socioeconomic and environmental dataset collected in 2015–2016 based on household interviews of 30 farmers of highland agroforestry systems and 30 farmers of conventional agriculture systems, to determine which system provides better opportunities to reduce exposure and sensitivity. A modified Climate Change Questionnaire Version 2 of the World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies (WOCAT) was applied to collect the data. The interview data are based on the perceptions of Kayambi indigenous farmers about the levels of exposure and sensitivity of their farming systems during the last decade. Descriptive statistics were applied to analyze the data from the 60 farms. Results indicate that both agroforesters and conventional farmers clearly perceived increases in temperature and reductions in precipitation for the last decade, and expected this trend to continue in the next decade. Furthermore, conventional farmers perceived greater exposure to droughts (20%), solar radiation (43%), and pests, weeds and disease outbreaks (40%) than agroforesters. Additionally, results emphasize the better ability of agroforestry systems to reduce exposure and sensitivity to climate change and variability. These findings support the well-known assumptions about the key role played by agroforestry systems for climate change adaptation and mitigation, especially in developing countries.
  • Peltonen-Sainio, Pirjo; Laurila, Heikki; Jauhiainen, Lauri; Alakukku, Laura (2015)
  • Sandström, Vilma; Valin, Hugo; Krisztin, Tamás; Havlík, Petr; Herrero, Mario; Kastner, Thomas (2018)
    International trade presents a challenge for measuring the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission footprint of human diets, because imported food is produced with different production efficiencies and sourcing regions differ in land use histories. We analyze how trade and countries of origin impact GHG footprint calculation for EU food consumption. We find that food consumption footprints can differ considerably between the EU countries with estimates varying from 610 to 1460 CO2-eq. cap−1 yr−1. These estimates include the GHG emissions from primary production, international trade and land use change. The share of animal products in the diet is the most important factor determining the footprint of food consumption. Embedded land use change in imports also plays a major role. Transition towards more plant-based diets has a great potential for climate change mitigation.