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  • Lounassalo, Irinja; Hirvensalo, Mirja; Kankaanpaeae, Anna; Tolvanen, Asko; Palomäki, Sanna; Salin, Kasper; Fogelholm, Mikael; Yang, Xiaolin; Pahkala, Katja; Rovio, Suvi; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Raitakari, Olli; Tammelin, Tuija H. (2019)
    A physically active lifestyle and a diet rich in vegetables and fruits have a central role in promoting health. This study examined the associations between leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) trajectories and fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC) from childhood to middle age. The data were drawn from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study with six age cohorts. Participants were 9 to 18 years (n = 3536; 51% females) at baseline in 1980 and 33 to 48 years at the last follow-up in 2011. LTPA and FVC were self-reported. LTPA trajectories were identified using latent profile analyses, after which the mean differences in FVC across the trajectories were studied. Active, low-active, decreasingly and increasingly active trajectories were identified for both genders. An additional trajectory describing inactivity was identified for females. Those who were persistently active or increased their LTPA had higher FVC at many ages when compared to their inactive or low-active counterparts (p <0.05). In females prior to age 42 and in males prior to age 24, FVC was higher at many ages in those with decreasing activity than in their inactive or low-active counterparts (p <0.05). The development of LTPA and FVC from childhood to middle age seem to occur in tandem.
  • Lofvenborg, J. E.; Andersson, T.; Carlsson, P-O; Dorkhan, M.; Groop, L.; Martinell, M.; Tuomi, T.; Wolk, A.; Carlsson, S. (2014)
  • Vila-Real, Catarina; Pimenta-Martins, Ana; Gomes, Ana Maria; Pinto, Elisabete; Maina, Henry Ndegwa (2018)
    Background: Dietary patterns are often considered as one of the main causes of non-communicable diseases worldwide. It is of utmost importance to study dietary habits in developing countries since this work is scarce. Objective: To summarize the most recent research conducted in this field in African countries, namely the most used methodologies and tools. Methods: A systematic review was conducted on MEDLINE/PubMed, aiming to identify scientific publications focused on studies of dietary intake of different African populations, in a ten-year period. Papers not written in English/Portuguese/Spanish, studies developed among African people but not developed in African countries, studies aiming to assess a particular nutrient/specific food/food toxin and studies that assessed dietary intake among children were excluded. Findings: Out of 99 included studies, the 24-hour recall and the food-frequency questionnaire were the most used dietary intake assessment tools, used to assess diet at an individual level. It was also observed that often country-unspecific food composition databases are used, and the methodologies employed are poorly validated and standardized. Conclusions: There is an emergent need to improve the existing food databases by updating food data and to develop suitable country-specific databases for those that do not have their own food composition table.
  • Kvaerner, Ane Sorlie; Birkeland, Einar; Bucher-Johannessen, Cecilie; Vinberg, Elina; Nordby, Jan Inge; Kangas, Harri; Bemanian, Vahid; Ellonen, Pekka; Botteri, Edoardo; Natvig, Erik; Rognes, Torbjorn; Hovig, Eivind; Lyle, Robert; Ambur, Ole Herman; de Vos, Willem M.; Bultman, Scott; Hjartaker, Anette; Landberg, Rikard; Song, Mingyang; Blix, Hege Salvesen; Ursin, Giske; Randel, Kristin Ranheim; de Lange, Thomas; Hoff, Geir; Holme, Oyvind; Berstad, Paula; Rounge, Trine B. (2021)
    Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening reduces CRC incidence and mortality. However, current screening methods are either hampered by invasiveness or suboptimal performance, limiting their effectiveness as primary screening methods. To aid in the development of a non-invasive screening test with improved sensitivity and specificity, we have initiated a prospective biomarker study (CRCbiome), nested within a large randomized CRC screening trial in Norway. We aim to develop a microbiome-based classification algorithm to identify advanced colorectal lesions in screening participants testing positive for an immunochemical fecal occult blood test (FIT). We will also examine interactions with host factors, diet, lifestyle and prescription drugs. The prospective nature of the study also enables the analysis of changes in the gut microbiome following the removal of precancerous lesions. Methods: The CRCbiome study recruits participants enrolled in the Bowel Cancer Screening in Norway (BCSN) study, a randomized trial initiated in 2012 comparing once-only sigmoidoscopy to repeated biennial FIT, where women and men aged 50-74 years at study entry are invited to participate. Since 2017, participants randomized to FIT screening with a positive test result have been invited to join the CRCbiome study. Self-reported diet, lifestyle and demographic data are collected prior to colonoscopy after the positive FIT-test (baseline). Screening data, including colonoscopy findings are obtained from the BCSN database. Fecal samples for gut microbiome analyses are collected both before and 2 and 12 months after colonoscopy. Samples are analyzed using metagenome sequencing, with taxonomy profiles, and gene and pathway content as primary measures. CRCbiome data will also be linked to national registries to obtain information on prescription histories and cancer relevant outcomes occurring during the 10 year follow-up period. Discussion: The CRCbiome study will increase our understanding of how the gut microbiome, in combination with lifestyle and environmental factors, influences the early stages of colorectal carcinogenesis. This knowledge will be crucial to develop microbiome-based screening tools for CRC. By evaluating biomarker performance in a screening setting, using samples from the target population, the generalizability of the findings to future screening cohorts is likely to be high.
  • McAlister, Louise; Pugh, Pearl; Greenbaum, Laurence; Haffner, Dieter; Rees, Lesley; Anderson, Caroline; Desloovere, An; Nelms, Christina; Oosterveld, Michiel; Paglialonga, Fabio; Polderman, Nonnie; Qizalbash, Leila; Renken-Terhaerdt, Jose; Tuokkola, Jetta; Warady, Bradley; Walle, Johan Vande; Shaw, Vanessa; Shroff, Rukshana (2020)
    In children with chronic kidney disease (CKD), optimal control of bone and mineral homeostasis is essential, not only for the prevention of debilitating skeletal complications and achieving adequate growth but also for preventing vascular calcification and cardiovascular disease. Complications of mineral bone disease (MBD) are common and contribute to the high morbidity and mortality seen in children with CKD. Although several studies describe the prevalence of abnormal calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone, and vitamin D levels as well as associated clinical and radiological complications and their medical management, little is known about the dietary requirements and management of calcium (Ca) and phosphate (P) in children with CKD. The Pediatric Renal Nutrition Taskforce (PRNT) is an international team of pediatric renal dietitians and pediatric nephrologists, who develop clinical practice recommendations (CPRs) for the nutritional management of various aspects of renal disease management in children. We present CPRs for the dietary intake of Ca and P in children with CKD stages 2-5 and on dialysis (CKD2-5D), describing the common Ca- and P-containing foods, the assessment of dietary Ca and P intake, requirements for Ca and P in healthy children and necessary modifications for children with CKD2-5D, and dietary management of hypo- and hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia. The statements have been graded, and statements with a low grade or those that are opinion-based must be carefully considered and adapted to individual patient needs based on the clinical judgment of the treating physician and dietitian. These CPRs will be regularly audited and updated by the PRNT.