Browsing by Subject "FOOD-WEB"

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  • Hagner, M.; Romantschuk, M.; Penttinen, O. -P.; Egfors, A.; Marchand, C.; Augustsson, A. (2018)
    The present study addresses toxicological properties of metal contaminated soils, using glassworks sites in south-easternl Sweden as study objects. Soil from five selected glassworks sites as well as from nearby reference areas were analysed for total and water-soluble metal concentrations and general geochemical parameters. A battery of biotests was then applied to assess the toxicity of the glassworks soil environments: a test of phytotoxicity with garden cress (Lepidium sativum); the BioTox(TM) test for toxicity to bacteria using Vibrio fischeri; and analyses of abundancies and biomass of nematodes and enchytraeids. The glassworks-and reference areas were comparable with respect to pH and the content of organic matter and nutrients (C, N, P), but total metal concentrations (Pb, As, Ba, Cd and Zn) were significantly higher at the former sites. Higher metal concentrations in the water-soluble fraction were also observed, even though these concentrations were low compared to the total ones. Nevertheless, toxicity of the glassworks soils was not detected by the two ex situ tests; inhibition of light emission by V. fischeri could not be seen, nor was an effect seen on the growth of L. sativum. A decrease in enchytraeid and nematode abundance and biomass was, however, observed for the landfill soils as compared to reference soils, implying in situ toxicity to soil-inhabiting organisms. The confirmation of in situ bioavailability and negative effects motivates additional studies of the risk posed to humans of the glassworks villages. (C) 2017 Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Tverin, Malin; Esparza-Salas, Rodrigo; Strömberg, Annika; Tang, Patrik; Kokkonen, Iiris; Herrero, Annika; Kauhala, Kaarina; Karlsson, Olle; Tiilikainen, Raisa; Vetemaa, Markus; Sinisalo, Tuula; Käkelä, Reijo; Lundström, Karl (2019)
    The growing grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) population in the Baltic Sea has created conflicts with local fisheries, comparable to similar emerging problems worldwide. Adequate information on the foraging habits is a requirement for responsible management of the seal population. We investigated the applicability of available dietary assessment methods by comparing morphological analysis and DNA metabarcoding of gut contents (short-term diet; n = 129/125 seals, respectively), and tissue chemical markers i.e. fatty acid (FA) profiles of blubber and stable isotopes (SIs) of liver and muscle (mid- or long-term diet; n = 108 seals for the FA and SI markers). The methods provided complementary information. Short-term methods indicated prey species and revealed dietary differences between age groups and areas but for limited time period. In the central Baltic, herring was the main prey, while in the Gulf of Finland percid and cyprinid species together comprised the largest part of the diet. Perch was also an important prey in the western Baltic Proper. The DNA analysis provided firm identification of many prey species, which were neglected or identified only at species group level by morphological analysis. Liver SIs distinguished spatial foraging patterns and identified potentially migrated individuals, whereas blubber FAs distinguished individuals frequently utilizing certain types of prey. Tissue chemical markers of adult males suggested specialized feeding to certain areas and prey, which suggest that these individuals are especially prone to cause economic losses for fisheries. We recommend combined analyses of gut contents and tissue chemical markers as dietary monitoring methodology of aquatic top predators to support an optimal ecosystem-based management.
  • Luoto, Tomi P.; Ojala, Antti E.K. (2018)
    Arctic freshwater basins are diversity hotspots and sentinels of climate change, but their long-term variability and the environmental variables controlling them are not well defined. We examined four available lake sediment sequences from High Arctic Svalbard for their subfossil Chironomidae communities, biodiversity and functional traits and assessed the influence of climatic and limnological variability on the long-term ecological dynamics. Our results indicated that collector-filterers had an important role in the oligotrophic sites, whereas collector-gatherers dominated the nutrient-enriched sites with significant bird guano inputs. In the oligotrophic sites, benthic production, taxon richness and taxonomic and functional diversity were highest during the early Holocene, when temperatures showed a rapid increase. An increase in subfossil abundance and diversity metrics was also found in recent samples of the oligotrophic sites, but not in the bird-impacted sites, where the trends were decreasing. When partitioning out the environmental forcing on chironomid communities, the influence of climate was significant in all the sites, whereas in-lake production (organic matter) was significant in two of the sites and catchment erosion (magnetic susceptibility) had only minor influence. The findings suggest that major changes in Arctic chironomid assemblages were driven by climate warming with increasing diversity in oligotrophic sites, but deteriorating ecological functions in environmentally stressed sites. We found that although taxonomic and functional diversity were always coupled, taxonomical and functional turnovers were coupled only in the oligotrophic sites suggesting that the ecological functions operated by chironomids in these low-productivity sites may not be as resilient to future environmental change.
  • Parravicini, Valeriano; Casey, Jordan M.; Schiettekatte, Nina M. D.; Brandl, Simon J.; Pozas-Schacre, Chloe; Carlot, Jeremy; Edgar, Graham J.; Graham, Nicholas A. J.; Harmelin-Vivien, Mireille; Kulbicki, Michel; Strona, Giovanni; Stuart-Smith, Rick D. (2020)
    Understanding species' roles in food webs requires an accurate assessment of their trophic niche. However, it is challenging to delineate potential trophic interactions across an ecosystem, and a paucity of empirical information often leads to inconsistent definitions of trophic guilds based on expert opinion, especially when applied to hyperdiverse ecosystems. Using coral reef fishes as a model group, we show that experts disagree on the assignment of broad trophic guilds for more than 20% of species, which hampers comparability across studies. Here, we propose a quantitative, unbiased, and reproducible approach to define trophic guilds and apply recent advances in machine learning to predict probabilities of pairwise trophic interactions with high accuracy. We synthesize data from community-wide gut content analyses of tropical coral reef fishes worldwide, resulting in diet information from 13,961 individuals belonging to 615 reef fish. We then use network analysis to identify 8 trophic guilds and Bayesian phylogenetic modeling to show that trophic guilds can be predicted based on phylogeny and maximum body size. Finally, we use machine learning to test whether pairwise trophic interactions can be predicted with accuracy. Our models achieved a misclassification error of less than 5%, indicating that our approach results in a quantitative and reproducible trophic categorization scheme, as well as high-resolution probabilities of trophic interactions. By applying our framework to the most diverse vertebrate consumer group, we show that it can be applied to other organismal groups to advance reproducibility in trait-based ecology. Our work thus provides a viable approach to account for the complexity of predator-prey interactions in highly diverse ecosystems.
  • Paczkowska, Joanna; Rowe, O.F.; Figueroa, Daniela; Andersson, Agneta (2019)
    The influence of nutrient availability and light conditions on phytoplankton size-structure, nutritional strategy and production were studied in a phosphorus-poor estuary in the northern Baltic Sea receiving humic-rich river water. The relative biomass of mixotrophic nanophytoplankton peaked in spring when heterotrophic bacterial production was high, while autotrophic microphytoplankton had their maximum in summer when primary production displayed highest values. Limiting substance only showed small changes over time, and the day light was at saturating levels all through the study period. We also investigated if the phytoplankton taxonomic richness influences the production. Structured equation modelling indicated that an increase of the taxonomic richness during the warm summer combined with slightly higher phosphorus concentration lead to increased resource use efficiency, which in turn caused higher phytoplankton biomass and primary production. Our results suggest that climate warming would lead to higher primary production in northerly shallow coastal areas, which are influenced by humic-rich river run-off from un-disturbed terrestrial systems.
  • Strona, Giovanni; Beck, Pieter S. A.; Cabeza, Mar; Fattorini, Simone; Guilhaumon, Francois; Micheli, Fiorenza; Montano, Simone; Ovaskainen, Otso; Planes, Serge; Veech, Joseph A.; Parravicini, Valeriano (2021)
    yEcosystems face both local hazards, such as over-exploitation, and global hazards, such as climate change. Since the impact of local hazards attenuates with distance from humans, local extinction risk should decrease with remoteness, making faraway areas safe havens for biodiversity. However, isolation and reduced anthropogenic disturbance may increase ecological specialization in remote communities, and hence their vulnerability to secondary effects of diversity loss propagating through networks of interacting species. We show this to be true for reef fish communities across the globe. An increase in fish-coral dependency with the distance of coral reefs from human settlements, paired with the far-reaching impacts of global hazards, increases the risk of fish species loss, counteracting the benefits of remoteness. Hotspots of fish risk from fish-coral dependency are distinct from those caused by direct human impacts, increasing the number of risk hotspots by similar to 30% globally. These findings might apply to other ecosystems on Earth and depict a world where no place, no matter how remote, is safe for biodiversity, calling for a reconsideration of global conservation priorities.
  • Baden, Susanne; Fredriksen, Stein; Christie, Hartvig; Eriander, Louise; Gustafsson, Camilla; Holmer, Marianne; Olesen, Birgit; Thormar, Jonas; Bostrom, Christoffer (2022)
    We conducted a short-term field sampling complemented with time integrating stable isotope analysis to holistically investigate status and ecological interactions in a remote NE Atlantic Zostera marina meadow. We found high nutrient water concentrations, large biomass of fast-growing, ephemeral macroalgae, low abundance, and biodiversity of epifauna and a food web with thornback ray (Raja clavata) as intermediate and cod (Gadus morhua) as top predator. We observed no variation with increasing depth (3.5-11 m) except for decreasing shoot density and biomass of Zostera and macroalgae. Our results indicate that the Finnoya Zostera ecosystem is eutrophicated. During the past three to four decades, nutrients from aquaculture have steadily increased to reach 75% of anthmpogenic input while the coastal top predator cod has decreased by 50%. We conclude that bottom-up regulation is a predominant driver of change since top-down regulation is generally weak in low density and exposed Zostera ecosystems such as Finnoya.
  • Carstensen, Jacob; Conley, Daniel J.; Almroth-Rosell, Elin; Asmala, Eero; Bonsdorff, Erik; Fleming-Lehtinen, Vivi; Gustafsson, Bo G.; Gustafsson, Camilla; Heiskanen, Anna-Stiina; Janas, Urzsula; Norkko, Alf; Slomp, Caroline; Villnäs, Anna; Voss, Maren; Zilius, Mindaugas (2020)
    The coastal zone of the Baltic Sea is diverse with strong regional differences in the physico-chemical setting. This diversity is also reflected in the importance of different biogeochemical processes altering nutrient and organic matter fluxes on the passage from land to sea. This review investigates the most important processes for removal of nutrients and organic matter, and the factors that regulate the efficiency of the coastal filter. Nitrogen removal through denitrification is high in lagoons receiving large inputs of nitrate and organic matter. Phosphorus burial is high in archipelagos with substantial sedimentation, but the stability of different burial forms varies across the Baltic Sea. Organic matter processes are tightly linked to the nitrogen and phosphorus cycles. Moreover, these processes are strongly modulated depending on composition of vegetation and fauna. Managing coastal ecosystems to improve the effectiveness of the coastal filter can reduce eutrophication in the open Baltic Sea.
  • Nevalainen, Liisa; Lami, Andrea; Luoto, Tomi P.; Manca, Marina (2014)
    We investigated 2500 years of community succession in Cladocera from the sediments of a mountain lake (Lake Piramide Inferiore) located in the Khumbu Valley close to Mt. Everest in the Nepalese Himalayas. Our objective was to determine late Holocene changes in cladoceran species composition and abundance in a biogeographical context and with respect to previous proxy-based paleolimnological data (algal pigments and organic content). The results suggested that cladoceran fauna of Lake Piramide Inferiore was species-poor and dominated by Chydorus cf. sphaericus throughout the sequence. The sediment profile recorded the occurrence of Alona guttata type individuals, which were attributed to Alona werestschagini Sinev 1999 based on their morphology and the species' current distributional range, and this was the first record of its presence in the Himalayas. In addition, a periodic long-term succession of melanic Daphnia (Ctenodaphnia) fusca Gurney, 1907 and non-melanic D. (Daphnia) dentifera Forbes 1893 was observed in the sediments. The millennia-long cladoceran community changes, although subtle due to the C. cf. sphaericus dominance, were in general agreement with the previous proxy-data of lake productivity following the regional paleoclimatic development and apparently partly driven by bottom-up mechanisms. The periodic occurrence and success of D. fusca and D. dentifera throughout the late Holocene in Lake Piramide Inferiore, combined with the knowledge of their phenotypic properties (i.e. carapace melanization) and previous investigations on their contemporary and past distribution in Khumbu Valley, suggested that they may have responded to altered underwater UV radiation regimes. Furthermore, they may have even periodically excluded each other subsequent to changes in the underwater UV environment. The results indicated the usefulness of fossil cladoceran analysis as a tool in biogeographical research, since the occurrence of species in space and time can be observed through sediment records and taxonomic identity of the remains may be resolved with the help of regional faunal distribution.
  • Coloma, Sebastian Ernesto; Gaedge, Ursula; Sivonen, Anna Kaarina; Hiltunen, Teppo Johannes (2019)
    Parasites, such as bacterial viruses (phages), can have large effects on host populations both at the ecological and evolutionary levels. In the case of cyanobacteria, phages can reduce primary production and infected hosts release intracellular nutrients influencing planktonic food web structure, community dynamics, and biogeochemical cycles. Cyanophages may be of great importance in aquatic food webs during large cyanobacterial blooms unless the host population becomes resistant to phage infection. The consequences on plankton community dynamics of the evolution of phage resistance in bloom forming cyanobacterial populations are still poorly studied. Here, we examined the effect of different frequencies of a phage-resistant genotype within a filamentous nitrogen-fixing Nodularia spumigena population on an experimental plankton community. Three Nodularia populations with different initial frequencies (0%, 5%, and 50%) of phage-resistant genotypes were inoculated in separate treatments with the phage 2AV2, the green alga Chlorella vulgaris, and the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis, which formed the experimental plankton community subjected to either nitrogen-limited or nitrogen-rich conditions. We found that the frequency of the phage-resistant Nodularia genotype determined experimental community dynamics. Cyanobacterial populations with a high frequency (50%) of the phage-resistant genotype dominated the cultures despite the presence of phages, retaining most of the intracellular nitrogen in the plankton community. In contrast, populations with low frequencies (0% and 5%) of the phage-resistant genotype were lysed and reduced to extinction by the phage, transferring the intracellular nitrogen held by Nodularia to Chlorella and rotifers, and allowing Chlorella to dominate the communities and rotifers to survive. This study shows that even though phages represent minuscule biomass, they can have key effects on community composition and eco-evolutionary feedbacks in plankton communities.
  • Hayden, B.; Harrod, C.; Thomas, S. M.; Eloranta, A. P.; Myllykangas, J.-P.; Siwertsson, A.; Praebel, K.; Knudsen, R.; Amundsen, P-A; Kahilainen, K. K. (2019)
    Climate change and the intensification of land use practices are causing widespread eutrophication of subarctic lakes. The implications of this rapid change for lake ecosystem function remain poorly understood. To assess how freshwater communities respond to such profound changes in their habitat and resource availability, we conducted a space-for-time analysis of food-web structure in 30 lakes situated across a temperature-productivity gradient equivalent to the predicted future climate of subarctic Europe (temperature +3 degrees C, precipitation +30% and nutrient +45 mu g L-1 total phosphorus). Along this gradient, we observed an increase in the assimilation of pelagic-derived carbon from 25 to 75% throughout primary, secondary and tertiary consumers. This shift was overwhelmingly driven by the consumption of pelagic detritus by benthic primary consumers and was not accompanied by increased pelagic foraging by higher trophic level consumers. Our data also revealed a convergence of the carbon isotope ratios of pelagic and benthic food web endmembers in the warmest, most productive lakes indicating that the incorporation of terrestrial derived carbon into aquatic food webs increases as land use intensifies. These results, reflecting changes along a gradient characteristic of the predicted future environment throughout the subarctic, indicate that climate and land use driven eutrophication and browning are radically altering the function and fuelling of aquatic food webs in this biome.
  • Riipinen, Katariina; Mikkola, Salla; Ahola, Milla K.; Aalto, Milla M.; Olkinuora, Alisa; Vesakoski, Outi (2017)
    Information on the habitat selection by non-indigenous species is crucial for understanding their effects on the communities to which they are introduced, since the effects are often focused on the invaded habitats. The North American mud crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii is a new invader in the northern Baltic Sea, on the coasts of Finland and Estonia. In the Finnish Archipelago Sea, it has been found in two very distinct habitats: reed belts of Phragmites australis and algal zones with Fucus vesiculosus as the main habitat-forming species. In previous studies in the Baltic Sea, R. harrisii has preferred F. vesiculosus and has locally driven a shift in the structure of F. vesiculosus-associated invertebrate communities. Here, we disentangled whether habitat choice was determined by habitat structure or the availability of food. First, we conducted a habitat selection experiment with P. australis and F. vesiculosus habitats and varying food availability, and found that R. harrisii preferred F. vesiculosus, with food having no effect on the habitat choice. Second, we studied if the preference for F. vesiculosus was due to the alga itself or the rocks it grows on. We found that R. harrisii preferred the shelter of the rock habitat, indicating that R. harrisii choose their habitat based on habitat structure rather than food availability in the habitat. However, the preference for sheltered rocky bottom habitats also exposes the associated F. vesiculosus communities to the impacts of R. harrisii through predation.
  • Montiglio, P. O.; Gotanda, K. M.; Kratochwil, C. F.; Laskowski, K. L.; Farine, D. R. (2020)
    Because genes and phenotypes are embedded within individuals, and individuals within populations, interactions within one level of biological organization are inherently linked to interactors at others. Here, we expand the network paradigm to consider that nodes can be embedded within other nodes, and connections (edges) between nodes at one level of organization form "bridges" for connections between nodes embedded within them. Such hierarchically embedded networks highlight two central properties of biological systems: 1) processes occurring across multiple levels of organization shape connections among biological units at any given level of organization and 2) ecological effects occurring at a given level of organization can propagate up or down to additional levels. Explicitly considering the embedded structure of evolutionary and ecological networks can capture otherwise hidden feedbacks and generate new insights into key biological phenomena, ultimately promoting a broader understanding of interactions in evolutionary theory. Lay Summary: Interactions are ubiquitous across biological systems. Modeling their consequences requires capturing how units are organized across biological scales: gene and protein interactions shape phenotypic traits within individuals, individuals are embedded within populations, populations within communities, and communities within ecosystems. Doing so reveals how indirect connections among units arise from the structure of connections at higher or lower levels of organization, and how effects at one level of the network propagate across neighboring levels.
  • Ask, Jenny; Rowe, Owen; Brugel, Sonia; Stromgren, Marten; Bystrom, Par; Andersson, Agneta (2016)
    In this study, we measured depth-dependent benthic microalgal primary production in a Bothnian Bay estuary to estimate the benthic contribution to total primary production. In addition, we compiled data on benthic microalgal primary production in the entire Baltic Sea. In the estuary, the benthic habitat contributed 17 % to the total annual primary production, and when upscaling our data to the entire Bothnian Bay, the corresponding value was 31 %. This estimated benthic share (31 %) is three times higher compared to past estimates of 10 %. The main reason for this discrepancy is the lack of data regarding benthic primary production in the northern Baltic Sea, but also that past studies overestimated the importance of pelagic primary production by not correcting for system-specific bathymetric variation. Our study thus highlights the importance of benthic communities for the northern Baltic Sea ecosystem in general and for future management strategies and ecosystem studies in particular.
  • Andersson, A.; Brugel, S.; Paczkowska, J.; Rowe, O.F.; Figueroa, D.; Kratzer, S.; Legrand, C. (2018)
    Phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria are key groups at the base of aquatic food webs. In estuaries receiving riverine water with a high content of coloured allochthonous dissolved organic matter (ADOM), phytoplankton primary production may be reduced, while bacterial production is favoured. We tested this hypothesis by performing a field study in a northerly estuary receiving nutrient-poor, ADOM-rich riverine water, and analyzing results using multivariate statistics. Throughout the productive season, and especially during the spring river flush, the production and growth rate of heterotrophic bacteria were stimulated by the riverine inflow of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). In contrast, primary production and photosynthetic efficiency (i.e. phytoplankton growth rate) were negatively affected by DOC. Primary production related positively to phosphorus, which is the limiting nutrient in the area. In the upper estuary where DOC concentrations were the highest, the heterotrophic bacterial production constituted almost 100% of the basal production (sum of primary and bacterial production) during spring, while during summer the primary and bacterial production were approximately equal. Our study shows that riverine DOC had a strong negative influence on coastal phytoplankton production, likely due to light attenuation. On the other hand DOC showed a positive influence on bacterial production since it represents a supplementary food source. Thus, in boreal regions where climate change will cause increased river inflow to coastal waters, the balance between phytoplankton and bacterial production is likely to be changed, favouring bacteria. The pelagic food web structure and overall productivity will in turn be altered. (C) 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Aykanat, Tutku; Rasmussen, Martin; Ozerov, Mikhail; Niemelä, Eero; Paulin, Lars; Vähä, Juha-Pekka; Hindar, Kjetil; Wennevik, Vidar; Pedersen, Torstein; Svenning, Martin-A.; Primmer, Craig R. (2020)
    1. Animals employ various foraging strategies along their ontogeny to acquire energy, and with varying degree of efficiencies, to support growth, maturation and subsequent reproduction events. Individuals that can efficiently acquire energy early are more likely to mature at an earlier age, as a result of faster energy gain which can fuel maturation and reproduction. 2. We aimed to test the hypothesis that heritable resource acquisition variation that covaries with efficiency along the ontogeny would influence maturation timing of individuals. 3. To test this hypothesis, we utilized Atlantic salmon as a model which exhibits a simple, hence trackable, genetic control of maturation age. We then monitored the variation in diet acquisition (quantified as stomach fullness and composition) of individuals with different ages, and linked it with genomic regions (haploblocks) that were previously identified to be associated with age-at-maturity. 4. Consistent with the hypothesis, we demonstrated that one of the life-history genomic regions tested (six6) was indeed associated with age-dependent differences in stomach fullness. Prey composition was marginally linked tosix6, and suggestively (but non-significantly) tovgll3genomic regions. We further showed Atlantic salmon switched to the so-called 'feast and famine' strategy along the ontogeny, where older age groups exhibited heavier stomach content, but that came at the expense of running on empty more often. 5. These results suggest genetic variation underlying resource utilization may explain the genetic basis of age structure in Atlantic salmon. Given that ontogenetic diet has a genetic component and the strong spatial diversity associated with these genomic regions, we predict populations with diverse maturation age will have diverse evolutionary responses to future changes in marine food web structures.
  • Aykanat, Tutku; Rasmussen, Martin; Ozerov, Mikhail; Niemelä, Eero; Paulin, Lars; Vähä, Juha-Pekka; Hindar, Kjetil; Wennevik, Vidar; Pedersen, Torstein; Svenning, Martin-A.; Primmer, Craig R. (2020)
    1. Animals employ various foraging strategies along their ontogeny to acquire energy, and with varying degree of efficiencies, to support growth, maturation and subsequent reproduction events. Individuals that can efficiently acquire energy early are more likely to mature at an earlier age, as a result of faster energy gain which can fuel maturation and reproduction. 2. We aimed to test the hypothesis that heritable resource acquisition variation that covaries with efficiency along the ontogeny would influence maturation timing of individuals. 3. To test this hypothesis, we utilized Atlantic salmon as a model which exhibits a simple, hence trackable, genetic control of maturation age. We then monitored the variation in diet acquisition (quantified as stomach fullness and composition) of individuals with different ages, and linked it with genomic regions (haploblocks) that were previously identified to be associated with age-at-maturity. 4. Consistent with the hypothesis, we demonstrated that one of the life-history genomic regions tested (six6) was indeed associated with age-dependent differences in stomach fullness. Prey composition was marginally linked tosix6, and suggestively (but non-significantly) tovgll3genomic regions. We further showed Atlantic salmon switched to the so-called 'feast and famine' strategy along the ontogeny, where older age groups exhibited heavier stomach content, but that came at the expense of running on empty more often. 5. These results suggest genetic variation underlying resource utilization may explain the genetic basis of age structure in Atlantic salmon. Given that ontogenetic diet has a genetic component and the strong spatial diversity associated with these genomic regions, we predict populations with diverse maturation age will have diverse evolutionary responses to future changes in marine food web structures.
  • Kainz, M. J.; Hager, H.H.; Rasconi, S.; Kahilainen, K. K.; Amundsen, P. -A.; Hayden, B. (2017)
    Trophic transfer and retention of dietary compounds are vital for somatic development, reproduction, and survival of aquatic consumers. In this field study, stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes, and fatty acids (FA) contents in invertebrates and fishes of pre-alpine Lake Lunz, Austria, were used to (1) identify the resource use and trophic level of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus), pike (Esox lucius), perch (Perca fluviatilis), brown trout (Salmo trutta), roach (Rutilus rutilus), and minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus) and (2) examine how polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA; i.e., omega-3 and -6 PUFA) are related to total lipid status, littoral-pelagic reliance, and trophic position. Stable isotope data suggest that pike, perch, and minnow derived most of their energy from littoral resources, but minnows differed from pike and perch in their trophic position and PUFA composition. The co-occurrence of cyprinids, percids, and pike segregated these fishes into more lipid-rich (roach, minnow) and lipid-poor (pike, percids) species. Although the relatively lipid-poor pike and percids occupied a higher trophic position than cyprinids, there was a concurrent, total lipid-dependent decline in omega-3 and -6 PUFA in these predatory fishes. Results of this lake food-web study demonstrated that total lipids in fish community, littoral-pelagic reliance, and trophic position explained omega-3 and -6 PUFA in dorsal muscle tissues. Omega-3 and -6 PUFA in these fishes decreased with increasing trophic position, demonstrating that these essential FAs did not biomagnify with increasing trophic level. Finally, this lake food-web study provides evidence of fish community-level relationship between total lipid status and PUFA or stable isotope ratios, whereas the strength of such relationships was less strong at the species level.
  • Paczkowska, Joanna; Brugel, Sonia; Rowe, Owen; Lefebure, Robert; Brutemark, Andreas; Andersson, Agneta (2020)
    Climate change scenarios project that precipitation will increase in northern Europe, causing amplified inflows of terrestrial matter (tM) and inorganic nutrients to coastal areas. How this will affect the plankton community is poorly understood. A mesocosm experiment was carried out to investigate the influence of two levels of tM inputs on the composition, size-structure and productivity of a natural coastal phytoplankton community from the northern Baltic Sea. The tM addition caused browning of the water and decreased underwater light levels, while the concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and inorganic nutrients increased. Microphytoplankton were promoted by tM addition, while in the controls picophytoplankton dominated the phytoplankton community. Inorganic nutrient availability was instrumental in defining the phytoplankton community composition and size-structure. As a response to tM addition, the phytoplankton increased their chlorophyll a content. This physiological adaptation helped to maintain high primary production rates at the low tM enrichment, but at the high tM load the primary production decreased as did the biomass of mesozooplankton. The ciliate biomass was high when the mesozooplankton biomass was low, indicating that a trophic cascade occurred in the system. Structural equation modeling showed that tM borne DOC promoted ciliates, while primary and bacterial production were disfavored. Thus, DOC originating from soils had an indirect negative effect on the mesozooplankton by reducing their food availability. Although, a positive correlation between heterotrophic bacteria and phytoplankton suggested coupling between phytoplankton produced carbon and heterotrophs growth. The results from our study indicate that river-borne DOC and inorganic nutrients have a large impact on the phytoplankton community, driving the system to the dominance of large diatoms. However, since river-borne humic substances cause browning of the water, phytoplankton increase their light harvesting pigments. At moderate inflow this helps to support the primary production, but at high inflows of terrestrial material the primary production will decrease. As high river inflows have been projected to be a consequence of climate change, we foresee that primary production will decrease in coastal areas in the future, and the impacts of such changes on the food web could be significant.